About Journal

Journal of Education and Science has been published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since January 1979. The JES is an open-access journal that publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in all fields of Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer, and Mathematics sciences. A double-blind peer reviewing process is used to assure the quality of the reviewing and publication of submitted manuscripts. JES has a regional impact and is well-known in Iraqi colleges and universities. JES has an archiving plan for electronic...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

The Assessment of the Bone Quality with Low Back Pain

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133543.1232

The aim of this study was to measure osteoporosis in the right heel bone. A total of 123 Iraqi men and women with low back pain (LBP) participated in the study (18 males and 105 females). Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) was used to assess osteoporosis, speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and calcaneus bone quality index (BQI). A dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine tissue thickness, fracture risk factor, and abdominal fat percentage. The results indicate that SOS was 1495.43±18.780 m/sec. Participants had a Z-score of -1.10±1.56. The fracture risk factor for participants was 1.622± 1.90 when DXA measurements were taken. Low back pain measurements revealed that the age group between 51-60 years had the highest prevalence. The correlation between the T-score and the calcaneal SOS is a linear relationship with a P-value of 0.0001. When we examine the relationship between the Z-score and the calcaneal BUA, we see that it is linear and statistically significant (P-value less than 0.0001). The correlations between calcaneal BQI and BMI, as well as between calcaneal BUA and tissue thickness, were found to be statistically insignificant (P-value = 0.8 and 0.8, respectively). The correlation between calcaneal SOS and abdominal fat percent appears to be statistically significant (P-value=0.05) (linear correlation is weak).

Spectrofluorimetric determination of adrenaline and dopamine .

Mohamed Y. Dhamra; Theiaa Al-Sabha; mohammed Al-Enizzi

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133845.1238

A sensitive fluorometric method, with few steps and suitable for the daily routine, was made for examining adrenaline hydrochloride and dopamine hydrochloride. The reliance in this paper was on the nucleophilic substitution interaction of the mentioned drugs with 1,2-naphthoquinone sulfonate (NQS) in an aqueous pH 6 to give a fluorescent product with a maximum emission wave at ʎem 471 nm after being excited at a maximum excitation wave at ʎ ex 300 nm. The plots have complied within the range of 0.01- 4.0, 0.01-2 µg/ml, and The detection limits (0.0062, 0.0027) and quantitation limits were (0.0207, 0.0091) µg/ml, for adrenaline and dopamine respectively. The accuracy (% recovery) was between (99.21% - 100.72%) and the relative standard deviation (RSD%) is better than 0.95%. It was also found that the formed product was in a ratio of 1:2 reagent to the drug. The estimation of adrenaline and dopamine has been successfully tested on the injection, and it is in good agreement with its approved value and with that of the British Pharmacopoeia method.

Implementation of OCR using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN): A Survey

Ahmed Abdulrahman Alkaddo; Dujan Albaqal

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 27-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133711.1236

Recently, character recognition and deep learning have caught the attention of many researchers. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) usually takes an image of the character as input and generates the identical character as output. The important role that OCR does is to transform printed materials into digital text files. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is an influential model that is generous with bright results in optical character recognition (OCR). The state-of-the-art performance which exists in deep neural networks is usually used to handle frequently recognition and classification problems. Many applications are using it, for instance, robotics, traffic monitoring, articles digitization, etc. CNN is designed to adaptively and automatically learn features by using many kinds of layers (convolution layers, pooling layers, and fully connected layers). In this paper we will go through the advantages and recent usage of CNN in OCR and why it’s important to use it in handwritten and printed text recognition and what subjects we can use this technique for. Researchers are progressively using CNN for the machine-printed characters and recognition of handwritten, that is because CNN architectures are suitable for recognition tasks by inputting some images

Utility of 2,2׳- Bipyridyl Reagent in Spectrophotometric Assay of Acetylcysteine in Pure Form and in Its Pharmaceutical Preparations

Shahad Luqmqn Hasan; Saad hasani Sultan

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 42-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134059.1246

This study includes development of a sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of acetylcysteine in aqueous solution. The method is based on the oxidation of acetylcysteine with a ferric ion, followed by reacting of produced ferrous ion with 2,2׳-bipyridyl to form a pink complex , which is stable and water-soluble and has the highest absorption at a wavelength of 524 nm. The limits of Beer's law were in the concentration range of (5-180) µg of acetylcysteine in a final volume of 20 milliliters (0.25-9.0 µg.ml-1) and the molar absorptivity of 8633.28 L. mol-1 .cm-1 , Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0189 µg.cm-2. The relative error of -4.28% – 4.98 % and relative standard deviation of ± 0.56% - ± 3.75% depending on the concentration level. The limit of detection limit(LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated and equal to 0.01837 and 0.06124 µg/ml respectively, no inference was observed in the common pharmaceutical excipients. The results obtain by proposed method were in good agreement with those obtain from official British pharmacopoeia using t-test (at 95% confidence limit) which indicates that there is no significant differences between them. The method was successfully applied to determine acetylcysteine in its pharmaceutical preparations.

Pollution by crude oil and used engine oil and their impact on growth and concentration of some nutrients elements of flax and safflower plants.

Mostafa Thaier Ismail; Hussein Saber Saber Mohammed ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 54-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133858.1239

This study aim to show the effect of soil  contamination with crude oil and its derivatives on the dry weight and Nutrient minerals on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). This experiment was carried out in plastic pots and under Plastic house conditions, the treatment was carried out with crude oil, used car's engine oil and used generator's engine oil at three concentrations 1-2-3% for each treatment ,in addition to the comparison treatment. The results showed a significant decrease in the dry weight of the shoot systems of flax and safflower when treated with crude oil at a concentration of 3% amounted to 0.043-0.124 g, respectively, and the dry weight of the root systems amounted to 0.022-0.015 g, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in the concentration of calcium in the shoot system of flax and safflower plants when treated with crude oil and used generator oil at a concentration of 3% amounted to (1,900-1.950) mg\g, respectively. The calcium concentration has also decreased in the root system of flax and safflower plants when treated with used generator and car oil at the concentration 3% amounted to 1.500-1.600 mg\g, respectively. Potassium concentration decreased in the shoot and root systems of flax and safflower plants when treated with generator engine oil and crude oil at a concentration of 3% and reached 6.900-10.45 and 4.150-8.800 mg\g, respectively, compared to the control treatment and other treatments

Classification of Software Systems attributes based on quality factors using linguistic knowledge and machine learning: A review.

Abdulrhman Ali; Nada Nimat Saleem

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 66-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134024.1245

Both The functionality and the non-functionality for what the system does as well as doesn't of software systems requirements are documented in a Software Requirements Specification (SRS).
Moreover in requirements engineering, system requirements classify into several categories such as functional, quality and constraint classes.
Therefore, we evaluate several machine learning approaches as well as methodologies that mentioned in previous literature in term of automatic requirements extraction, then the classification based on methodically reviewing for many previous works on software requirements classification to assist software engineers in selecting the best requirement classification technique. Therefore, the study aim to get answer for several questions that related to: What machine learning algorithms were used for the classification process of the requirements, How these algorithms work and how they're evaluated, What methods were used for extracting features from a text, What evaluation criteria were used in comparing results and What machine learning techniques and methods were provided the highest accuracy.

hα-Open Sets in Topological Spaces

Baedaa S. Abdullah; Sabih W. Askandar; Ruqayah N. Balo

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 91-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134241.1251

In our work we introduced a new type of open sets is defined as follows: If for each set that is not empty M in X, M≠X and M ∈τ^∝such that A ⊆ int(A∪M). then A in (X,τ) is named h∝-open set. We also go through the relationship between h∝- open sets and a variety of other open set types as h-open sets, open sets, semi-open sets and ∝-open sets. We proved that each h-open and open set is h∝-open and there is no relationship between∝-open sets and semi-open sets with h∝-open sets. Furthermore, we begin by introducing the concepts of h∝-continuous mappings, h∝-open mappings, h∝-irresolute mappings, and h∝-totally continuous mappings, We proved that each h-continuous mapping in any topological space is h∝-continuous mapping, each continuous mapping in any topological space is h∝-continuous mapping and there is no relationship between∝-continuous mappings and semi-continuous mappings with h∝-continuous mappings as well as some of its features. Finally, we look at some of the new class's separation axioms.

Proposing a Model for Detecting Intrusion Network Attacks Using Machine Learning Techniques

Teba Ali Jasem Ali; Muna Jawhar

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 99-109
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133867.1240

At the present time, the reliance on computers is increasing in all aspects of life, so it is necessary to protect computer networks and computing resources from complex attacks against the network. This is done by building tools, applications, and systems that detect attacks or anomalies adapting to ever-changing architectures and dynamically changing threats. Providing network security is one of the most important things in network communications, more networks grow and the more devices are added to the network, need more requirement to provide network security, a network security system is necessary to protect devices and data of network users, helps protect information shared on the network, protection of people's personal information and helps prevent users from falling victim to pirates
The goal of this paper is to build a Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) based on deep learning techniques such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which demonstrated its efficiency in predicting, classifying, and extracting high-level features in network traffic.

Medical Images Classification Using Artificial Intelligence

Tasneem Mustafa; Jamal Salahaldeen Alneamy

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 110-122
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133358.1224

ABSTRACT:
In recent years, the use of computing has increased along with medical skills, and this had impressive results in terms of classification and treatment, in addition to facilitating the matter of medical personnel. This was evident during the Corona pandemic, which infected millions around the world, which. There is an urgent need for software tools to help classify the disease without the need to resort to doctors. The matter is not limited to the classification of corona disease, but it also extends to the expansion of the discovery of other diseases such as malaria, skin cancer and other diseases that afflict large numbers of people. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, and according to some statistics, the total number of infections in 2019 reached about 228 million cases around the world. As for skin cancer, it is considered one of the serious diseases that affect humans because the skin plays a key role in protecting muscles and bones, and therefore cancer will affect all body functions.
CNN have made great strides in many intractable problems in image processing and classification, but their performance depends on their hyperparameters which is a tedious task if done manually. Therefore, experts in the field of deep learning aspire to improve its performance sometimes by integrating it with other algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization, Gray Wolf Optimization, Genetic Algorithm or firefly. All of these algorithms gave different results than the others, that is, they gave different levels of performance.

Combination of Fuzzy Logic and Kriging Technique Under Uncertainty for Spatial Data Prediction

Safa Zuhair Ibrahim; Ghanim Mahmood Dhaher

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 123-135
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134166.1249

This paper deals with the spatial prediction in Geostatistics. This paper depend on interpellation methods of spatial statistic (ordinary kriging technique) to combination with fuzzy logic under uncertainty for spatial data prediction. This work includes the best linear unbiased estimator prediction by using formals of linear prediction and variance kriging to find prediction by Appling on real spatial data. The data adopted from real spatial data represented the depth of real underground water wells with real location from Mosul city/Iraq. We took (100) real data with locations in study area. We applied empiricism variogram function to get the properties of variogram function. We combination between kriging technique with fuzzy logic (Mamdani Fuzzy Model). To get the best Mathematical model under uncertainty. We getting the results between kriging and fuzzy logic using Matlab language.This study is a continuation of the research conducted in this context Which is very important to highlight.

Study of the Physico-chemical properties of groundwater for some villages north of Mosul city

Ahmed Shihab Al-Hamdani

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 136-146
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134274.1252

The study included the selection of groundwater from three villages north of the city of Mosul, namely the villages of (Hassan Jallad, Ghazil and al-Khrab), with two wells from each village for six months, with one sample from each well per month to study its physical and chemical characteristics and determining the extent to which it can be used for drinking and various household uses. By studying the characteristics (groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen in water, pH, water hardness, as well as positive and negative dissolved ions in water). The results of the study indicated that the temperature of the groundwater is stable and had little variation throughout the study period, while the value of the electrical conductivity reached (1738) µS/cm in the well (5) in Alkharab village, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased to an average of (1.3) mg / liter in the well (1) in Hasan jalaad village.Meanwhile the hardness values ​​ranged between (842-312) mg / liter, However the results indicated that the values ​​of calcium ions ranged between (268-72) mg / liter, while the values ​​of magnesium ions ranged between (69-27) mg / liter On the other hand The values ​​of sodium and potassium ions reached to the limits of (22) mg/L and (3.90) mg/L, respectively. As for the studied negative ions (bicarbonate, chlorides and sulfates), they reached (460) mg/L, (68) mg/L and (510) ) mg/L, respectively

Effect of Evaporation Boat-Substrate Distance on the Formation of Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

Iman Amer Ahmad; Yasir Hussein Mohammed; Khaldoon N. Abbas

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 147-164
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134805.1262

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is one of the important semiconductor materials which contribute effectively to the development of the semiconductor industry technology. ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique under atmospheric pressure at different evaporation boat-substrate distances. ZnO NSs were prepared by oxidizing Znic acetate dihydrate powder within quartz tube instead of its outside. The effect of change evaporation boat-substrate distance (2.5, 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 cm) on the optical and structural properties of ZnO NSs were studied. ZnO NSs were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to evaluate its optical and structural properties. Optical band gap measurement results exhibited a red-shifted from (3.25 eV) to (3.05 eV), as the separation distance increased from (2.5 cm) to (8.5 cm), respectively. XRD technique confirms that metal oxide was ZnO and having hexagonal structure. The average crystallite size of the samples was decreased from 63.4 to 58.3 nm, with the increase in separation distance from 2.5 to 8.5 cm. Also, the sharpness, strong intensity and narrow width of dominant diffraction peak indicate the high crystallinity of the prepared ZnO NSs. The PL spectra of the ZnO NSs revealed a wide deep-level emission for all the prepared samples. ZnO NSs grown by TCVD technique may provide potential applications in nano-photovoltaics and nano-photodetectors.

Heat shock protein and antioxidant enzyme gene expression and fold changes in bone marrow samples from healthy rats

Walaa Aladdin Mustafa; Ali Saeed Alchalabi

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 3, Pages 165-175
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134710.1260

The hematopoiesis in the bone marrow in the early stages of life is very complex and involves many cellular factors under very strict micro-environments. The two important cellular factors are heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes. The aim of the study was to study the gene expression profile of healthy rats’ bone marrow cells and niches particularly heat shock proteins and antioxidant genes. A total of thirty healthy Wister Albino rats at one, two, and three months old were involved throughout the study. Bone marrow samples were collected at a specified date according to the study design and utilized for qPCR test for expression of Hsps27, 90α, 90β, and antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase1 (GPX1), catalase CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD3) genes. The results revealed that there was a clear expression of both Hsps90α andβ in bone marrow cells throughout the study as well as the GPX1 gene. Furthermore, there was an increase in fold change of Hsps90α and β as well as GPX1, CAT, and SOD3 proteins as age progressed. In conclusion, hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation are regulated by bone marrow microenvironment stress conditions and by the expression of different Hsps and antioxidant genes. The protein folding process is a defense mechanism to protect the HSCs, and progenitors from un/misfolded proteins and to keep proteostasis. 

Measurement of Osteoporosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Technique

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133542.1231

The aim of study is to measure osteoporosis in the right foot at the heel (calcaneus) by using the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique. It was measured (SOS, BUA, BQI, T-score and Z-score). While the usage of the DXA technique is measure the tissue thickness. Osteoporosis represents low bone mineral density (BMD). The heel of the foot (calcaneus) uses in QUS measurements because it contains a high ratio of trabecular bone. T-score is the predominant the diagnosis of osteoporosis used for adults, men and women over 50 years. From T-score can be to know the ratio of BMD, according to the WHO a T-score can be classified (Normal, Osteopenia and Osteoporosis). Age group 31-40 years was T-score for both sex (-0.667) is meaning (Normal bone). In the age group, 51-60 years was T-score (-1.60) for both sex represents (osteopenia). While age group 71-80 years T-score for females (-2.56) and males (-3.30), means that both males and females have (osteoporosis). P-value<0.0001 for a linear relationship between Z-score and calcaneal SOS, the value of correlation coefficient (R=0.916) and correlation coefficient square (Rsq=0.838). For correlation parameters of the relationship between calcaneal BUA and BMI includes both (P-value=0.8, R=0.020, Rsq=0.0004). The relationship between calcaneal BQI and tissue thickness is the P-value=0.7, the value correlation coefficient and the correlation coefficient square (R=-0.029, R=0.0008).

The Comparison of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content between Both Urban and Rural Women Groups in Mosul Governorate

Jihan Fathi Yosef; Khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133493.1228

In this study, the bone state of women in an urban group was measured and compared to a rural group. The assessments revealed the measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). A cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center assessment. They were split into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Study participants provided detailed anthropometric data. A DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France was used to measure the T- and Z-scores. All sample groups were classified according to age from 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results show that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison with the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.

Measuring the density and bone mineral content of women in Mosul city

Jihan Fathi Yosef; khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134128.1247

In this work, condition bone of women in an urban group has been measured and compared to a rural group. Based on the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), T-score and Z-score, in this study. From September 5, 2021 to February 28, 2022, a cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. Since 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center’s assessment. They were divided into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Studying the participants provided detailed anthropometric data. T-, Z-score, BMD and BMC were evaluated using a DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France. All sample groups are classified according to age ranged between 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results showed that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison to the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.

Study of Optical and Structural Properties of Silver Solution Ag Nanoparticles

Muna Talal allhiby; Mutaz Salih AlJuboori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134548.1256

Colloidal nanoparticles attended with a pulsed Nd:YAG, Q-switch in water distilled at wavelength (1064nm) and frequency rate (1Hz) and pulse duration (10ns) and silver nanoparticles attended without the use of surface tensile as laser removal of the silver target (10ns) was attended by silver nanoparticles without the use of surface tensile as laser removal of the silver target (10ns) was attended High purity) reached purity (99.9) immersed in distilled water (deionized) where the metal target was first removed from silver placed in (5mL) from distilled water, a specific laser card (260mJ) and a number of pulse fixed laser pulses(50, 100, 150) respectively, where the size and optical characteristics of nanoparticles were distinguished by the powerful electron microscope (TEM) and visible UV spectrometry (visible-UV), respectively, and the peaks of surface plasma resonance (SPR) showed an increase at (403) and (405) Nm, which is therefore within the permitted range, showed a higher peak of 405 nm and showed sharp spectra, although the width of the spectra slightly increased and the energy gaps showed an increase in the amount of 2.54eV at pulse (50). And (2.57eV) at pulse (100) and valued (2.66eV) at pulse (150) .

Studying the effect of changing the thickness of the layers of the perovskite solar cell (ZnTe /CH3NH3PbI3 /TiO2/ZnO/FTO) using the simulation program (SCAPS 1-D)

Raddad Salem Mahmoud; raad ahmed rasool

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134981.1268

This research includes a study of the effect of the thickness of each layer of perovskite solar cell (CH3NH3PbI3) /TiO2/ZnO/FTO) and selecting the best thickness to obtain the highest efficiency of the cell, and studying the effect of adding a back surfsce layer on the efficiency of the solar cell using (SCAPS1-D). The perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) was adopted as absorption layer and its  thickness tested from (1-7µm) with an increase of (1µm) to obtain the best thickness for best efficiency of the solar cell, its best thickness was (5µm), the thickness of the buffer layer (TiO2) was tested from (0.5-1.5 µm) with an increase of (0.25µm) and its best thickness was (0.5 µm), the thickness of the transparent conduction oxide (FTO) layer was tested (0.1-1.1µm) with an increase of (0.2µm) and its best thickness was (0.1 µm) and the thickness of the window layer(ZnO) was tested (0.1-0.5 µm) with an increase of (0.1µm) and its best thickness was (0.1µm).The effect of the window layer on the thickness of the buffer layer was studied and it was found that the best thickness of the buffer layer is (0.05µm). Finally, a back surface field layer was added, which is zinc telluride (ZnTe) with a thickness of (0.1 µm) and its thickness was studied, and its best thickness was (0.05µm) .It was found that the best thickness of the absorbent layer after adding the back surface field layer is (1µm). The final outputs of the cell were as follows: Voc=1.288(V), Jsc=25mA/cm2, FF=89.55%, ƞ=28.82%

Application of two fungal strains Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans in wastewater quality improvement

Muzhda Qasim Qader; Yahya Ahmed Shekha

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134802.1261

The nutrients Phosphorous, Nitrogen and Carbon are essential for aquatic life. However, in excess they also cause serious problems. For this reason, wastewater treatment must meet nutrient effluent limits. A wastewater sample was taken near Dhahibah village from the Erbil wastewater channel in the north of Iraq. In this experiment, pure cultures of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were used to treat wastewater. Samples were measured for physicochemical parameters like EC, pH, Phosphate, Nitrate, Nitrite, and BOD5 using standard methods every third day during 21 days of experiment. The results revealed that Aspergillus niger had the maximum efficiency in removing BOD5, NH4, NO3, and EC (87.27, 89.57, 83.52, and 78.49%) respectively. On the other hand, during the experimental period, Candida albicans had the maximum efficiency in decreasing PO4, and NO2, were (91.58% and 88.89%), respectively. Statistically, there were differences (P≤0.05) between the control sample and the treated wastewater sample for both fungal stains for all parameters during the experiment.

Study of Optical and Structural Properties of Copper Metal Cu Nanoparticles

Muna Talal allhiby; Mutaz AlJuboori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134543.1255

Colloidal copper nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed (Nd:YAG,Q-switch) laser ablation in distilled water with a wavelength (1064nm) and frequency (1Hz) and the duration of the pulse was (10ns). Its purity is (99.9) immersed in distilled (deionized) water, where the metal target was first removed from copper placed in (5mL) of distilled water with a specific laser energy (260mJ) and for a number of fixed laser pulses (50, 100, 150) respectively. The size and optical properties of nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and visible-UV spectrometry, respectively. eV) at the pulse (50) and (2.77eV) at the (100) and its value was (2.69eV) at the (150) pulse. The reason for the increase is due to the amount of material removal being greater. The results of the transmission electron microscope showed colloidal nanoparticles somewhat spherical and carnivorous, as depend on the size of the noble nanoparticles have gained wide popularity with many applications and fields, and the reason for this is due to the need for precise miniaturization of electronic devices and because of their unique character that differs from those in the usual case. Metal colloids are one of the important nano-sized materials.

Studying the effect of temperature and resistances of series (Rs) and parallel (Rsh) on the performance of the solar cell (FTO/Zn2SnO4/CdS:O/CdTe/Cu2Te) using the SCAPS-1D program

Awadh Khudair Al-Luhaiby; raad ahmed rasool

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134830.1264

For the purpose of knowing the effect of temperature, series resistance and parallel resistance on the performance of the solar cell(FTO/ Zn2SnO4/ CdS:O/ CdTe/ Cu2Te)، Using the simulation program SCAPS-1D, the study was carried out in three stages.The first stage of this study is to study the effect of temperature on the parameters of the solar cell،It was found that the efficiency h decreases with increasing temperature. The second stage is to study the effect of series resistance (Rs) as an external factor and it was found that increasing the series resistance reduces the performance of the solar cell The third stage of the study is to study the effect of parallel resistance (Rsh) as an external factor as well on the performance of the solar cell. It was also found that increasing the parallelism resistance improves the performance of the solar cell and increases the output parameters. All phases of the study were installed by installing the default lighting spectrum on the global scale Am1.5, the temperature is 300K, the frequency is 1MHz, and the voltage is 0V. Also, the series resistance (Rs) and the parallel resistance (Rsh) were not activated in the first stage of the research, considering that the cell is an ideal cell.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

Abstract
The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

Assessment of NORM from oil refineries and fields northwest of Mosul

mustafa abdullah alsharook; Rasheed Mahmood Yousuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130357.1164

The uranium concentration and radioactivity of radon gas were measured in Al-Kasik refinery and Ain Zala field using the CR-39 detector. Soil and water samples associated with the production stages of oil, Sludge and crude oil were collected. The levels of uranium concentration in soil ranged from 0.703 to 1.480 ppm, in water samples from 0.681 to 0.716 ppm, in Sludge samples from 0.849 to 1.014 ppm, and in crude oil from 0.785 to 0.933 ppm. As for the radioactivity of radon gas, when comparing the radon rate in the samples we obtained with the global values, it was found that it falls within the internationally permissible limit, where the radon rate in the soil was 12.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) which has a value of 32 Bq/kg, and in the produced water it was 8.66 Bq/kg compared to (UNSCEAR)which has a value of 50 Bq/kg. In Sludge samples 11.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) whose value is(8-5×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg, and in crude oil samples 10.56 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Federation of Oil and Gas Producer (IOGP) whose value is (800-4×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg. As for the alpha ray hazard index, the results showed that it is within the permissible limits internationally, where the results were less than 1 and therefore does not pose a threat to the health of workers and environment.

The hybrid Morse code

Ammar Siddiq Mahmoud; Rawia Ibrahim Bakr

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 294-311
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161056

In this research, Morse code was introduced in a new type, which we called the hybrid to be appropriate between the code itself and the theory of fragmentation, which could later be used as a type of encryption in messages between two or more parties.

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

ABSTRACT
This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Isolation And Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Some Clinical And Environmental Samples And Study It,s Activity for The Production of Pyocyanin And Protease

Nazar Mohammed Hassan Al-mamari; Adeba Younes Sharif Al-Numa,an

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 93-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163328

      The study includes isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different sources as (90) samples were collected during a period from November (2017) to February (2018), including (wounds, suckers, urine, drinking water), Twinty five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified depending on morphological and biochemical tests at a rate of (27.77%) from total samples including (13) isolates from suckers used for sucking solutions from respiratory tract, (7) isolates from wounds, (3) isolates from urine and (2) isolates from drinking water. The isolates from sucker formed the highest rate reached (14.44%) of total samples and (52%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, whereas the lowest rate was from drinking water (2.22%) of total samples and (8%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The results showed that (92%) of total isolates were pyocyanin producer on King A agar medium, It was also found that all isolates of this bacteria have the ability to produce protease.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039

ABSTRACT

The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

Journal of Education and Science, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

Summary
This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

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