About Journal

The University of Mosul is the formal owner of the Journal of Education and Science (EDUSJ). The journal is published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1979. The (EDUSJ) is an open-access journal and accept scientific articles from all over the world. The (EDUSJ) publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in the field of (Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer science and Mathematics) science. The Journal using iThenticate to check the plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Calculation of The Electronic Energy Band Structure of GaAs Crystal Using The Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Th. T. Yahya; Mumtaz Mohammad Salih Hussien

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129475.1140

In this paper, the semi-empirical tight binding method for the nearest neighbors in the first Brillouin zone has been used to calculate the energy band structure of GaAs crystal which have zinc blend ZB structure, the band structure has been calculated by using sp^3 model which have 9 parameters and sp^3 s^* which have 13 parameters, both these models are used to calculate the main characteristic of both valence and conduction bands. The matrix elements were determined using the method followed by Cohen and Vogl, by identifying points in the wave vector space within the reduced Brillouin zone between the points of high symmetry and calculating the eigenvalues of all these points by building a computer program in MATLAB to form the energy band structure. The effective mass m^* along the direction [111] for the lowest conduction bands has been calculated. A comparison between the sp^3 model used by Cohen and the sp^3 s^* model used by Vogl has been made. The energies of the band structure at points the high symmetry Γ and X obtained from the study were compared with the results of the published research. The results showed that there is a difference in the energy gap between sp^3 and sp^3 s^* models and there is good agreement between the band energies at high symmetry points between these two models and the published results.

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

ghada mohammad tahir mohammad tahir kasim; Ashraf AL thanoon; Haleema Solayman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 15-27
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129161.1134

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

From the last 70 years, there is continuous development in the field of digital image processing such as geology, biology as well as in medical fields. Solving many problems in the case of numerous application image processing plays an important role. Recently, wireless communication has been a dominant medium. When a signal or image is transmitted via the wireless environment, the quality of the image or signal gets degraded. It is the biggest issue. This happens because of acquisition and color space conversion. Hence, priority is given to enhance the quality of the image or signal. Enhancement is the process responsible to enhance the quality of the signal. In this paper, we focused on various enhancement techniques for image and signal enhancement. Furthermore, this study put down the result for various enhancement techniques for improvement in the image. Theoretically, the signal enhancement was discussed shortly.

Study of Electrical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon

Mohammed ابراهیم alsaalihiu; Ghazwan Ghazi Al Nuaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129664.1147

In this paper, porous silicon has been prepared and studied by photochemical etching method using a n-type silicon wafer with electrical resistivity (0.01-0.02 Ω.cm), orientation (100), hydrofluoric acid of 20% HF, current density of 15 mA / cm2 and etching time at (5 min). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been deposited using laser ablation by drop casting with different laser energy of 400,600 and 800m J. The electrical properties (I-V measurements) of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon have studied in both light and dark conditions. It can be seen the samples behave a rectifier and the current density increases with increase laser energy due to increase in concentration of silver nanoparticles, which lead to a decrease in the values of resistivity as the laser energy increases, this is attributed to the pores are filled with silver nanoparticles and lead to interference between silver and the porous silicon layer. The silver nanoparticles play an important role in forming a homogeneous layer and enhancing the crystal stability of the porous silicon layer.

Study the effect of annealing on the some physical properties of ZnO and NiO nanostructures

abubakir AL-duory; Mutaz AL-juboori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 37-58
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129592.1144

            The annealing process was carried out for the Nano composed oxides (zinc and nickel) at different temperatures (200 ° C, 500 ° C, 700 ° C) and for a specific time of one hour for each temperature change in order to get rid of the internal pressures and the change in their physical and chemical properties and study the structural properties. The optical and surface diffraction results of the nanocrystalline oxides after each temperature change, as the results of the X-ray diffraction of zinc oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure and of the hexagonal type and the X-ray diffraction  of nickel oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure of the cubic type. After the annealing process using Brake law and calculating the average Crystallite size by Debye Shearer method, it was observed that there was an increase in the average crystal size after each temperature change and the results of FTIR showed the emergence of the chemical Zn-O band of zinc oxide, as most Studies indicate the emergence of a (Zn-O) band within the (cm-1) spectral range (400-700) and the emergence of a (Ni-O) chemical bond of nickel oxide, where the peak intensity of this bond decreases due to the hot change. Get up in temperatures. The results of (FESEM) images showed that it is within the nanoscale and that the grain size increases after each temperature change process..

Speaker Recognition: Progression and challenges

Yusra Faisal Al-Irahyim; Qasim Sadiq Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129802.1150

Speaker recognition is one of the field topics widely used in the field of speech technology, many research works has been conducted and little progress has been made in the past five to six years, and due to the advancement of deep learning techniques in most areas of machine learning, it has been replaced previous research methods in speaking recognition and verification. The topic of deep learning is now the most advanced solution to verifying and identifying a speaker's identity. The algorithms used are (x-vectors) and (i-vectors) which are considered the baseline in modern work. The aim of this study is to review deep learning methods applied in identifying speakers and tasks for validating older solutions (Gaussian mixture model, Gaussian mixture super vector model and i-vector model) to new solutions using deep neural networks (deep belief network, deep corrective learning network). ) As well as the types of metrics to verify the speaker (cosine distance, probabilistic linear discrimination analysis) as well as the databases used for neural network training (TIMIT, VCTK, VoxCeleb2, LibriSpeech).

Study of optical and structural properties of prepared gold nanoparticles by pulse laser ablation method

Noor Mohammed Ali Fadhil; Fathi Mohammed Jasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 69-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129702.1148

In this paper, the ablation of pure gold target in distilled water (DW) using Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm and different laser energies (480, 680, 880) mj, with repetition frequency of 6Hz and number of pulses 300 pulse were studied. The optical properties were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, and the spectra showed the appearance of sharp peaks as a result of the plasmonic absorption surface at (529, 531, 532) nm corresponding to the above mentioned energies. The results of the atomic force microscope (AFM) test also showed that the average size of gold nanoparticles decreases with the increase of the energy of the pulsed laser, that gold nanoparticles possess a cube crystalline phase (FCC) according to x-ray diffraction (XRD) test whereas the results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles have an almost spherical shape.

Laser skimming of solids in liquid has opened up unique prospects for the manufacture of nanostructures and as a result there has been rapid growth of studies in the composition of nanostructures by this new technology in recent years. The resulting nanoparticles are somewhat crystallized, and can be obtained in an easy and one-step way without any subsequent heat treatment. Due to the high potency of the cut-off parts, pure colloidal solutions of nanoparticles can form a product that accumulates in the colloidal solution obtained in a very easy way. Colloidal gold is very attractive to many applications in biotechnology and biomedicine because of its unique physical and chemical properties


Abdalrahman Nabeel Al-Hyali; Ghanem Mahmoud Hassan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129793.1149

This study was conducted for the purpose of making milk ice cream free from lactose and to demonstrate the effect of replacing cows' milk with coconut milk on the general characteristics of the product, as it was observed in samples made from coconut milk a high percentage of total solids, a slight increase in the percentage of fat and a decrease in the percentage of total sugars. While the percentage of protein and ash increased, so did the pH value of the mixture, and the percentage of the restorative acidity of the product decreased, and The specific weight of the mixture and the product decreased, the relative viscosity increased, the percentage of rent increased, the percentage of shrinkage increased, the product's resistance to melting increased, the caloric content of the product increased, and the degrees of sensory evaluation increased with the increase in the substitution ratios with coconut milk, and the total number of bacteria, coliform and Staph bacteria increased. aureus in coconut milk samples.

study of nuclear structure of even-even Dy isotopes

Aziz Mohammad Ali; Yaser Qasim; Mutasim Mahmood Yousuf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 94-105
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129809.1151

(〖E(8〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)),(〖E(6〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) , ( 〖E(4〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) and the ratios of In this study, the energy of the first exited 21+
for 152-156DY even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between E/ I as a function of I ( E-GOS), the ratio 〖E(J〗_1^+)/〖E(2〗_1^+) and the ratio r (I+2/I) as a function of spin (I) are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they the isotopes 152-154DY possess vibration U(5) properties and isotope 156DY possess gamma-soft O(6) properties.
The interacting boson model IBM-1,BM and IVBM has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 10 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained

Design and Implementation of an Electronic System of Salaries: (Nineveh Investment Commission as a Model)

Mohamed Qusay Alchalabi; Mafaz Mohsin Alanezi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 106-124
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129618.1146

Electronic systems are considered one of the most important pillars in the development of the work of any institution, especially the systems related to the administrative and financial aspects.
In this research, an electronic system for salaries for the Nineveh Investment Commission (NIC) was designed and implemented model using the language (C#), A central database was built using a Database Management System (SQL), This system was based on a local wireless network to share work by adopting (Client/Server) model to connect the computers, the proposed system includes very important features such as the open system data that enables the user to add and amend the percentages of the basic and secondary salary components, automatic calculation of the salary by specifying the employee service specifications and the certificate obtained, fixed and variable allocations and deductions, calculating all leave, Determining annual bonuses and promotions and organizing them to makes it easy for the user to know who is eligible, update and calculate them, in this system several levels of system users were built. A report was added for the employee's last salary certificate with detailed reports on salaries and the system was strengthened with the feature of backing up to prevent the database from Damage and referred to at any time.
The system was tested on real data to issuing salary reports for three months. As the system met with great desire and reliability in its use by conducting a questionnaire to measure the usability of the system on the specialists.

Study of The Effect of Adding a Blend of Engineering Polymers on the Rheological Modifications of Sulfurated Asphalt

Mahmoud Abass; Ammar amdoon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 125-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129947.1157

In this study, a mixture of two polymers consisting of commercial adhesive [ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)] and melamine (M) Which were used in this study.
Different weights of both polymers were used with total weights equal for (1 g). The asphalt was treated with the above mixture in the presence of 1% by weight of sulfur at (180 ° C) for one hour.
The rheological properties of the modified samples and original one were measured, which included measuring the ductility , penetration, and softining point as well as calculating the penetration index and percentage of the separated asphaltens .
After that, the best samples obtained from the above modification process were taken, and several interactions were performed on it in order to determine each of :
The optimum conditions for the conversion process have been established and include the percentage of added sulfur and the temperature the best time, the best weights of the mixture, and the best addition sequence.
After that, the best sample obtained from this study was taken and the marshals test with chemical immersion was performed, as well as the effect of aging on this sample was studied.
The study gave good results in the field of asphalt resistance to the deformation processes which were carried out on it.

Text dependent speaker identification system based on deep learning

Qasim Sadiq Mahmood; Yusra Faisal Al-Irahyim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 141-160
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130144.1161

Speaker identification techniques are one of those most advanced modern technologies and there are many different systems had been developed, from methods that used to extract characteristics and classification. The applications of Speech identification are quite difficult and requires modern technologies with a large number of audio samples and resources.
In this research, the system of speaker identification had been designed based on a text (the word or sentences are pre-defined) which give the system the capability to identify the speaker in the least time, number of training samples and resources. The system consists four main parts, the first one is to create audio databases. In the study, two audio databases were relied upon, the first being a database (QS- Dataset) and the second database (audioMNIST_meta). The databases were processed and configured in a way that was explained in the body of the research later. The second part of the research is to extract the characteristics through the pitch coefficients algorithm, while the third part is the use of the neural network as a classifier. And the last part of the research is to verify the work and results of the system.
The test results showed the ability of the MNN network to deal with the smallest number of data, as it achieved a percentage of 100%. As for large data, it ranged from 80% to 81%. Unlike CNN network, the results were not good for the few data, from 60% to 76%, and with large data it was The results are excellent, from 91% to 96%.

Determination of the Residues of the Insecticide Lambda-cyhalothrin After Heat Treatment Using HPLC and Biological Evaluation

Laith Osama Al-Ramadany; Nabeel Mustafa Al-Mallah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 161-176
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130469.1166

The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of using three temperatures of 30, 40, and 50 °C and five exposure periods of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours/degree of temperature in reducing the residues of Lambda-cyhalothrin in water under laboratory conditions and measuring these residues using HPLC as well as Biological evaluation of these residues before and after thermal treatments. The HPLC readings of the residues of this pesticide showed that the highest general average of the degradation rate was at the concentration of 30 ppm / active substance (93.47%) and at the temperature at 30 °C (94.79%), while it was only for the exposure period. 48 hours significant effect (89.80%), and the percentage of deterioration in the effectiveness of the pesticide against adults of the insect T.confusum ranged between 96.72 and 99.22%, and the highest of these percentages was at a concentration of 10 ppm (99.22%) and at a temperature of 40 °C (98.33%). for the exposure periods 24 and 48 hours (98.29%). This may indicate the sensitivity of this pesticide to the temperatures used, which seemed to be high in its initial limit, while the highest rate of degradation was 89.08% at the 48-hour period, which differed significantly from The rest of the other averages, which reached 82.2, 85.26, 89.35 and 86.95% for exposure periods of 6, 12, 24 and 96 hours, respectively.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Amoxicillin Trihydrate by Coupling with Diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline

Hisham Amin Taher Al-Herki; subhi Mohsin jarullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 177-192
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130393.1165

A simple , accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX) as pure and in pharmaceutical preparations (capsule) . This method based on the coupling reaction of drug with diazotized 2,4- dinitroaniline reagent in an alkaline medium at 20 ºC to produce an intense red, water-soluble dye that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 555 nm . Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range 3-16 µg/ml with molar absorptivity of 1.1 x104 l.mol-1.cm-1. The limit of detection(LOD) is 0.1448 µg/ml while the limit of quantitation(LOQ) is 0.4825 µg/ml. The method shows high accuracy (average recovery 100.43%) and precision(relative standard division (RSD) is less than 1.4%).The stoichiometry of the resulting azo dye has been also worked out and it is found to be 1:1 AMOX:Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline.Standard addition method refers to the suggested method is free from interferences from common excipients. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of studied drug in capsules comparable with the certified content value. .

Real-Time Monitoring System Based on Li-Fi Network Technology in Healthcare

Yasser Nozad; Ayad Nozad Mohammedtawfiq

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 193-200
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130106.1159

Patients at healthcare facilities require a long-term continuous healthcare monitoring system to keep track of their vital signs. Because it deals with human life, this system must be safe, trustworthy, and ensure that it does not interfere with available radio frequencies or sensitive electronic devices such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). This paper introduces a patient monitoring system in intensive care that used Li-Fi technology, designed to help enhance patient care and boost doctor’s clinical results. This robust approach timely collects patient data and integrates securely within the hospital IT framework feeding information to physicians, allowing them to make informed clinical decisions. The system used real-time software which displays the data from different locations for assessment. It was successfully tested in the laboratory. Some measurements are discussed, which compare the received pulses to the modules line of sight (LOS) output channel to correlate the transmitted channels. In this work, experimental analysis and measurements are performed to check the efficiency of the proposed concept.

Calculations of Energy Band Structure of GaAs, GaSb and GaP Crystals as a Function of Temperature Using the Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Th. T. Yahya; Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 201-219
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130682.1170

In this paper, the band structure of gallium group of III-V semiconductor has been calculated with temperature, the semi-empirical tight binding method was used to calculate the band structure and the matrix elements were calculated for both models sp^3 and sp^3 s^*. A computer program in MATLAB was designed to calculate the energy eigenvalues for the wave vector points in the first Brillouin zone between high symmetry points to form energy bands. The effect of temperature on the energy band of these group of crystals has been studied by changing the values of the lattice constant under the influence of temperature according to the Pierron relation and thus calculating the change in the length of the bond with temperature, which in turn affects the change in the values of the elements of the Hamiltonian matrix. The energy gap and refractive index were calculated at points of high symmetry as a function of temperature. The results showed a decrease in the energy gap values of GaAs, GaSb and GaP crystals with increasing temperature. Then the experimental Varshni relation was used to calculate the change in the energy gap values of these crystals and the results obtained from current study were compared with the results of Panish and Bellani, where the results showed that a model sp^3 s^* gives better results than the model sp^3.As well as the calculations of the refractive index of these crystals using the Moss formula showed that the refractive index will gradually increase with increasing temperatures.

Synthesis of Some Imine, From Pyrazole -1- Carbaldehyde Compound

Natiq Ahmad; YASSIR Shakeeb AL-JAWAHERI

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 220-229
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168951

In this paper the synthesis of  N[(1E)-1- ( 3,5.- disubstituted phenyl -4,5-dihydro-1H- pyrazol-1- yl) ethylidene or methylidene] substituted aniline [13-15] [17-19] and 1,1-{benzene- 1,4- or -1,3- diylbis [nitrilo (E) methylylidene]} bis( 4,5- dihydro -1H- pyrazole -3,5- disubstituted phenyl) [16,20] is reported. Substituted acetophenone was treated with substituted benzaldehyde to give chalcones ((2E)-1,3- disubstituted phenyl prop-2-ene-1- one) [1-4], the chalcones was treated with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of formic or acetic acid ethanol to give 1-(3,5.-disubstituted phenyl-4,5- dihydro-1H- pyrazol-1- yl) methanol or ethanone [5-12], then this products changed to imines through reaction with substituted aromatic aniline and sodium hydroxide in ethanol to give the substituted pyrazoles.
Also the substituted compounds [5-12] were converted to 1-{(1E)-1-[2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazinylidene] methyl or ethyl} – 4,5- dihydro -1H- pyrazole-3,5-disubstituted phenyl [21-28] by reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine in ethanol.
The synthetic compound's structure. confirmed by IR., UV. Spectra and. physical method.

The use of gamma rays in studying the homogeneity of the alloy (AL-Co-Ni) reinforced with chromium oxide

raad ahmed rasool; Laith Rabih; Ali Khatab Huseen

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129868.1156

This research deals with the preparation number of composite materials by casting the base alloy (Al-Co-Ni) by adding chromium oxide (Cr2O3) as reinforcement material, by weight ratios of (5, 10, 15 wt%) for the base alloy, with heat treatment of the prepared alloys. The basic alloys and composite materials were prepared by using solution casting method and manual mixing method to disperse reinforcement grains in the base alloy floor and with pressure of 5 ton in purpose of forming. The materials were melted and poured into molds and suddenly cooled in cold water, after the molten samples were frozen. The attenuation factor of gamma rays was founded the prepared alloys and their homogeneity was examined by shining a narrow beam of single energy gamma rays emitted from the radiating source (137Cs) with different energies (511, 662, 1173, 1284, 1333) keV respectively, gamma ray system (UCS-20) was being used which bounded to NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The homogeneity of base alloy and composite material was determined by studying the contrast of gamma ray intensity, the linear attenuation coefficient at seven different locations at any samples and the percentage standard deviation. The results showed that the highest value of the linear attenuation coefficient was 0.252 mm-1 for sample [5%Cr2O3+Al+Co+Ni] with the energy (511 keV) and that the lowest value for the ratio of linear attenuation coefficient was 0.062 mm-1 at the energy of sample [15%Cr2O3+Al+Co+Ni] with the energy (1333 keV) indicating that the homogeneity of the sample [15%Cr2O3+Al+Co+Ni] at energy (1333 KeV).

Human Activity Recognition: literature Review

mais irreem atheed; Dena Rafaa Ahmed; Rashad Adhed Kamal

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130293.1162

Human activity recognition has an important role in the interaction between human and human relationships because it provides information about a person's identity, personality, activities, psychological state, and health, all this information is difficult to extract due to the difficulty of a person's ability to identify the activities of another person and is considered one of the basic research topics in the scientific fields in the field of computer vision and machine learning. the purpose of human activity recognition (HAR) is to identify the different human activities throw monitoring and register the human activates and the various surrounded environment, by using computers, the human activity recognition researches which depending on visions is the basics of lots of applications even video monitoring or health care and security monitoring and the interaction between the human and the computers.
In this research, a review of the newest development in the human activity recognition branch have been studied, and the different ways to recognize the human actions, an important detail have been shown to preview the HAR researches and the methodologies used to represent the human activates and its classifications, to provide an overview of the HAR methods and comparing them

Data Stream Mining Between Classical and Modern Applications: A Review

Ammar Thaher Yaseen Al Abd Alazeez Thaher Al Abd Alazeez

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130093.1158

Data mining (DM) is an amazing innovation with incredible potential to help organizations centre on the main data in the information they have gathered about the conduct of their clients and expected clients. It finds data inside the information that questions and reports can't viably uncover. For the most part, DM is the way toward examining information from alternate points of view and summing up it into helpful data - data that can be utilized to expand income, reduces expenses, or both. There are four types of DM: 1) Classification and regression, 2) Clustering, 3) Association Rule Mining, and 4) Outlier/Anomaly Detection. Tending to the velocity part of Big Data (BD) has as of late pulled in a lot of revenue in the investigation local area because of its critical effect on information from pretty much every area of life like medical services, financial exchange, and interpersonal organizations, and so on. Many research works have investigated this velocity issue through mining data streams. Most existing data stream mining research centres on adjusting the primary classifications of approaches, methods and methods for static information to the dynamic information circumstance. This research explores widely the current writing in the field of data stream mining and recognizes the fundamental preparing units supporting different existing methods. This study not simply benefits examiner to make strong assessment subjects and separate gaps in the field yet moreover helps specialists for DM and BD application structure headway.

Assessment of NORM from oil refineries and fields northwest of Mosul

mustafa abdullah alsharook; Rasheed Mahmood Yousuf

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130357.1164

The uranium concentration and radioactivity of radon gas were measured in Al-Kasik refinery and Ain Zala field using the CR-39 detector. Soil and water samples associated with the production stages of oil, Sludge and crude oil were collected. The levels of uranium concentration in soil ranged from 0.703 to 1.480 ppm, in water samples from 0.681 to 0.716 ppm, in Sludge samples from 0.849 to 1.014 ppm, and in crude oil from 0.785 to 0.933 ppm. As for the radioactivity of radon gas, when comparing the radon rate in the samples we obtained with the global values, it was found that it falls within the internationally permissible limit, where the radon rate in the soil was 12.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) which has a value of 32 Bq/kg, and in the produced water it was 8.66 Bq/kg compared to (UNSCEAR)which has a value of 50 Bq/kg. In Sludge samples 11.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) whose value is(8-5×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg, and in crude oil samples 10.56 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Federation of Oil and Gas Producer (IOGP) whose value is (800-4×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg. As for the alpha ray hazard index, the results showed that it is within the permissible limits internationally, where the results were less than 1 and therefore does not pose a threat to the health of workers and environment.

The suitability of groundwater in Mosul city for various civilizational uses.

Abdulmoneim Mohammed Kannah

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129867.1155

In the current research, 23 wells were chosen from some residential neighborhoods located in the city of Mosul. To study some of the physical properties of well water represented by temperature, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved salts, as well as, the study of chemical analyzes are: (sulfates, chlorides, phosphates, nitrates, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen and pH).
The results of the study refer to the height of the electrical conductivity, which ranged between (791-2456) µmhos/cm. The results showed that a lot of water is free of dissolved oxygen, as it recorded the highest value of 4.6 mg/l. Whereas, the temperature of the studied water ranged between (20-28.4)Cº, and it is considered warm water. In the current study, the calcium ion concentration was greater than the magnesium ion concentration in all well water, and the highest concentration reached (264 and 134) mg/L at well 22 and 23, respectively. There was an increase in the concentration of chloride ion, which reached (204) mg/L and the lowest concentration (32) mg/l at wells 11 and 7, respectively.
When comparing the values of the electrical conductivity of the well water with the global determinants of drinking, it was determined that they are not suitable for drinking.
When applying the relationship between the value of the electrical conductivity and the ratio of sodium adsorption to well water, it was found that all water from wells Class (C3 - S1) except for wells (11 and 19) are classified as Class (C4 - S1)

A Suggested System For Palmprint Recognition Using Curvelet Transform And Co-Occurrence Matrix.

meaad mohammed alhadidi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130870.1176

The main purpose of this paper is to create a palmprint recognition system (PPRS) that uses the curvelet transform and co-occurrence matrix to recognize a hand's palmprint.
The suggested system is composed of several stages: in the first stage, the region of interest (ROI) was taken from a palmprint image, then in the second stage, the curvelet transform was applied to the (ROI) to get a blurred version of the image, and finally, unsharp masking process and sobel filtering were done for edge detection. The third stage involves feature extraction using a co-occurrence matrix to obtain 16 features, while the fourth stage inclusion is the training and testing of the suggested approach. The algorithm ACO (ant colony optimization) has been adopted to evaluate the shortest path to the goal.
CASIA PalmprintV dataset of 100 people (60 male and 40 female) was used in proposed work to rate the performance of the proposed system. ARR and EER metrics have been adopted to assess the performance of the proposed system.
The experimental results showed a very high recognition rate (ARR) that reaches 100% for the right hand of a male and the left hand of a female. The overall accuracy rate (ARR) reaches 98.5% and EER equals 0.015.

Influence of mode confinement factor on the modulation properties of the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting VCSEL laser

Afrah Meshal Kareem; Younis Thanoon Qurot

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130566.1169

Vertical cavity surface emitting laser VCSEL is currently the main solution for many technological aspects, ultrafast optical interconnecting, Gigabit Ethernet, etc. In this paper we present the simulation results by using Optiwave™ software version 7, of the effects of optical mode confinement factor on the modulation properties)which inspected by eye diagram of the received signals)of the vertical cavity surface emitting laser VCSEL, with the range (8-20)Gbps of pseudo random bit sequence PRBS. The quality of the VCSEL modulation have been inspected by time domain signals, spectrums and eye diagram. Simulation results appeared an improvement in the characteristics of received bit sequences of (8, 10, 12.5, 16 and 20)Gbps bit rates, represented by the rising the value of quality factor QF (1.77 to 4.81) versus increasing the value of optical mode confinement factor Γ(0.2 to 0.5) respectively, and a decreasing in jitter time of superimposed traces of eye pattern and well opining eye pattern. And in the corresponding, the bit error rates BERs of the received signals have been decreased, with rising the value of mode confinement factor Γ of the laser at constant modulation index and constant temperature of the laser. Also, the VCSEL’s modulation response differences with different bitrates, causes different values of QF and BER for individual value of mode confinement factor Γ.

Ransomware Detection System Based on Machine Learning

Omar Shamil Ahmed; Omar Abdulmunem Ibrahim Al-Dabbagh

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130760.1173

In every day, there is a great growth of the Internet and smart devices connected to the network. On the other hand, there is an increasing in number of malwares that attacks networks, devices, systems and apps. One of the biggest threats and newest attacks in cybersecurity is Ransom Software (Ransomware). Although there is a lot of research on detecting malware using machine learning (ML), only a few focuses on ML-based ransomware detection. Especially attacks targeting smartphone operating systems (e.g., Android) and applications. In this research, a new system was proposed to protect smartphones from malicious apps through monitoring network traffic. Six ML methods (Random Forest (RF), k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Decision tree (DT), Logistic Regression (LR), and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGB)) are applied on CICAndMal2017 dataset which consists of benign and various kinds of android malware samples. A 603288 benign and ransomware samples were extracted from this collection. Ransomware samples are collected from 10 different families. Several types of feature selection techniques have been used on the dataset. Finally, seven performance metrics were used to determine the best one of feature selection and ML classifiers for ransomware detection. The experiments results imply that DT and XGB outperforms other classifiers with best detection accuracy are more than (99.30%) and (99.20%) for (DT) and (XGB) respectively.

Preparation of Ruthenium chloride-grafted Zeolite from a Clay Mineral Ore and Studying Their Catalytic Properties

Ragheed Yousif Ghazal; Dhyaa Mahmood Fathy

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130894.1178

This research work include studying one of the natural mineral ores available in Al-Hawy area (Mosul city – Northern Iraq) by chemical analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to identify its components of the elements as oxides, X-ray diffraction was carried out  to determine the percentages of clay minerals (natural zeolites) and non-clay minerals in the natural ore. The natural zeolites were concentrated by removing carbonate, iron and separating the convertible silica into sodium silicate, the prepared zeolite was converted  into (H-form) by treated with  ammonium nitrite solution (1M) ,then grafted with ruthenium chloride (RuCl3.6H2O) .The properties and specifications of the prepared zeolite (grafted and non-grafted) were studied using techniques of (XRF) ,(XRD),(BET) , (SEM) and (differential& thermo gravimetric analysis(DTA)&(TGA) ) ,it was found that have a chemical and crystalline composition within the specifications of zeolites, as well as a good surface area , thermal stability and selective porous channels.

A New Method for Head Direction Estimation based on Dlib Face Detection Method and Implementation of Sine Invers Function

arqam Al-Nuaimi; Ghassan Mohmmed

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130962.1181

The detection and tracking of head movements have been such an active area of research during the past years. This area contributes highly to computer vision and has many applications of computer vision. Thus, several methods and algorithms of face detection have been proposed because they are required in most modern applications, in which they act as the cornerstone in many interactive projects. Implementation of the detected angles of the head or head direction is very useful in many fields, such as disabled people assistance, criminal behavior tracking, and other medical applications. In this paper, a new method is proposed to estimate the angles of head direction based on Dlib face detection algorithm that predicts 68 landmarks in the human face. The calculations are mainly based on the predicated landmarks to estimate three types of angles Yaw, Pitch and Roll. A python program has been designed to perform face detection and its direction. To ensure accurate estimation, the particular landmarks were selected, such that, they are not affected by the movement of the head, so, the calculated angles are approximately accurate. The experimental results showed high accuracy measures for the entire three angles according to real and predicted measures. The sample standard deviation results for each real and calculated angle were Yaw (0.0046), Pitch (0.0077), and Roll (0.0021), which confirm the accuracy of the proposed method compared with other studies. Moreover, the method performs faster which promotes accurate online tracking.

Detection of citrus diseases using a fuzzy neural network

Huda Taher; Baydaa I. Khaleel

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130928.1179

The objective is to use AI techniques to build a citrus image recognition system and to produce an integrated program that will assist plant protection professionals in determining whether the disease is infected and early detection for the purpose of taking the necessary preventive measures and reducing its spread to other plants. In this research, the RBF and FRBF networks were used and applied to 830 images, to detect whether citrus fruits were healthy or ill. At first, the preprocessing of these images was done, and they were reduced to 250 x 250 pixels, and the features were extracted from them using the co-occurrence matrix method (GLCM) after setting the gray level at 8 gradients and 1 pixel distance, 21 statistical features were derived, and then these features were introduced to RBF after determine the number of input layer nodes by 21 , 20 for the hidden layer and 1 node for output layer, the centers were randomly selected from the training data and the weights were also randomly selected and trained using the Pseudo Inverse method. The RBF network was hybridized with the fuzzy logic using the FCM method, the fuzziness parameter = 2.3 was selected, and a new network called FRBF was acquired. These networks were trained and tested in training data (660 images) and testing (170 images) for citrus fruits. The detection rate was then calculated, and the results showed that the (FRBF) had a higher accuracy of 98.24% compared to RBF of 94.71%.

Spectrophotometric estimation of para-aminophenol via oxidative coupling reaction with 4-chlororesorcinol –Application to paracetamol

Hiba Abdul -alsalam Alhafid; Nabeel Sabeeh Otman

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.131045.1186

A simple sensitive spectrophotometric method has been suggested for the estimation of pure p-aminophenol(p-AMPL), and p-AMPL results from the hydrolysis of paracetamol(PARL). The suggested method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of p-AMPL with 4-chlororesorcinol (4-CLRL) and potassium periodate to produce a stable, and water-soluble coloured product with maximum absorption at wavelength 556 nm. Beer's law is followed over the range of concentration from 2 to 20 µg p-AMPL. ml-1. The molar absorptivity value is equal to 1.0277×104 l.mol-1cm-1. All factors responsible for the completed reaction and highest intensity of the product have been studied, and the optimal of each factor has been selected. The suggested method was applied in an indirect method for the
determination of paracetamol in tablets and injection after acidic hydrolysis to p-AMPL. The common excipients added did not interfere in the estimation of paracetamol.
The suggested method was applied in an indirect method for the
determination of paracetamol in tablets and injection after acidic hydrolysis to p-AMPL. The common excipients added did not interfere in the estimation of paracetamol.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

Genetic Algorithm to Solve Sliding Tile 8-Puzzle Problem

Ruqaya Zedan Shaban; Isra Natheer Alkallak; Mowada Mohamad Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58405

The research tackled the classical problem in artificial intelligence as 8-puzzle problem with genetic algorithm. The research present the fundamental of genetic algorithm with sliding tile 8-puzzle problem. Starting from current state for state space search into a goal state by depending on the tile’s move (tiles out of place) in the current and compare with the solution of the problem (goal), without blank’s move. population size chose by the summation of probabilities misplaced tile’s move (tiles out of place) in current state comparing with goal state. In this research, depended on the Crossover and mutation for ordered chromosomes method. The experimental in this research show that the algorithm is efficient. The source code is written in Matlab language.

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Effect of some physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria

Ahmed Talal Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161050

The study was conducted in order to create the best conditions (physical and chemical factors) that necessary for the growth of the Bacillus subtilis and its production of the Xylanase enzyme.
The results include isolation and diagnosis of (40) isolates of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis obtained from (30) soil samples and study the effect of some physical factors (period and temperature of incubation, pH of the medium, ventilation) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme. The results showed that best growth and its production of the enzyme was obtained when the incubation is (48) hours and the temperature (30) Co , pH of the medium (7) and incubation with shaking at (200) rpm where the optical density value of bacterial growth was reached (0.25) and activity of the enzyme product was (3.41) unit / ml. The effect of some chemical agents (carbon and nitrogen source for medium) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme and the results revealed that the carbon source (Xylan) gave the best growth and production of the enzyme compared with other of carbon sources (Starch, Cellulose, Xylose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose), where the optical density value of growth was (0.25) and the enzyme activity (3.41) unit / ml. Regarding the effect of the nitrogen source (organic and inorganic) in medium on growth and production of the enzyme, the results showed that the best bacterial growth and the production of an Xylanase enzyme occur when organic nitrogen sources (Peptone, Beef extract, Yeast extract, Casien) were supplemented in the medium compared with inorganic nitrogen sources (KNO3, (NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3). Peptone and Yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources for stimulation of bacterial growth and the production of the enzyme with optical density value of growth reached (0.29 , 0.286) and the enzyme activity was (3.92 , 3.9) unit / ml.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

Isolation And Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Some Clinical And Environmental Samples And Study It,s Activity for The Production of Pyocyanin And Protease

Nazar Mohammed Hassan Al-mamari; Adeba Younes Sharif Al-Numa,an

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 93-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163328

      The study includes isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different sources as (90) samples were collected during a period from November (2017) to February (2018), including (wounds, suckers, urine, drinking water), Twinty five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified depending on morphological and biochemical tests at a rate of (27.77%) from total samples including (13) isolates from suckers used for sucking solutions from respiratory tract, (7) isolates from wounds, (3) isolates from urine and (2) isolates from drinking water. The isolates from sucker formed the highest rate reached (14.44%) of total samples and (52%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, whereas the lowest rate was from drinking water (2.22%) of total samples and (8%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The results showed that (92%) of total isolates were pyocyanin producer on King A agar medium, It was also found that all isolates of this bacteria have the ability to produce protease.

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