About Journal

The University of Mosul is the formal owner of the Journal of Education and Science (EDUSJ). The journal is published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1979. The (EDUSJ) is an open-access journal and accept scientific articles from all over the world. The (EDUSJ) publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in the field of (Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer science and Mathematics) science. The Journal using iThenticate to check the plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation Biological Activity of Cobalt (II) with Mixed Ligands complexes

Ahlam Mohammed Yaseen Al-Bayati; Zuhoor Fathi Dawood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128321.1110

New cobalt (II) complexes with mixed ligands including [(2- oxime-4-hydrazone) pentane (L1H) and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone(T1H) ,or 3,4-dimethoxy acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (T2H); glycine (GH) or metformin (mf)] have been prepared in both pH (6.5-7) and (9.5-10) using classical and microwave techniques. The resulting complexes have been characterized using physio- chemical and spectral techniques. The study suggested that the complexes have the generalformulate [Co(L1H)(TH)(BH)](CH3COO)2and[Co(L1)(TH)(G)]or[Co(L1)(T)(mf)] at pH (6.5-7) and (9.5- 10), respectively {where TH= T1H or T2H; T= deprotonated T1H or T2H; L1H=L1=deprotenated; BH= GH or mf; G= deprotonated GH]. Hexacoordinated mononuclear complexes having distorted octahedral geometries have been investigated. The biologicall activity of the ligands and complexes have been evaluated by agar plate diffusion technique against Echerichia coli, Klipsila pnnemoia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some compounds have been found to have antibacterial activity. 

Theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on graphene nanostructures functionalized with nickel for solid state hydrogen storage

ameer albyatei; Issa Zainalabddeen assaflly

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128376.1112

Hydrogen adsorption and storage on nickel- activated, pure graphene and boron-doped graphene was study using density functional theory simulations based on generalized gradient approximation methods (DFT-GGA). It was found that the nickel atoms tend to clustering on the surface of pure graphene due to the high cohesive energy of nickel compared to the energy of nickel binding to the surface of pure graphene, which decrease the storage capacity of hydrogen. It was also found that the storage capacity of seven hydrogen molecules on pure and activated graphene with a nickel atom is equal to (10.2 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.27 eV), and the storage capacity for the same number of hydrogen molecules is (11.3 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.22 eV), This indicates that the adsorption process will take place at ambient conditions. The process of inoculating graphene-doped boron and nickel activating is an effective strategy for improving the average binding energies and the storage capacity of hydrogen molecules in the graphene nanostructures.

Estimating the Level of Some Inflammatory Cytokines in the Serum of Women Exposed to Abortion and the Relationship with Toxoplasmosis

Raqaa Alubaidi; Adeeba Shareef

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 33-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128415.1113

This study includes the collection of (90) blood samples, eighty samples belongs to patients experienced to spontaneous or recurrent abortions, and the ten samples from women with normal pregnancy. The results showed a significant increase in the levels of cytokines in patients serum as their concentrations were (218.15±105.1 pg/L for IL-1β, 63.10±35.17 ng/L for TNF-α and 31.77±25.3ng/ml for IFN-g) compared to the control as it(151.0±0.76 pg/L ,34.96±0.42 ng/L and 11.15±3.49 ng/ml) for the cytokines respectively. The level of cytokines reached (352.18 pg/L,117.8 ng/L and 63.8 ng/ml) for IL-1β,TNF-α and IFN-g respectively in women infected with Toxoplasmosis compared to non-infected women (337.1 pg/L , 101.3 ng/L and 54.06 ng/ml). This indicate that toxoplasmosis has a role in the induction of immune system.

An Overview of the Evolution of the Porous Silicon material: A review

Ghazwan Ghazi Ali; Marwan Hafeedh Younus; Ivan Karomi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128341.1111

Recently, the properties and applications of the porous became the main subject of several books and the vast numbers of review articles. Porous silicon has demonstrated significant versatility and promise for a wide range of optoelectronic applications thanks to its large surface area and intense photoluminescence at room temperature. In this review, we describe the fabrication techniques and experimental improvements made towards porous silicon (PSi) and we provide a full picture of realization and characterization of this material. We also highlight its important properties, such as chemical, structure and surface properties. We summarize the techniques that have been used, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, atomic force microscope images (AFM) and a scanning probe microscope (SEM). Additionally, the effect of the current density and etching time are also documented in this review. In summary, porous silicon has undergone vast improvement in both fabrication and characterization methods, which makes it an attractive modern material.

Image Fusion by Shift Invariant Discrete Wavelet Transform for Remote Sensing Applications

Abdalrahman Ramzi Qubaa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 53-66
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128261.1109

The fusion technique of the spectral bands captured by the sensors carried onboard satellites is one digital processing method for extracting information and detecting ground targets. Image fusion - also known as pan-sharpening-provides the necessary means to combine many images into a single composite image that is suitable in visual interpretation processes or in digital interpretation. The principal objective of this study is to find the best suitable algorithms for obtaining integrative information from several separate images in one combined image. Based on the above, a special software system was designed to implement and test the fusion methods used in remote sensing applications by selecting and applying a Shift Invariant Wavelet Transform (SIWT) method to the remote sensing images and then comparing with four other different image fusion algorithms. Two objective mathematical methods were also used to measure the amount of shared information obtained in the images resulting from the fusion, as well as using the visual and Near-Infrared images of the new Sentinel-2 European satellite for a part of Nineveh province as experimental images. The results showed a preference of the wavelet transform method over the other fusion methods for the remote sensing images.

Investigation of Important Fatty Acids in Biofuel Production From Number of Microalgae

Taha Abdulwahab Al-Someidae; Yousef Jabar Al-Shahery ‎; Qutaiba Shuaib Al-‎Nema

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 67-78
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128619.1115

Algae biofuels is considered as an alternative source to fossil fuels. In recent ‎decades, there was a ‎significant increase in the use of energy sources in order ‎to avoid the depletion of traditional ‎sources such as coal and petroleum. The ‎produced fuel from algal oil had important ‎characteristics compared to that ‎from other vegetable crops. This is due to the short life cycle of ‎development, ‎a fast-growing and easy to be developed. In this study, three types of micro-‎algae ‎Scendesmus dimorphus, Chlorella vulgaris and‏ ‏Chlorococcum ‎humicola‏ ‏were used and grown in in a 5 liter photobioreactor. The dry ‎biomass productivity of the three algae was estimated, and then a chemical ‎analysis ‎of the total fatty was performed to detect their biological contents as ‎well as diagnose the ‎fatty acid. Results showed that S. dimorphus produced ‎the highest levels in both biomass, 1.58 g ‎l-1 from dry weight and estimation of ‎the total fat ‎indicated C. vulgaris has the highest total fat yield, at 29.6 ‎‎%. ‎Results of fats characterization using ‎‏)‏GLC) showed that‏ ‏S. dimorphus ‎produced the high ‎percentage of saturated fatty acids for the meristic acid ‎ester (C14: 0) by 47% and the lincoseric ‎acid ester (C24: 0) was 7.194%. In ‎contrast, both Chlorella vulgaris and Chlo. humicola showed less ‎level of ‎saturated fatty acids. This indicates the suitability of algae oil derived from S. ‎dimorphus in ‎ the synthesis of fatty acid, a major source in producing ‎biofuels

Numerical modeling negative corona under the influence of applied voltage variation

Hala Alnaemi; Qais Thanon Algwari

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 79-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128762.1120

In high-voltage gaseous insulation systems, the corona discharge is important because it can lead to drop of the insulating qualities of the gas in addition to the production of harm by-products. The influence of the applied voltage variation on the negative corona characteristics in a coaxial electrode geometry has been investigated based on one-dimensional dynamic model of corona discharge includes one-dimensional continuity equations and Poisson equation. The one-dimensional fluid model of corona discharge is solved by finite difference flux correction method (FD-FCT). The calculations were performed on oxygen gas under the atmospheric pressure using COMSOL multiphysics software. The corona discharge parameters are simulated under different voltage of 4kV, 6kV, 8kV and 10kV, respectively. The effect of the applied voltage on the spatial distribution of main charged species and electron as well as the ozone was considered. The results show that as the negative applied voltage on the cathode increased the total current density also increase while the electron density decrease. The ozone density do not much affected by the increasing the applied voltage.

Study of Light Wavelength and Some Concentration Salts in Growth Medium on Growth, Protein and Nitrogen Content of Hapalosiphon arboreus 3OW05S02

Fatin Mahdi Saleh Al-Rashidy; Yousef Jabar Al-Shaheree

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 92-103
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.128991.1122

Local isolation was obtained from cyanobacteria fixing atmospheric nitrogen, and isolated from the local environment of the city of Mosul (Tigris River forest area). A molecular diagnosis of this isolate was carried out for the purpose of genetic diagnosis, and it was found that it is a pure isolate of cyanobacteria Hapalosiphon. arboreus 3OW05S02. And the phenotypic diagnosis coincided with autopsy.This isolation was grown laboratory in the medium of Chu10. As for the change of wavelengths of light, The results showed that the best wavelength of light was (620-750)nm for red light, the biomass is (770) mg / liter, the protein content is (230) mg / liter, the nitrogen content is (119) mg / liter. Also I studied a number of mineral elements that affect growth and nitrogen fixation, and it was found that the best concentration of potassium phosphate K2HPO4 is (50)mg/liter, as recorded the biomass is (802) mg / liter, the protein content is (202)mg / liter, the nitrogen content is (107) mg / liter. When adding Ca(No3)2 to the medium with different concentrations and comparing them without adding this material to the medium, the best concentration was (60) mg/liter, the biomass is (790) mg/liter, the protein content is (138) mg /liter, the nitrogen content is (74) mg /liter.

Electrical Conductivity of Oxadiazole and Triazole Polymer Content

Asaad Faisal Khattab; Aya Abdul Wahhab

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 104-120
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129094.1131

Three types of oxadiazle and traizole monomers were prepared. The monomers are polymerized with different monomers to prepare eight different polymers. The polymers are differs in the type of bonding unit. The prepared polymers are identified by using infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The prepared polymers are doped with different ratios of iodine and protonic acid (HCl). The electrical conductivity of the pure and doped polymers was measured. Many different factors can effect on the conductivity of the polymers. The long flexible aliphatic moiety in the back bone of the polymer increase the electrical conductivity, while the presence of long aliphatic arm grafted as aside chain will decrease the conductivity. Also the type of the bonding group (amide or azomethin ) have a significant effect on the electrical conductivity. The study proved that the oxadiazole and triazole rings can participating in the conjugation of polymeric chain and enhanced the electrical conductivity. The nitrogen and oxygen atoms within the ring can participate with conjugation by their lone pair of electron and can be considered as a sites for doping. The electrical conductivity of the prepared polymers increased by increasing the ratio of the dopant but to limited percent. It was proved that the nitrogen atoms is more ready to protonated by acid than the oxygen atom

Detection of Bacterial Contamination and Antibiotic Resistance at Neonate Intensive Care Units in Ibn Al-Atheer Teaching Hospital for Children

sahira adrees AL-sanjary; Fulla qaydar al-abas

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 121-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129017.1123

The study included the isolation and diagnosis of some gram positive and negative bacterial species from (NICU ) in Ibn Al-Atheer Teaching hospital for children from from August 2019 to February 2020 .A total of 90 swabs were obtained from various sites of Intensive Care Unit from Ibn Al-Atheer hospital environment and inoculated on culture media. The obtained growth revealed different bacterial colonies which had been tested for their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Eighty pure isolates were obtained including (76 ) Gram positive, and (4 ) Gram negative bacterial isolates. The highest rate of bacterial contamination had been found in the couh and incubator. The most prevalent bacteria isolated from inanimate surfaces were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative staphylococci, Bacillus, in addition to Diphtheroids, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E, coli.
Antibiotic susceptibility testing for all isolates was performed using (8) types of commonly used antibiotics in Iraq. Taken all together, gram positive and negaive bacteria showed high resistance against streptomycin, erythromycin, and ampicillin respectively. Notably, resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin were demonstrated which are commonly given as the first line of treatment in NICUs.

Study the effect of gamma ray on silver nanoparticles prepared by pulse laser ablation in liquid technique (PLAL)

Mohammed Al-Maher; Najwa Al-Barhawi; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 128-137
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129320.1136

Silver nanoparticles in this study were prepared using the method of laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) at two energies (540 and 700) mJ and the count of pulses were (100,200,300 and 400) pulse . The prepared samples were divided into three groups: the first group of the samples were kept as they are without any irradiation but the second and third group were irradiated by Co-60 source with two amount of doses (7.5 and 11) KGy respectively . A series of measurements and studies were done, and from the pictures of Transmitted Electron Microscope (TEM) , it was observed that the prepared nanoparticles at laser energy (540) mJ with pulses count (400) pulse were spherical but the prepared nanoparticles at laser (700) mJ with pulses cont (400) pulse were nano rods shape. The gamma irradiation effect was studied through its effect on the optical properties of the nanoparticles at different preparation conditions , represented by a change in the pulses and the energy of the laser used. The results showed that there was an increase the absorbance peaks when increasing the irradiated dose. The (TEM) image showed we get spherical nanoparticles in shape and nano composition. The average diameter of the prepared silver nanoparticles at (540) mJ laser energy in the range of (30-40) nm.

Study of nuclear track parameters of normal incident alpha particles on CR-39 detector

Sabreen Malo; Yaser Qasim; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 138-147
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129461.1139

In this paper, Solid State Nuclear Detector (SSNTD) CR-39 was broken into many fragments with areas of (1x1) cm2. The samples were irradiated using 241Am source. The measurements were taken at normal incident angle of the alpha particles for energies (3.17, 3.59 and 4.13) MeV respectively. The samples were etched using sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH 6N, 70±1 oC) for time interval of 0.25 h. The optical microscope provided with digital camera was used to preview the track profile formed in CR-39. This allowed measurement of the track length and in turn the track length as a function of the etching time . The track growth rate, track etch rate and track rate ratio were also investigated as a function of many parameters such as etching time, track depth and residual range. The study showed a good consistency among the investigated parameters . The curves of the track etch rate and track etch ratio manifested a consistency with Brack curve who interested in studying the linear energy loss in materials where the maximum energy loss occurs at the end of the alpha particle range.

Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Computer Models using Gaussian Process Models.

hasan Mohammedali Saeid; Younus Hazim Al-Taweel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 148-164
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129374.1138

Mathematical models, usually implemented in computer programs known as computer models, are widely used in all areas of science and technology to represent complex systems in the real world. However, computer models are often so complex in such that they require a long time in computer to be implemented. To solve this problem, a methodology has been developed that is based on building a statistical representation of a computer model, known as a Gaussian process model. As any statistical model, the Gaussian process model is based on some assumptions. Several validation methods have been used for checking the assumptions of the Gaussian process model to obtain the best probabilistic model as an alternative to the computer model. These validation methods are based on a comparison between the output of the computer model and the output of the Gaussian process model for some test data. In this work, we present the Bayesian approach for constructing a Gaussian process model. We also suggest and compare validation methods that consider the correlation between the output of the computer model and the Gaussian process model predictions with those that do not consider the correlation between these data. We apply the Gaussian process model with the suggested validation methods to real data represented by the robot arm function. We have found that the methods that consider the correlation give more accurate and reliable results. We achieved the calculations using the R program.

Application of tight-binding method to calculate the band structure and the effect of pressure in crystal ZnSe

Hussein Ali Hussein Sultan; Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 165-174
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129479.1141

In this research tight-binding method has been applied to calculate the band structure in ZnSe crystal, the matrix elements of have been calculated using the method used by Vogl and Cohen. A computer program has been designed in MATLAB language to calculate the band structure in the ZnSe crystal, a sample of points has been formed in the first Brillouin zone (reduced zone) between the high symmetry points (L →Γ,Γ→X→(U,K) →Γ) . The energy eigen values is calculated along the high symmetry paths, the obtained results have been compared with previous works of Vogl and Cohen which shows a good agreements. A comparison between the ZnSe band structure based on sp3 and sp3s* models has been done and the energy gap between the conduction and valence bands at the high symmetry points is calculated for the sp3s*. The effect of pressure on the ZnSe band structure is calculated in the range (10-40) Gpa by calculating the matrix element under different pressure, the results show broadening in band gap due to applied pressure, the conduction band is shifted toward the high energy while the valence band is shifted toward the lower energy. The band gap is calculated values for high symmetric points were determined with pressure change and compared with theoretical calculations.

Test of SU(3) limit of interactive boson model to study 158-170DY even-even isotopes

Murad Najem; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 175-185
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129616.1145

(〖E(8〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)),(〖E(6〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) , ( 〖E(4〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) and the ratios of In this study, the energy of the first exited 21+
for 158-170DY even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between E/ I as a function of I ( E-GOS) and the ratio 〖E(J〗_1^+)/〖E(2〗_1^+) as a function of spin (I) once and with neutron number again are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they the isotopes 158-170DY possess rotational properties .
The interacting boson model IBM-1 has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 10 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

Investigating indirect impacts of TCP connection on IMS network

Ali Abdulrazzaq K.

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 186-195
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130133.1160

The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is recently expected to have the major architecture framework to be involved in the Next Generation Network. IMS works to bridge the multimedia communication among variety of applications over Internet. IMS bears its multimedia signals and stream through different means of transport protocols; TCP, UDP, and SCTP. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable data delivery and congestion control. To setup connection with TCP, IMS entities requires extra operations to complete, that operation process called (worker process) costs the multimedia server extra overload and delay. This paper investigates the indirect impacts of TCP connection that resulted from the Call Session Control Function (CSCF) servers when it deal with video communication. Two parameters are evaluated in experiment which are CPU usage and response time with two different scenarios. The experimental shows that outbound scenario performs better than the inbound scenario due to the extra operations required to setup new TCP connection for inbound

Calculation of The Electronic Energy Band Structure of GaAs Crystal Using The Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Th. T. Yahya; Mumtaz Mohammad Salih Hussien

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129475.1140

In this paper, the semi-empirical tight binding method for the nearest neighbors in the first Brillouin zone has been used to calculate the energy band structure of GaAs crystal which have zinc blend ZB structure, the band structure has been calculated by using sp^3 model which have 9 parameters and sp^3 s^* which have 13 parameters, both these models are used to calculate the main characteristic of both valence and conduction bands. The matrix elements were determined using the method followed by Cohen and Vogl, by identifying points in the wave vector space within the reduced Brillouin zone between the points of high symmetry and calculating the eigenvalues of all these points by building a computer program in MATLAB to form the energy band structure. The effective mass m^* along the direction [111] for the lowest conduction bands has been calculated. A comparison between the sp^3 model used by Cohen and the sp^3 s^* model used by Vogl has been made. The energies of the band structure at points the high symmetry Γ and X obtained from the study were compared with the results of the published research. The results showed that there is a difference in the energy gap between sp^3 and sp^3 s^* models and there is good agreement between the band energies at high symmetry points between these two models and the published results.

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

ghada mohammad tahir mohammad tahir kasim; Ashraf AL thanoon; Haleema Solayman

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129161.1134

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

From the last 70 years, there is continuous development in the field of digital image processing such as geology, biology as well as in medical fields. Solving many problems in the case of numerous application image processing plays an important role. Recently, wireless communication has been a dominant medium. When a signal or image is transmitted via the wireless environment, the quality of the image or signal gets degraded. It is the biggest issue. This happens because of acquisition and color space conversion. Hence, priority is given to enhance the quality of the image or signal. Enhancement is the process responsible to enhance the quality of the signal. In this paper, we focused on various enhancement techniques for image and signal enhancement. Furthermore, this study put down the result for various enhancement techniques for improvement in the image. Theoretically, the signal enhancement was discussed shortly.

Study of Electrical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon

Mohammed ابراهیم alsaalihiu; Ghazwan Ghazi Al Nuaimi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129664.1147

In this paper, porous silicon has been prepared and studied by photochemical etching method using a n-type silicon wafer with electrical resistivity (0.01-0.02 Ω.cm), orientation (100), hydrofluoric acid of 20% HF, current density of 15 mA / cm2 and etching time at (5 min). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been deposited using laser ablation by drop casting with different laser energy of 400,600 and 800m J. The electrical properties (I-V measurements) of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon have studied in both light and dark conditions. It can be seen the samples behave a rectifier and the current density increases with increase laser energy due to increase in concentration of silver nanoparticles, which lead to a decrease in the values of resistivity as the laser energy increases, this is attributed to the pores are filled with silver nanoparticles and lead to interference between silver and the porous silicon layer. The silver nanoparticles play an important role in forming a homogeneous layer and enhancing the crystal stability of the porous silicon layer.

Study the effect of annealing on the some physical properties of ZnO and NiO nanostructures

abubakir AL-duory; Mutaz AL-juboori

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129592.1144

            The annealing process was carried out for the Nano composed oxides (zinc and nickel) at different temperatures (200 ° C, 500 ° C, 700 ° C) and for a specific time of one hour for each temperature change in order to get rid of the internal pressures and the change in their physical and chemical properties and study the structural properties. The optical and surface diffraction results of the nanocrystalline oxides after each temperature change, as the results of the X-ray diffraction of zinc oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure and of the hexagonal type and the X-ray diffraction  of nickel oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure of the cubic type. After the annealing process using Brake law and calculating the average Crystallite size by Debye Shearer method, it was observed that there was an increase in the average crystal size after each temperature change and the results of FTIR showed the emergence of the chemical Zn-O band of zinc oxide, as most Studies indicate the emergence of a (Zn-O) band within the (cm-1) spectral range (400-700) and the emergence of a (Ni-O) chemical bond of nickel oxide, where the peak intensity of this bond decreases due to the hot change. Get up in temperatures. The results of (FESEM) images showed that it is within the nanoscale and that the grain size increases after each temperature change process..

Speaker Recognition: Progression and challenges

Yusra Faisal Al-Irahyim; Qasim Sadiq Mahmood

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129802.1150

Speaker recognition is one of the field topics widely used in the field of speech technology, many research works has been conducted and little progress has been made in the past five to six years, and due to the advancement of deep learning techniques in most areas of machine learning, it has been replaced previous research methods in speaking recognition and verification. The topic of deep learning is now the most advanced solution to verifying and identifying a speaker's identity. The algorithms used are (x-vectors) and (i-vectors) which are considered the baseline in modern work. The aim of this study is to review deep learning methods applied in identifying speakers and tasks for validating older solutions (Gaussian mixture model, Gaussian mixture super vector model and i-vector model) to new solutions using deep neural networks (deep belief network, deep corrective learning network). ) As well as the types of metrics to verify the speaker (cosine distance, probabilistic linear discrimination analysis) as well as the databases used for neural network training (TIMIT, VCTK, VoxCeleb2, LibriSpeech).

Study of optical and structural properties of prepared gold nanoparticles by pulse laser ablation method

Noor Mohammed Ali Fadhil; Fathi Mohammed Jasim

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129702.1148

In this paper, the ablation of pure gold target in distilled water (DW) using Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm and different laser energies (480, 680, 880) mj, with repetition frequency of 6Hz and number of pulses 300 pulse were studied. The optical properties were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, and the spectra showed the appearance of sharp peaks as a result of the plasmonic absorption surface at (529, 531, 532) nm corresponding to the above mentioned energies. The results of the atomic force microscope (AFM) test also showed that the average size of gold nanoparticles decreases with the increase of the energy of the pulsed laser, that gold nanoparticles possess a cube crystalline phase (FCC) according to x-ray diffraction (XRD) test whereas the results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles have an almost spherical shape.

Laser skimming of solids in liquid has opened up unique prospects for the manufacture of nanostructures and as a result there has been rapid growth of studies in the composition of nanostructures by this new technology in recent years. The resulting nanoparticles are somewhat crystallized, and can be obtained in an easy and one-step way without any subsequent heat treatment. Due to the high potency of the cut-off parts, pure colloidal solutions of nanoparticles can form a product that accumulates in the colloidal solution obtained in a very easy way. Colloidal gold is very attractive to many applications in biotechnology and biomedicine because of its unique physical and chemical properties


Abdalrahman Nabeel Al-Hyali; Ghanem Mahmoud Hassan

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129793.1149

This study was conducted for the purpose of making milk ice cream free from lactose and to demonstrate the effect of replacing cows' milk with coconut milk on the general characteristics of the product, as it was observed in samples made from coconut milk a high percentage of total solids, a slight increase in the percentage of fat and a decrease in the percentage of total sugars. While the percentage of protein and ash increased, so did the pH value of the mixture, and the percentage of the restorative acidity of the product decreased, and The specific weight of the mixture and the product decreased, the relative viscosity increased, the percentage of rent increased, the percentage of shrinkage increased, the product's resistance to melting increased, the caloric content of the product increased, and the degrees of sensory evaluation increased with the increase in the substitution ratios with coconut milk, and the total number of bacteria, coliform and Staph bacteria increased. aureus in coconut milk samples.

study of nuclear structure of even-even Dy isotopes

Aziz Mohammad Ali; Yaser Qasim; Mutasim Mahmood Yousuf

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129809.1151

(〖E(8〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)),(〖E(6〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) , ( 〖E(4〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) and the ratios of In this study, the energy of the first exited 21+
for 152-156DY even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between E/ I as a function of I ( E-GOS), the ratio 〖E(J〗_1^+)/〖E(2〗_1^+) and the ratio r (I+2/I) as a function of spin (I) are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they the isotopes 152-154DY possess vibration U(5) properties and isotope 156DY possess gamma-soft O(6) properties.
The interacting boson model IBM-1,BM and IVBM has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 10 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained

Design and Implementation of an Electronic System of Salaries: (Nineveh Investment Commission as a Model)

Mohamed Qusay Alchalabi; Mafaz Mohsin Alanezi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129618.1146

Electronic systems are considered one of the most important pillars in the development of the work of any institution, especially the systems related to the administrative and financial aspects.
In this research, an electronic system for salaries for the Nineveh Investment Commission (NIC) was designed and implemented model using the language (C#), A central database was built using a Database Management System (SQL), This system was based on a local wireless network to share work by adopting (Client/Server) model to connect the computers, the proposed system includes very important features such as the open system data that enables the user to add and amend the percentages of the basic and secondary salary components, automatic calculation of the salary by specifying the employee service specifications and the certificate obtained, fixed and variable allocations and deductions, calculating all leave, Determining annual bonuses and promotions and organizing them to makes it easy for the user to know who is eligible, update and calculate them, in this system several levels of system users were built. A report was added for the employee's last salary certificate with detailed reports on salaries and the system was strengthened with the feature of backing up to prevent the database from Damage and referred to at any time.
The system was tested on real data to issuing salary reports for three months. As the system met with great desire and reliability in its use by conducting a questionnaire to measure the usability of the system on the specialists.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Genetic Algorithm to Solve Sliding Tile 8-Puzzle Problem

Ruqaya Zedan Shaban; Isra Natheer Alkallak; Mowada Mohamad Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58405

The research tackled the classical problem in artificial intelligence as 8-puzzle problem with genetic algorithm. The research present the fundamental of genetic algorithm with sliding tile 8-puzzle problem. Starting from current state for state space search into a goal state by depending on the tile’s move (tiles out of place) in the current and compare with the solution of the problem (goal), without blank’s move. population size chose by the summation of probabilities misplaced tile’s move (tiles out of place) in current state comparing with goal state. In this research, depended on the Crossover and mutation for ordered chromosomes method. The experimental in this research show that the algorithm is efficient. The source code is written in Matlab language.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

Effect of some physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria

Ahmed Talal Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161050

The study was conducted in order to create the best conditions (physical and chemical factors) that necessary for the growth of the Bacillus subtilis and its production of the Xylanase enzyme.
The results include isolation and diagnosis of (40) isolates of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis obtained from (30) soil samples and study the effect of some physical factors (period and temperature of incubation, pH of the medium, ventilation) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme. The results showed that best growth and its production of the enzyme was obtained when the incubation is (48) hours and the temperature (30) Co , pH of the medium (7) and incubation with shaking at (200) rpm where the optical density value of bacterial growth was reached (0.25) and activity of the enzyme product was (3.41) unit / ml. The effect of some chemical agents (carbon and nitrogen source for medium) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme and the results revealed that the carbon source (Xylan) gave the best growth and production of the enzyme compared with other of carbon sources (Starch, Cellulose, Xylose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose), where the optical density value of growth was (0.25) and the enzyme activity (3.41) unit / ml. Regarding the effect of the nitrogen source (organic and inorganic) in medium on growth and production of the enzyme, the results showed that the best bacterial growth and the production of an Xylanase enzyme occur when organic nitrogen sources (Peptone, Beef extract, Yeast extract, Casien) were supplemented in the medium compared with inorganic nitrogen sources (KNO3, (NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3). Peptone and Yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources for stimulation of bacterial growth and the production of the enzyme with optical density value of growth reached (0.29 , 0.286) and the enzyme activity was (3.92 , 3.9) unit / ml.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

An epidemiological study of the amoeba parasite The condition of the tissueEntameoba histolytican in the province of Nineveh

Duaa Alnafoli; Zuhair Rahemo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74137

The study has been conducted to reveal the presence of amboebiasis in Neinava governorate for two successive years, 2002 and 2003 respectively. It was found , after depending on the mean numbers of the infected persons ,that the high prevalence was in June in both years as the average of the infected persons (49..800) in 2002, (44.700) in 2003, while the lowest average of infection was in January(11.500) in 2002 and in May( 5.80) in 2003 .And after depending on the percentages of infections the highest infection rate was in December (46.2963) in 2002 and in April(62.6016) in 2003., while lowest infection rate was in April(4.6607) and December(3.8777) in 2002 and in March(2.2073) in 2003. It is concluded that the percentages of infection give more accurate status of infection.
As concern relation between the infection and the age groups, the infection rate was high in the (5-9) years age groups as it reacted (37.583 ) in 2002 and (34.625) in 2003, while the lowest infection rate was in (45) years and more (8.833) in 2002 and (6.917) in 2003.
Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed between the infection and the kind of sex . Also it appeared that the infection rate was high among those sent for general stool examination in July 2002 and October and December in 2003 and the rate was low in January 2002 and April 2003.

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