About Journal

Defining a summary about the Journal of Education and science         The University of Mosul is the formal owner of the Journal of Education and Science (EDUSJ). The articles are published quarterly in the EDUSJ. The first volume of the journal was published in 1979 including papers on both pure sciences and human sciences. Then in 1987, the journal started to publish papers in two independent volumes: one for pure sciences and the other one was for human sciences. The journal stopped being published from 1981 to 1987 during the first gulf war. The journal is well-known inside...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

The Effect of Nickel and Aluminum Concentration on Cyclic Oxidation Resistance of Mild Steel (AISI 1020)

Yahya A. Salman; Mahmood A. Hmood; edrees edaan ghadeer

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.166256

Experimental studies have been made to determine the oxidation be heavier of several coatings system on commercial mild steel alloy (AISI 1020). The oxidation kinetics of a single stage coating such as Aluminized and Nickel have been  under )1000°C( using a thermal cyclic oxidation.The structures were studied using optical microscope to identify a phases. Most coating use to enhance the formation of protective oxid scale, in this research, the results for Nickel coating  showed some reduction in resistance of )AISI 1020( alloy and It is found they  follow linear rate law, but Aluminized coating using a pack – cementation technique, exhibited the greatest resistance to oxidation, followed parabolic law (protective oxidation behavior). because it has a good ductility and its capability to form a protective oxid Layer )Al2O3(, such Alumina scale is known as thermally and electrically insulator and characterized with slow gowning rate.  

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Cefalexin monohydrate, Ceftriaxone Sodium and Cefotaxim Sodium in Pharmaceuticals Using N-Bromosuccinimde and Evans Blue Dye

mohamed thamer aghwan; Elham Sadullah Al-Talibi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 11-31
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125959.1009

An indirect sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of cephalexin monohydrate (CEM) ceftriaxone sodium (CFX) and cefotaxim sodium (CEF) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of (CEM), (CFX) and (CEF) in hydrochloric acid medium with known excess on N-Bromosuccinimde and subsequent determination of unreacted oxidant by decolorization of Evans blue dye (EB) and measure the absorbance of residual dye at 608 nm. Calibration curves of evans blue dye in the presence of drugs were rectilinear over the ranges 1.0-9.0 , 1.0-8.0 and 1.0-9.0 µg/ml with molar absorptivity 2.75×104 , 9.28×104 and 7.81×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and average recoveries 98.97, 102.08 and 100.08% for CEM, CFX and CEF respectively with RSD of less than 3.29%. The method was free from interference of many excipients and additives commonly found in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation resulted in a good agreement with certified value and standard addition procedure.

Effect of Seasonal Variation on Some Physio-Chemical Properties of Water of Tigris River in Mosul City.

Eman sami Al-Sarraj

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 32-45
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126256.1027

This study was conducted for some physical and chemical properties by knowing the impact of pollutants of Mosul city, for three selected stations of water along the Tigris River during the seasons of 2018 and 2019.
The following field and laboratory tests were carried out: Temperature of water, Turbidity, Electrical conductivity, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) as well as µmeasuring the concentration of ions for chlorides, orthophosphate, nitrate, and sulfate.
The results showed there was a clear fluctuation in all physical and chemical variables with different seasons and geographical location. Water temperature ranged between 14.2-25.5 °C, Turbidity 2.8-23.1 NTU, EC 266-335 µc/cm, PH 7.6-8.5, DO 6.6-9.6 mg/l, BOD5 1.4-2.9 mg/l, TH 130-338 mg/l, CL 9.8-29.9 mg/l, SO4 120-177 mg/l, NO3 0.09-166 mg/l, PO4 0.011-0.036 mg/l. Although, the increasing of all values towards the south of the city, these obtained values were within the limits for local and international standards.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Piperazine hexahydrate in Pharmaceutical Formulation with 3,5- Dinitrosalysilic Acid Reagent

Usra Ibrahim Al-Neaimy; USRA Ibrahim Al-Neaimy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126231.1023

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of piperazine hexa- hydrate was developed. The method was based on the proton transfer reaction with 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) in basic solution to form yellow product showing a maximum absorbance at 410 nm with molar absorptivity of 8350 l/mol.cm . The method is obeyed Beer’s law over the concentration range 0.5-20 µg/ml. The average recovery % of the method is 99.12% and RSD % of the method is less than 2%.
The method was applied for the determination of piperazine hexahydrate in pharmaceutical formulation as elixir and the results were in good agreement with the standard addition method .- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Effect of Some Biochemical Parameters as Antioxidants in Placenta of infected Pregnant Weman with Toxoplasmosis

muna ismail Ibraheem; Layla Abdullah Mustafa; Ahmed yahya Ismeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126095.1037

. Reregulation of biochemical profile of host as a result of host cells-pathogen interaction may involve in pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis disease. The biochemical parameters in the placenta of Toxoplasma-infected pregnant women and non-infected pregnant women (control group) were investigated The criteria taken into consideration are: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) , Peroxidase (Px) , Glutathione- S- transferase (GST) , Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , Aryl esterase (AE) , Acetylcholine esterase (AchE) , Vitamin A,C and E As well as placental electrolytes including: Sodium (Na+) , Potassium (K+) , Chloride (Cl-) , Calcium (Ca++) , Selenium (Se) , Cupper (Cu) , Zinc (Zn) , Iron (Fe) , Magnesium (Mg) and Manganese (Mn). The results showed: a non-significant increase in the activity of SOD, GST, LDH and AchE during 6-9 months, and activity of AE during 1-3 months, were determined whereas the activity of Px was decreased in all periods of pregnancyA non- significant increase in the level of vitamin E and non-significant decrease in levels of vitamin A and C during pregnancy periods in placentae of infected pregnant Were observed. . A significant increase (p≤0.01) in levels of Na+ and K+ during 1-3 months and Ca++ during 3-6 months, whereas the level of Cl- decreased during pregnancy periods. A significant increase (p≤0.01) in levels of Seand Mg during 6-9 months and a non- significant increase in level of Cu during 1-3 months and 6-9 months, whereas the level of Zn, Fe and Mn significantly decreased in all periods of Pregnancy in placenta infected women.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Aminophenol Isomers Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 4-Aminoantipyrine

Reem Abed Ahmed Al-Luhaiby; Mohammed Alenizzi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 68-84
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126543.1041

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of aminophenol isomers (o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol). The method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of these compounds with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of cupper sulphate as oxidizing agent in alkaine medium forming a reddish brown colour. The products show maximum absorption at 440 nm, 480 nm and 445 nm for o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol respectively. The molar absorptivities are 8.632×103 ,9.33×103 and 9.1449×103 l.mol-1.cm-1 for concentrations obeyed Beer’s law in the range 1-20, 1-24 and 1-7 μg.ml-1 for the above compounds respectively. The average recovery was ranged between 98.38% and 101.01% with relative standard deviation < 1.6 for all the studied compounds. The 4-AAP products were formed in the ratio of 1:2 aminophenol isomers : 4-AAP. The stability constant of the products was 7.4 ×108, 3.27×108 and 9.94×107 l2.mol-2 for o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol products respectively indicating the good stability of these products.

Modify the rheological properties of Daura asphalt by thermoplastic polyurethane using the microwave technique

Salam jajo Karash; Khalid Ahmed Owaid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 85-101
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126651.1047

There is a growing need to produce asphalt materials with high economic feasibility, that is the production of asphalt materials with rheological properties that differ from the base asphalt (unmodified asphalt), can be used in many fields such as the production of paving asphalt, where it is not appropriate to use ordinary asphalt.
This study included the modification of the rheological properties of Daura asphalt by catalytic chemical treatment with thermoplastic polyurethane (Used in the interior parts of cars) using a microwave oven at a power of (360) watts and at different periods of time. As well as treate asphalt samples with the thermoplastic polyurethane in the presence of sulfur.
The modified asphalt samples were studied in terms of ductility, penetration, softening point and penetration Index.

A sample with good rheological specification was selected (As7) that are conform with the specifications of Iraqi Roads and Bridges Authority, The selected sample were studied in terms of conducting Marshall tests and comparing them with the original sample in order to demonstrate the possibility of using the modified sample as an paving asphalt. The obtained results showed good specifications in terms of crawl and stability values.
An aging test was also conducted on the sample (As7) of the good rheological specifications.

The rheological properties of asphalt modified by commercial adhesive (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) and air blowing process

saad salih alzbaidy; Ammar A. Hamdoon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 102-118
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126673.1048

In this study, we modify the rheolgical prioperties of asphaltic materials by addative and air blowing. For this process, asphaltic materials have been oxidized by air blowing in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst for this process . Air blowing was conducted in different condtions of temperature and times using 0.5%(by weight) from catalyst, after determining the optimal conditions for air blowing, we changged the percentage of catalyst to get the optimal perecentage which can be using in modified process, then the asphalt was treated with the commercial adhesive (EVA) in two phaths:
The first path was included addtion of different percentages from commercial adhesive under the optimal condition from air blowing and perecentage of alaminum chloride.
The second path was included dissolved the commercial adhesive in the toluene and then the modified process was conducted at same conditions in the first path, ( toluene was added to the commercial adhesive by ratio (1:6) (weight of commercial adhesive: ml of toluene).
The results showe rheological properties that are compeletly differentj from the original asphaltic materials . The study was gave modified asphaltic materials that can be using in different fields, some samples can be using in paving as in samples
(AS19, AS24, AS25) and other as mastic or as flattening as in samples (AS15, AS16, AS17, AS21, AS22). The usage of asphalitic materials in various fields depends on the measurments of different properties such as (ductility, penetration, softining point ,asphaltens percentage, penetration index ,aging test, marshall test).

A study of essential components of three types of Bituminous Materials in Mishraq sulfur Mine

Motea Al jbouri; Hala Saad Jasim; thaer abed halo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 119-129
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126679.1050

.The chemical constituentis of three types of bituminous materials found in different conditions in Mishraq sulfur Mine was studied. The FTIR spectroscopy showed reduce in the length of hydrocarbon‏ chains from the intensity of paraffinic bands in bitumenous materials of Frasch sulfur Mine (BM) compare with natural bituminous materials (NB) and Bituminous materials which extracted in-depth about 200 m without exposing to Frasch process condition (BB). The percentage of asphaltene in (MB) which increases dramatically is found 63.64% compared with (BB) and (NB) which 37.37% and 14.28% respectively and a similar decrease in percentage petrolene (maltene) . A percentage of n-hexane fraction by silica gel chromatography of petrolene (MB) is 18.49% compared with (BB and N.B) are 25.06 % and 47.05 % respectively while the cyclohexane fractions of petrolene MB are four-time of N.B and three-time of B.B .
From all results, we conclude that a reaction has occurred between sulfur and bitumenous materials especially hydrocarbon chains of Aromatics and naphthenic rings in sulfur well during Frasch process which leads to an increase in asphaltene percentage and decrease of petrolene.

Detection of MTHFR (A1298C) Gene Polymorphism in Women Suffer from Different Types of Abortion in Mosul City

Owayes Muaffaq Alhassani; Zahra Jasim Ramadan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 130-141
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126923.1064

Genetic basis of recurrent abortion is poorly understood, Single gene mutations, polygenic, and cytogenetic factors are all found to show association with recurrent abortion. The analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes with regulatory role in crucial metabolic pathways (e.g. methylene tetra hydrofolate reductase), clotting factors (Factor V leiden and prothrombin) and hormones and hormone receptors (progesterone receptor). this study included (85) pregnant women who suffer from problems during pregnancy and the age range between (25-35) years. The samples divided to four groups ,the first of this group include pregnant women who suffer from recurrent spontaneous abortion , the second group include pregnant women with missed abortion , the third group include pregnant women with recurrent spontaneous abortion and positive TORCH examination and the fourth group was considered a control group.
The result of the study showed a relationship between cases of pregnancy disorder and genetic mutations of MTHFR gene at the (A1298C) site, the result of the study for a group of women with RSA showed that the distribution of the mutant genotype CC was the highest 40% and the repetitive alleles for this group was 57.5% for mutant allele C and 42.5% for normal allele A.
While the group of missed abortion showed that that the distribution of the mutant genotype CC was the highest 40% and the repetitive alleles for this group was 52.5% for mutant allele C and 47.5% for normal allele A.

Preparation and identification of some new thiazolidine -4-one compounds from Schiff base derivatives

Abdullah Dhyaa Al-khyaat; neam hazim saleem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 142-156
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126881.1061

In this Study the two compounds ( 1 , 2 ) ( 5-styryl - 1,3,4- oxadiazol - 2-amine and 5-styryl - 1,3,4- thiadiazol - 2-amine ) were prepared by the reaction between ( cinammic acid ) and with of all semicarbazide , thiosemicarbazide in the middle of concentrated sulfuric acid , Then schiff bases ( 3 - 10 ) have been Prepared via by the condensation of compound ( 1 , 2 ) and the benzaldehyde dervatives ( 4-chlorobenzaldehyde , 2-chloro benzaldehyde , 4-nitro benzaldehyde , 2,4-dimethoxy benzaldehyde , 4-dimethylamino benzaldehyde ) . Finally , the new compounds ( thiazolidin-4-one ) ( 11 - 18 ) Five heterocyclic rings were prepared by the reaction of (thioglycholic acid) with Schiff bases . The synthesized compounds are identified by physical such as ( melting point , color change ) and spectral method such as ( IR , 1H - NMR ) .

Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Leaves for Some Cultivars of Pyrus malus L. and Pyrus communis L. Cultivated in North of Iraq and Identification by Using HPLC and Spectral Characters

Muna Omar Shehab; Amer Al-Maathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 157-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127061.1068

The present work identified (8) cultivars belonging to the species Pyrus malus L. that included ("EarlyGold", "GrannySmith", "Royal Cala", "Red Delicious", "Golden Delicious", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh" and Cox") as well as (6) Cultivars of the species Pyrus communis L. namely ("Coneference", Decana", "Bonica", "Alkhatuni","Alothmani" and "William) by using spectral and chemical characteristics. The spectral study showed that different max appeared among all the cultivars of the species, and the result of chemical study identified (7) phenolic compounds in alcoholic extracts of leaves by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) including (Apigenin, Kaempferol, Catichen, Rutin, Luteolin, Quercetin and Coumarin) using (7) standard compounds for comparison among the cultivars. The compounds Apigenin, Kaempferol, Catichen, Leuteolin and Quercetin found in all cultivars of the species Pyrus communis L. while Rutine, Leuteolin, Quercetin and Coumarin found in all cultivars of the species Pyrus malus L. but Kaempferol compound found only in "Early Gold", "Royal Cala" and "Honey Crisp". The cultivar "EarlyGold" showed that lowest concentration of the compound Rutin (1.13) g/g and highest concentration of the compound Quercetin (685.96) g/g.
The spectral and chemical characters showed a good taxonomic value in identification and separation the cultivars of the two species.

Comparative Anatomical Study for the Cultivars of Morus L. Species cultivated in North of Iraq

Raad Hammad Al-Badrany; Aamer Mohsen Al-Mathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 178-195
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127117.1075

The current study is a comparative anatomical study of cultivars species belonging to the genus Moras L. which are cultivated in north of Iraq Namely Morus alba L. ("Beautiful Day", "Big White", "Rease", "Greece", "Pearl", "Border Sweet", "Pendula"); Morus latifolia Poir ("Kokuse Korean"); Morus rubra L. ("Amarah"); Morus nigra ("Shami"); Morus macroura Miq ("King White"); "Dwarf" and Morus hybrid ("Tice", "Wellington").
The anatomical study included (blade leaf, midrib and venation system) in addition to non-living components (crystals) in the mesophyll of the blade leaf. The result of the anatomical characteristics of (blade thickness, cuticle, epidermis cell, thickness and layers of palisade and spongy tissue, thickness and shape of arc vascular curve, number and dimension of ressles in the midrib and the shape of idioblast in cystolith). In addition to the venation system of the leaf which found the Brochidodromous type in all cultivars excepted "BigWhite" and "Pendula" cultivars of species Morus alba and "KokusoKorean" cultivars of species Morus latifolia founded from Craspedromous type.
The characteristic showed have importance taxonomic value in the separation and identification between the cultivars of the species studied belong to the genus Morus L.

Investigate Oblique Incident Alpha Particle Tracks on CR-39 Detector

Yasser Taha Khlile; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 196-210
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127268.1081

In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and Track-Test data for track profile.
In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and

Study of Some Biochemical Parameters and Fatty Acids Composition in Blood Serum of Men with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Mohamed A. H. Jasim; Luma abdalmunim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 211-217
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.166250

The current study includes a comparison of a number of biochemical variables   and the percentage of fatty acids in the blood of patients with Laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer who were diagnosed with the disease, as (25) samples were chosen for patients in the Oncology and Atomic Medicine Hospital in the city of Mosul from various age groups, in addition to (25) samples of healthy people. They did not suffer from any disease and in the same age groups as a control group. Where a number of biochemical variables and the percentage of fatty acids were measured using different techniques and the results of this study showed the presence of many significant differences for the studied variables, which indicates the existence of a significant effect of the studied disease condition on these variables.

Synthesis and Study of Some fused Substituted 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-Triazoles from 4-Chloro- phenoxy acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid

Mudhar A. Othman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 218-226
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.166251

In this work the synthesis of some substituted 1,2,4-triazoles and five ring system's reported. 2-(4-Chlorophenoxy) acetic acid (S1) was synthesis from corresponding substituted phenol by its reaction with chloroacetic acid in sodium hydroxide solution, the acids  (Q1 and S1) esterified with methanol and sulfuric acid to give esters (Q2 and S2) which converted to acid hydrazides (Q3 and S3) by their reaction with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol.
      The acid hydrazides (Q3 and S3) were treated with carbon disulfide in potassium hydroxide solution to give potassium salts (Q4 and S4) the  formed salts were treated with hydrazine hydrate to give substituted          4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles (Q5 and S5).
         4-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (Q5 and S5) were converted to (Q6 and S6),      (Q9 and S9) and (Q10 and S10) by treating with CS2 in  pyridine, urea and chloroacetic acid. While reaction of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole (Q5 and S5) with phenyl isothiocyanate gave thiosemicarbazide derivatives (Q7 and S7) that converted to N-phenyl substituted 1,2,4-triazole (Q8 and S8).
     The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral data.

Time decay of pulse current in capillary glow discharge

Muayad Abdullah Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 227-236
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126339.1032

A high voltage pulse generator was development and implemented. It generates a sequence spike pulses with a varying pulse height from 0 to 5 kV; and changes the pulse width in ms range. This generator tested and used to study the pulse glow discharge in argon by using the capillary tube under pressure 0.3 to 0.5 torr. This study was to establish the nature of discharge relaxation (plasma relaxation) when a high voltage pulse causes a breakdown in the gas (coverts to conducting case). It is of great importance to answer the following question. The current can decay when the voltage pulse is switched off was obtained. The electronic switching is a successful tool which can be used for generating high voltage pulses with flexibility adjustable peak height voltage pulse, pulse duration and pulse width is presented Interesting results concerning because plasma is a function of time, linearity of time decay vs. plasma. This linearity is to seem independent on gas pressure or pulse width. The slope the current decay line is very much dependent upon the initial high voltage pulse. The condition for transition from pulse to continue like DC glow discharge condition is satisfied.

Study Boundary Problem with Integral condition for Fractional Differential Equations

Nawal Aziz Abdulkader; Nadia Adnan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 237-245
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126471.1038

In last many years ago there was a great interest in studying the existence of positive solutions for fractional differential equations. Many authors have considered the existence of positive solutions of non-linear differential equations of non-integer order with integral boundary value conditions using fixed point theorems.
G.wang etal(2012)in vest gated the following fractional differential equation
〖^c〗D^α W(t)+f(t,W(t))=0,0 λ is a positive number (0 < λ < 2),〖^C〗D^αis the standard Caputo fractional derivative obtained his results by means of Guo-krosnosel'skii theorem in a cone also A.Cabada etat (2013) established the following non-linear fractional differential equation with integral boundary value conditions
D^α W(t)+f(t,W(t))=0 ,00 ,λ≠α ,〗 D^αis Riemann –Liovuville standard fractional derivative and f is a continuous function the results was based on Guo-krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem in a cone .
This paper we investigate the existence results of a positive solution for integral boundary value conditions of the following system of equations:
〖^c〗D^β h(t)+k(t,h(t))=0 ,t∈(0,1)
h(0)=h^' (0)=h^''' (0)=0 ,h(1)=δ∫_0^1▒h(n)dn
where 3< β≤4 ,δ is a positive number , δ≠3 ,〖^C〗D^β denotes Caputo standard derivative and k is a continuous function.Our work based on Banach's and Schauder's theorem.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Via Decolorization of Eriochrom Black-T With N-Bromosuccinimide

Theiaa Al-Sabha; Zahraa Jameel Al-Gubouri

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 246-256
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126846.1060

A simple, precise and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of Paracetamol in its pure form and pharmaceutical formulations in the aqueous medium. The method is based on the oxidation of the Paracetamol with an excess of N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) in alkaline medium and the residual oxidizing agent bleaches the purple-colored Eriochrom black-T (EBT) to colorless species which is measured at 516 nm at room temperature. Calibration graph is linear over 0.5-9 µg mL-1 and molar absorptivity is 3.7×104 L.mol-1.cm-1. The detection and quantification limits were 0.068 and 0.229 µgmL-1 respectively. The accuracy (Average recovery %) is 98.57, and Precision (RSD) is ≤ 1.5. No interference effect has been observed from the excipients that exist in drug formulations. The method has been applied successfully in the determination of the Paracetamol in its commercial formulations (injection, syrup, and tablet), and compared favorably with other spectrophotometric methods used different reagents. The reaction mechanism for the oxidation of Paracetamol and EBT was postulated.

Incidence and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from urinary tract infection patients in Zakho emergency hospital / Iraq

Reem F Polse; Sozan M Qarani; Mahde Saleh Assafi; Nisreen Sabaly; Fawaz Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 257-268
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126827.1056

Uropathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered the most important causes of urinary tract infection, and recently the antibiotic resistance of this pathogen has increased dramatically. The study aims at investigating the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogenic K. pneumoniae among different ages of groups at both genders. 1737 urine specimens were collected from individuals admitted to Zakho emergency hospital from January 2016 until December 2018. K. pneumoniae was identified based on Gram stain, colony characteristics and biochemical tests, and then it was tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Out of all samples, 1076 (61.9%) showed significant bacterial yield. The UTIs among females (64.3%) were statistically higher than males (46.5%) (P<0.001). The age group of 20-29 years was highly susceptible to UTIs (43%). Among the total UTIs, K. pneumoniae represented 16.2%. K. pneumoniae in males (23.4%)was significantly higher than females (15.4%) (P=0.03).The age group 40-49 years (32.2%) was the highest group that at risk for K. pneumoniae infection. K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and was highly resistant against cephalothin (90.8%). A high prevalence of UTIs were observed among the age group of 20-29 years and the females had more risk of having UTIs. The males were more susceptible to K. pneumoniae with higher prevalence in the age group of 40-49 years. K. pneumoniae showed high sensitivity toward imipenem and high resistance to cephalothin. More awareness is required in all healthcare sectors for regular surveillance of the use of antimicrobial agents to reduce the resistance rates and to eradicate the pathogens.

A Study of the chemical nature of sulfur-containing rocks and Frasch sulfur in the Al-Mishraq Sulfur field

Mote&amp;#039;a Obaid Al jbouri; Hala Saad Jasim; thaer abed halo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126714.1051

The economic evaluation of the exploration sulfur well depends mainly on the elemental sulfur content and its association other factors, so a sample of sulfur rocks extracted by a special excavator for one of the exploratory wells was studied and in the form of a bore hole rock. The elemental sulfur ratio reached 12.8% an important ratio in estimating the explored sulfur reserves and through XRD, the predominant crystalline composition is calcite mineral with hexagonal crystalline form and with a lesser percentage in orthorhombic crystal sulfur this supports one of the theories that explained the formation of sulfur.
Also, the mine Mishraq sulfur extracted by the underground melting method (known as the Frasch process) was studied chemically, and the elemental sulfur ratio reached 98.58% and the bituminous material 1.157%. Also, the SEM scanning electron microscope showed the presence of nanotubes of size (20-44 nm) belonging to the carb-sulfur compounds in the SEM, which are observed for the first time in this form.

The rheological modification of the Daura asphalt in polycarbonate using the microwave technique

Salam jajo Karash; Khalid AL-Memary

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126779.1054

This study has included a modulation of the rheological properties of asphalt by a catalyst chemical treatment with polycarbonate, and the microwave technique was used at a power of (360) watt at time intervals. Furthermore, the modulation and treatment were done in the presence of sulfur and polycarbonate. The formed rheological properties of the new asphalt samples were studied which include (permeability, softening point, ductility and penetration index). Those asphalt samples of the new rheological properties could be used in paving field and some other samples could be used as anti-moisture materials.
The best asphalt samples with new rheological properties and those conformable with the properties of roads authority and Iraqi bridges were tested as a tiled asphalt since they were studied in terms of conducting Marshall tests and comparing them with the original sample in order to show the possibility of using the modified samples in the tiling and the obtained results were excellent in terms of stable creeping values. In addition the aging test was applied on the samples that contain good rheological properties.
Moreover, the modified asphalt has shown higher dissociation values in comparison with the original asphalt, so the modified asphalt has more resistant to high temperature and acid rains and shows an important characteristic of the quality of the asphalt that enables the modified asphalt to stick more closely to the aggregate, which gives higher resistance and greater operating age life to the streets.

The use of lignin in the rheological modification of Dura asphalt

saad salih alzbaidy; Ammar Al-Khazraji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126782.1055

This study was included treatment of the Dura asphalt with lignin as a natural polymeric additive and air blowing with three paths.
The first path: the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified by adding the lignin to the asphalt and in various proportions in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst for this process at the optimum conditions for the catalytic oxidation process that was identified which is 150 centigrade and a time of 60 min.
The second path : the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified using the use of lignin as an additive and with the presence of 1% sulfur(by weight)at a time of 60 minutes and a temperature of 180 ° C which is the optimal conditions for the non-catalytic air blowing process that was identified.
As for the third track, the lignin was treated with asphalt without the use of anhydrous aluminum chloride under optimal conditions for the non-catalytic process.
The study showed asphalt with completely different rheological properties compared to the original asphalt, which represents the primary goal behind the continuous quest for altering the rheological specifications of the original asphalt in a way that is compatible with the nature of use in different and specific fields, some samples can be using in paving as in samples(,AS19,AS20 ,AS50).As well as a moisture inhibitor and flattening as in samples(AS22,AS40,AS41 ,AS51, AS52).The use of asphalt in various fields is determined depending on the measurements made, ductility ,softening point,penetration,asphaltenes percentage,penetration index,aging test,marshall test .

Synthesis and Identification of Some Complexes of 4-[N-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene ) imino] Antipyrinyl with Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2) Ligands and Evaluation of Their Bacteria Activities

abdallah fathi fathi; amira alshaheen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126837.1058

This work involves,the preparation, new ligands 4-[N- (2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene) imino] antipyrinyl Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2),. from these ligands ,ten Complexes have been synthesized with metal ions Co(II) ,Ni(II) Cu(II) Zn (II) and Cd(II) in molar ratio (1:1) Metal: Ligand and these complexes have been characterized on the basis of physiochemical,investigations(1HNMR),(IR) electronicspectroscopy(U.V-Vis), molar,conductance, magnetic moment measurement, Thermal analysis (TGA), ,elemental analysis, Powder X-ray diffraction and spectral studies. Infrared data suggest that the ligands( L1) and( L2) behave as tetradentate ligands and coordinated through (N, N, O, O) as adonor,atoms sequence towards the metal ions, and they give an square planer and tetrahedral complexes, finally some of these,prepared complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activities against two classes of human pathogenic; bacteria Gram positive eg: Staphylococcus.aureus, and Gram negativebacteria including,Pseudomonas,aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoni and.Escherichiacoli, The performance results explain that the metal complexes have greater action more essential than the free ligand

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiamine hydrochloride Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction Using 4-Aminoantipyrine

Reem Abed Ahmed Al-Luhaiby; Mohammed Alenizzi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126895.1062

A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride by oxidative coupling reaction of thiamine with the reagent 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of copper sulphate as oxidizing agent in alkaine medium forming a reddish brown colour. The product show maximum absorption at 335 nm. The molar absorptivitiy is 26410.59 l/mol.cm for concentrations obeyed Beer’s law in the range 0.2-18 μg.ml-1. The recovery was 100.93 % with relative standard deviation < 2.0 % for thiamine hydrochloride.Thiamine and reagent 4-AAP product was formed in the ratio of 1:1. The stability constant of the product was 3.39×106 l.mol-1 for thiamine hydrochloride indicating the good stability of this product. The optimum conditions for full colour development are described and the proposed method was applied successfully for determination of thiamine in the pharmaceutical preparation (Neurorubine). The common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical do not interfere in the proposed method.

Calculation Values of potential Stickiness (S*) and Apparent Activation Energy (AAE) from Adsorption of Some Aromatic Carboxylic Acids on the Surface of a New Adsorbent Substance

Khaleel Ibrahim Alniemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126168.1021

Abstract:
This study includes calculation of the potential stickiness (S*) and apparent activation energy (AAE) by the adsorption process of some aromatic carboxylic acids using sand (clay) as a new adsorbent material. This clay was collected from dust storms coming to the city of Mosul. The obtained results showed that physical adsorption which is achieved by applying the modified Arrhenius equation through the values of (S *) and (AAE) which have low values and bear a negative charge is preferable Adsorption process occurs in two-step mechanism. The effect of the concentration of the acidic solution, temperature and the substituted groups SO3, NO2, OH, NH2 on the aromatic ring) was studied to clarify the nature of the association between organic carboxylic acid anions and inorganic metal oxides to form a complex surface model. The study concluded that the values of (S *) for all acids were less than one and they were more than the value of zero. Also, the values of (AAE) gave an indication that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The presence of water molecules and (H+) ions in solution is very important to change the nature of the clay surface.

Comparative Morphological Study of Pollen Grains and Seeds of Cultivars from the Species Pyrus malus L. and Pyrus communis L. Cultivated in Northern of Iraq

Muna Omar Shehab; Amer Mohsen Al-Ma&#039;thidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127063.1069

The present research includes a comparative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds of (8) cultivars belonging the species Pyrus malus L. namely ("EarlyGold", "GrannySmith", "Royal Cala", "Red Delicious", "Golden Delicious", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh", Cox") and (6) Cultivars belonge to the species Pyrus communis L. namely ("Coneference", Decana", "Bonica", "Alkhatuni","Alothmani", "William) which cultivated in northern of Iraq. Were examined by light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of pollen grains showed that pattern tricolporate and the shape in polar view triangular or spherical -triangular or tetrangular but in equatorial view spherical or ovate and surface configuration was striate in all cultivars of the species. The morphological characters of seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension of width and Length, Number of seeds in fruit), in addition to indumentum were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the two species. In addition to its surface configuration, it was Striate in "EarlyGold", "RoyalCala", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh" and "Cox" and Striate papillae in GrannySmith, while the "Coneference", "Decana" and "Bonica, Alkhatuni, and Alothmani had a surface configuration pitted, and Irregular Reticular in Red Delicious and Reticulate papillae in cultivar William, while Golden Deliciou was unique as having an alveolate surface, The quantitative and qualitative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the species.

Investigating the Numerical solution of the BoltzmannTransport Equation in silicon in Momentum Space Using Computational Systems of Different Dimensions

Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien; Mahmood Majed Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126828.1057

Abstract
The Boltzmann transport equation is the basic equation for solving the transport of charge carrier (electrons, holes) problems in semiconductor devices. The distribution function has been obtained from the solution of this equation. The distribution function is important in calculating semiconductor properties, which can be used to calculate the average electron energy, the charge carrier concentration, and other properties. In this work the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation in silicon was solved using analytical / numerical methods in steady state case in momentum space. The analytical solution is requires expressing the distribution function using Legendre polynomials expansion the first two terms of the expansion, by taking into account the effect of both acoustic elastic scattering and nonelastic scattering in addition to the effect of non-parabolic energy band structure. In order to obtain the numerical solution of Boltzmann transport equation the finite difference method is used. The differential equation is transformed to linear difference equation which can represented by matrices. Numerical systems with different dimensions are designed to calculate the distribution function with the least possible time to maintain the accuracy of the solution for different applied electric field which represent the low and high field regions at temperatures T= (77, 300) K. The obtained results showed good agreement with published data that used other calculation methods such as the Monte Carlo simulation method for all the system used in this work.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

Preparation of Some Benzothiazole Polymers and Study Their Electrical Conductivity Properties

Asaad Faisal Khattab; Haitham Ahmed Ayoob; Laith Mohammed Altaan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126945.1066

As the conjugated polymers are doped with some electron donor or acceptor dopants, their electrical conductivity increased thoroughly to about 10-6 Ω-1.cm-1. The doping of the polymers may give an n or p semiconductor characteristic according to the types of the dopants that are used. Within the frame of this work, four types of conjugated polymers with benzothiazole as a major moiety in their backbone have been prepared. The prepared monomers and polymers have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Elemental analysis of the polymers (CHN) demonstrates their chemical structure while the DSC thermal analysis illustrates its Tg. The polymers were doped with two types of dopants, iodine and sodium iodide. The electrical conductivity of the doped polymers was measured with three probe cell. The results show increasing in the electrical conductivity with dopant concentration to some levels. The activation energy of the electrical conductivity process was also studied by measuring the electrical conductivity in different temperature. According to the magnitude of the activation energy, we can conclude that the chain flexibility is the dominate factor that influenced on electrical conductivity. Hall Effect and hot probe measurements reveal that the polymer can be considered as n or p type according to the type of the doping. It was concluded that the doping with iodine produced an n-type while the doping with sodium iodide produced the p- type.

A Comparative Morphological Study of the Genus Juniperus L. ( Cupressaceae) in North of Iraq

Dr.Haees Sayel Al Jowary; Aseel Aamer Aanad Al-Sharefy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127106.1073

Abstract
A new species of juniper is Juniperus macrocarpa, permissions not previously registered in Flora of Iraq that were composed ( Guest researchers and Ali al-Rawi,1966) so only two species of Juniperus oxycedrus and Juniperus polycarpos were registered at the time. The research included a classification of the species Juniperus which belong to the Cupressaceae family that grown a wild plants in north of Iraq, using the morphological characteristics of (3) species of veins mentioned in (7) sites distributed in provinces of ( FNI,MAM and MSU )Nineveh, Dohuk and Sulaymaniyah.
The study includes the characteristics of stems, branches, bark, needle leaves, male and female cones, seeds and flower buds, as well as examining the overcoming of appearance between species and individuals of the same species in the studied sites, and sometimes the species have clear variations among them and the individuals of the same species did not show marked changes, and it became clear that the studied morphological characteristics have taxonomic. Significant in the diagnosis and isolation of species from each other, and the study was reinforced with photographs, shapes and illustrations, as well as the study showed that sexual characteristics (male and female cones and flower buds) are more proven compared to the rest of the characters, and It has a significant and taxonomic role in diagnosing the studied species into groups, so the needle leaves showed clear variations, which makes them the task of classifying them either in their quantitative or qualitative characteristics.

A Taxonomic Study of Macro-and Micro Morphological Features of Fruits and Seeds Cultivars of the Species Belonging to the Genus Morus L. (Moraceae) Cultivated in the North of Iraq

Raad Hammad Al-Badrany; Aamer Mohsen Al-Mathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127107.1074

The present work deal with the morphological characters of the fruits and seed of the cultivars belonging to the species Morus alba L. Namely ("Beautiful Day", "Big White", "Rease", "Greece", "Pearl", "Border Sweet", "Pendula"); Morus latifolia Poir ("Kokuse Korean"); Morus rubra L. ("Amarah"); Morus nigra ("Shami"); Morus macroura Miq ("King White"); "Dwarf" and Morus hybrid ("Tice", "Wellington") Which cultirated in North of Iraq.
The study includes the characters of the fruits (Shape, Color, Dimension, Size, Number of the fruitlet in the fruit) and the characters of the seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension, Number of the seeds in the fruit, and surface ornamentation).
The results of some morphological characteristic of the fruits and seeds examined by light microscope (L.M), in addition to the surface ornamentation of the seeds examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Showed five type of the surface ornamentation (Reticulate, Muricate, Foreate undulate, Polygonal, and Ruminate) for cultivars species studied, showed that importance value in the separation between the cultivars of the species studied belonging to the genus Morus L.

A Study of Optical Properties of Tetraborate Glasses Containing CaO, MgO & BaO

Aynur Bahaaldeen Baha. kamal; Manaf A.Hassan al-azzawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127127.1076

Glasses with compositions (100-x) % Na2B4O7–x % MO (X=10,20,30,40) where (M) is Ba, Mg and Ca, are prepared using conventional melt quenching method. X-rays diffractions are performed. The result of (XRD) confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The measured density increases with increasing content of BaO, MgO & CaO in glass network. The position and shifting rate of absorption edge, optical band energy (Eopt) and band tails energy (Eo) were investigated. The Eopt and Eo values of all glasses studied in this work were found to be comparable with the values corresponding to some semiconductors. The structure of the glasses was investigated by means of IR spectroscopy. It found from the experimental results of IR spectra that the groups (BO3)- and (B2O7)- are dominant the structure of these glasses. Also It is found that the shifting in band position is small with increasing of (Ba, Mg, Ca) oxide in the glass network.

Synthesis of Some Heterocyclic Compounds Derived From 2-Amino Benzothiazole

Zainab Muataz Mahmood; Ahmad Kh. Ahmad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127562.1087

In this thesis, Anmber of heterocylic compound with five and six memberd, Such as substituted imidazole, triazin and thiazolidine.
The N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-chloro acetamide compound(1) was prepared from the reaction of the compound (2-amino benzothiazole) with chloroacetyl chloride. The product(1) was reacted with thiourea and urea to prepare both (imidazole -2-thione (2) and imidazole -2-one(3)) , respectively. As did compound(1) with thiosemicarbazide and semicarbazide to prepared the two compounds (1,2,4-triazine -3-thione (4) and 1,2,4-triazine -3-one (5)) ,respectively. Also compound(1) with ammonium thiocyanate to prepare the compound thiazolidin -4-one (6). From the reaction of compound(1) with phenyl thiourea attended imidazole -2-thione(7).
Also from the reaction of (2-amino benzothiazole) with phthalic anhydride or malic anhydride attended compounds (8) and (9) ,respectively. And by reaction compound(8) or (9) with o-phenylene diamine attended compounds (10) and (11) ,respectively. The synthesized compounds are identified by physical (melting points, colour change) and spectral methods such as (IR, proton-NMR).

The Effect of Some Antioxidants Compounds on Enzymatic and Nonenzymic Browning of Quince Juice During Thermal Treatment

Aya I Rashan; Omar Al-abbasy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127190.1078

Abstract: Enzymatic browning by tyrosinase and nonenzymatic browning (Maillard reaction) are responsible for producing new compounds which contributes considerably to the undesirable of aroma, taste and colour in food. In this study, tyrosinase activity and browning intensity in quince juice were inhibited by treating them with antioxidant compounds vanillin, glutathione and melatonin as compared to the control. The maximum inhibition percentages of Tyrosinase were 83, 68.8 and 90.3 % and the maximum inhibitory effects of browning intensity were 13.9, 9.7 and 29.8% respectively.
For untreated quince juice which heated to 5 hours at 100 oC, the results showed increasing in A294, Browning intensity (A420) and reducing power, as well as decreasing in reducing sugar, free amino group, phenolic compounds contents and inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation. The decreasing of A294, browning intensity and increasing in reducing power were showed after treating with (10mM) vanillin and (8mM) glutathione compared to control. Conversely to glutathione, the addition of vanillin to quince juice revealed increasing in inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation, reducing sugar and phenolic contents and decreasing in free amino acid content compared to control. Inhibition Mode of tyrosinase by melatonin is non-competitive. The Km value remains constant (1.96mM), while Vmax reduced from 228.13 to 114.06 U.ml-1.min-1. Inhibition constant Ki value was 6.9 mM.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Salbutamol Sulphate and Mefenamic Acid Using Azur-A Dye in Presence of Oxidizing Agent N-bromosuccinimide

subhi Mohsin jarullah; Asmaa Hamza Abbas Al-Hashemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127113.1072

A simple, accurate and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of salbutamol sulphate and mefenamic acid in pure forms and in pharmaceutical preparations (capsule, syrup, tablet). This method based on the bromination of the drug with N-bromosuccinimide in acidic medium and the unreacted oxidizing agent react with constant amount of Azur-A dye solution due to bleach their colour and measured the absorbance of the residual colour dye at 606.5 nm.The molar absorptivity for salbutamol sulphate and mefenamic acid are 2.3 × 104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and 8.1× 103 L.mol-1.cm-1 respectively. Beer's Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 1.6 -12.8 µg/ml for salbutamol sulphate and1.6 -13.6 µg/ml for mefenamic acid. The limit of detection (LOD) were 0.0367µg/ml and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.1226 µg/ml for both drugs. In addition, the recovery levels of the drugs were in the range 100.56% and 100.74%. The method was created to be simple, cost-effective and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs.

Pathophysiological consequences of SARS CoV-2

Hadeel Mohammad Hameed; hiyam natheer maty; fanar ablahad isihak

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127225.1089

Abstract
Coronavirus outbreak occurred in late 2019 and called (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 which firstly emerged in Wuhan city/China. This virus mostly attacks the respiratory system and therefore is more likely to destroy lung tissue and cause pneumonia; although lung is the target tissue but many organs of COVID 19 patients affect by virus invasion and showed numerous Physiological consequences. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors for the virus attachment are distributed in human's tissues including “lungs, heart, kidneys, intestines, brain and testes” that are recognized as a possible targets of COVID-19.The vital functions of these organs may impaired with different levels as a result of viral infection and replication. Patient with type A especially those formerly have been identified with cardiovascular diseases in particular increased blood pressure, are more expected to develop acute COVID-19 symptoms. Clot producing disorders with SARS CoV-2 infected patients were observed firstly by researchers in China. Thus untreated patients revealed large arterial pulmonary clots can put permanent pressure on the heart, leading to cardiac attack. Anxiety about the coronavirus outbreak is extremely common. Therefore, some individual may showed a huge concern that can disturb their regular life. Stress and fear from infection can be devastating and cause powerful excitements in children and adults. Therefore this study aims to shed light on pathophysiological consequences and stressful conditions of COVID-19 in patients including many of boby organs and ABO system.

Histopathological changes that induced by Monsodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite on the eyes of white mice Mus musculus and the protective role of Grape seeds oil

Sanabel Al-Thanoon; ali ashgar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127648.1091

Current study tackled potency of MSG and NaNO2 to induce histopathological changes in eye texture of Swiss-mice and protective role of grape seed-oil against toxicity these substances may cause.
In this study, 36 adult mice divided into six groups with control. One group was dosed with MSG at 9g/kg; another was injected with NaNO2 at 110mg/kg for two months, groups with interference of two substances, and two groups with interference of grape seeds-oil with each substance.
Results showed emergence of histopathological lesions. In treatment with MSG, there was wide destruction and damage to photoreceptor cells and outer, inner nuclear layer, separation corneal stroma and gliosis in optic nerve. In treatment with NaNO2, damage was extensive in components of eye; it was noted the appearance of roseat pattern in outer, inner nuclear layer, necrosis of outer plexus layer and contraction of lens fibres. When treating with an interference of MSG and NaNO2, damage was observed to the surface epithelial tissue of cornea, stroma fibres, reduction in fibroblasts, necrosis in some cells of ciliary body, and in retina extensive damage was observed in its layers.
When treating by MSG with oil, increase in the inner plexus vasa, nerve fibres, and the inner nuclear layer was observed and slight damage to the outer pieces of the photoreceptors. When treating with NaNO2, oil, infiltration of inflammatory cells appeared in the ganglion cells, increased vasa, edema and hyperplasia in the epithelium of the lens.

Investigation of The Numerical Solution for One Dimensional Drift-Diffusion Model in Silicon in Steady State

Mumtaz Hussien; Rozana Noori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127055.1067

Abstract
The drift-diffusion model is considered as one of the most important models which is used to describe the characteristics of semiconductor devices and can be applied to wide range of applications started from micro up to nano scale devices after applying the suitable correction on it. The Poisson, continuity, and current equations are considered as the basic equations for semiconductor devices, these equations are partial differential equations, used in the drift diffusion model. These equations described the semiclassical electron and hole transport in semiconductor in the presence of uniformly applied electric field. In this paper a numerical method (finite difference method) has been used to find the solution of these equations depending on Gummel method and Scharfetter-Gummel scheme, the drift diffusion model is applied after many approximation and suitable boundary condition which has been considered for the pn diode in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium cases at room temperature, from this simulation model a MATLAB program has been prepared to obtained diode parameters as a function of distance at the junction region, these parameters are (conduction band, carrier concentration, electric field and charge density) two diode model has been tested with different doping concentration the first with N_A=N_D and the second with N_A>N_D also the diode characteristic in the forward biased is obtained.

Kinetic and inhibitory study of partially purified lipoxygenase from epilepsy patients serum

Nashwan Ibrahem Al-lehebe; Ahmed Al-Fayyad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127778.1093

Abstract
This research was included partially purification of lipoxygenase (LOX) from serum of patients with epilepsy using ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and ion-exchange chromatography with specific activity (0.751 U / mg) , (0.935 U/mg) and (2.60 U/mg) respectively . Optimum conditions for enzyme activity were determined. The best enzyme activity was showed at 7 minutes of incubation time , 3 minutes of reaction time, pH = 7, temperature 40Cº and finally substrate concentration (linoleic acid) was (1.2 mmol/L) . By applying Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk Equations, Michaelis-Menten constant (km) and Vmax values were found 0.3 (mM) and (0.9 U/ml) respectively. Also this study included the effect of some antiepileptic drugs such as valproic acid , carbamazepine and acetozolamide. Acetazolamide showed the highest inhibition of lipooxygenase activity(96.2٪) , valproic acid (95.6) and Carbamazapine (95.1٪). Inhibition type was studied and the result showed noncompetitive inhibition by using Lineweaver-Burke plot for all above drugs.

Employing Cloud Technologies in E-Learning Systems: University Students and Teachers’ Ability in Storing Information in “Cloud”: A “Google Classroom” Study

luqman Abdulrahman qader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127247.1080

E-learning today has a significant impact on learning, due to its ease of accessibility and the fact that it does not take into account geography, politics, or narrow economic interests. This significance gains a special status, especially when having doubts regarding the possibility of a final settlement of the pandemic Coved-19 in a short period. Education using digital technologies allows students to expand their access to knowledge resources and to special skills which support the curriculum, as well as carrying using important features such as continuous assessments that enable them to advance in the field of research and to develop their ideas, and perhaps provide more opportunities to extend their knowledge and stimulate critical thinking that is formed by allowing students to gain knowledge and reach conclusions by themselves. With the spread of this huge number of smartphones, also of the availability of internet service at any time and place allows digital services to go beyond many boundaries to share information. “Cloud” computing technology provides optimal solutions for setting an effective infrastructure that allows researchers, teachers, and students to access services from anywhere and by using any kind of digital devices connected to the Internet to get valuable resources and services and to take advantage of the capabilities and functions provided by these modern environments. This contributes to providing the tools for supporting learning, teaching, and cooperative work. “Cloud” computing gives students and teachers a more convenient and effective learning experience.

Effect of Annona Muricata Extracts on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats Exposed to Induced Liver Tumor

Mohammed Ibrahim Al-naqshabandey; Luma abdalmunim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127597.1088

This research included a study of some Biochemical variables of male rats Wister with Induced liver Cancer and a study of the effect of extracts of three parts Annona Muricata, including seeds, core, and leaves to study its effects on the disease. The animals were divided into eight groups: I Control group, II treated with TAA, III treated with extract Core, IV treated with extract Seed, V treated with extract Leave, VI treated With TAA with extract Core, VII treated with TAA and extract Seed and, VIII TAA with extract Leave. In this study, the measurement kit was used to measure the Total Protein, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein. Manual Methods used to estimate Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, and Paraoxonase. The results showed a significant increase in the tumor-infected rats of Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine-transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the control group, while there was a significant decrease in rats which treated with TAA of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the control group. The results show a significant decrease in the levels in tumor-affected animals and treated with extract seed for each Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the group of rats affected and treated with the extract Core, and leaves, The results also showed a significant increase in the affected rats which treated with extract seeds for the level of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the group treated with Core, leaves.

Refactoring for software maintenance: A Review of the literature

Rasha Alsarraj; atica Altaie

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127426.1085

One of the techniques to increase the value of the software quality is refactoring - the set of activities for code enhancement through altering inner structure and not altering outer behavior of code. It is a technique to clean-up the source code that decreasing the opportunities of code faults. Refactoring can be defined as one of the most significant practices for maintaining the advanced software systems. It has been indicated by the empirical studies that refactoring has positive effect on maintainability and understandability of the software systems. This study introduces a literature review of 22 researches that study and summarize the influence of refactoring and their effect on the attributes of software quality specially maintainability. Through the review, the study sums the following points: (1) applying refactoring activities will increase the values of some attributes of quality like Understandability and maintainability. (2)There are several factors that affect reconstruction activities, including cohesion, coupling, hiding of information and encapsulation, (3) Refactoring helps to improve the source code without changing the behavior of the program, (4) refactoring activates can be applied many times to the source code.

Preparation and Studying of Zeolite with Catalytic Properties From Local Silica and Bauxite Ores

Ragheed Yousif Ghazal; Tamarah Abdulsalam Younus

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127990.1104

The research included a method for preparing zeolite by utilizing the components of clay mineral ores (silica and alumina). The two ores(Local Silicate and Bauxite) were studied through chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The results showed that they contained good quantities of these two substances, which were converted into sodium silicate and sodium aluminate, then the zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal method at (pH=11) in the presence of the structural directing agent (triethylamine) then converted to the formula (H-zeolite) to improve its acidic properties, And then a number of measurements have been done for the prepared zeolite, which is a thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) ,it showed that it contains amounts of moisture and crystallization water as well as its thermal stability at (700°C). As for the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), it showed its good crystallization rate and its possession of a crystalline cube system, and the measurement of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) showed that it had a high percentage of silicon and aluminum, this indicates a balanced and equal interaction between these two materials when preparing of zeolite. The measurement of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the high pore system and the fine particles that were around (18.17 nm), Finally the measurement of adsorption by The intention (BET) that explained the prepared zeolite have a high surface area (244.3766 m2/g).

Adopting Text Similarity Methods and Cloud Computing to Build a College Chatbot Model

Zaid Mundher; Wissam Khalf Khater; Laith Mohammed Ganeem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127244.1079

A chatbot is a computer program which is designed to interact with users and answer questions. Nowadays, chatbots are one of the most common systems that are used in many fields and by different companies to achieve different tasks. Cloud computing is gaining increasing interest. A myriad of fields and applications have been developed based on cloud computing.
In this paper, a college chatbot was developed and implemented to assist students to interact with their college and ask questions related to faculty, activities, exams, admission, amongst other tasks. Text similarity algorithms were adopted to achieve the proposed system. More specifically, cosine similarity and jaccard similarity algorithms were used to find the closest question in the dataset. Firebase real-time database, which is one of the Google cloud services, was used as a connector channel between users and the chatbot server.
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of cosine similarity and jaccard similarity methods, and to compare the results of both. In addition, real-time database was also evaluated as a chatbot connecter channel.

preparation of palladium Catalyst from bauxite ore and using for kerosene treatment

Wafa Saeed; Qaidar Salim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127951.1103

The research was aimed to used bauxite ore that has a high aluminum minerals which available in Al-Hussainiyat near al-Anbar district as a source of alumina which it used as a catalyst support after being loaded with palladium metal , The components of both bauxite ore and prepared catalyst were studied by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the prepared catalyst , After this the catalyst was used in the treatment of kerosene which is distilled at (150-260C0) under different conditions of the (temperature , reaction time and the ratio of catalyst) to know the optimal reaction conditions that determid by measuring the (FTIR) and chemical analysis. The optimal conditions: temperature was (250C0), reaction time was (2hours) and the catalyst ratio was (2%) .The catalyst appeard the ability to dehydrogenation reaction and reforming to form olefinic and aromatic compounds. The research also included the study of n-paraffins separated from kerosene samples that were treating in different temperatures (150,200,250C0 ) using (1HNMR).The results showed the ability of the catalyst towards catalytic cracking and converting n-paraffins to iso-paraffins

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

Genetic Algorithm to Solve Sliding Tile 8-Puzzle Problem

Ruqaya Zedan Shaban; Isra Natheer Alkallak; Mowada Mohamad Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58405

ABSTRACT
The research tackled the classical problem in artificial intelligence as 8-puzzle problem with genetic algorithm. The research present the fundamental of genetic algorithm with sliding tile 8-puzzle problem. Starting from current state for state space search into a goal state by depending on the tile’s move (tiles out of place) in the current and compare with the solution of the problem (goal), without blank’s move. population size chose by the summation of probabilities misplaced tile’s move (tiles out of place) in current state comparing with goal state. In this research, depended on the Crossover and mutation for ordered chromosomes method. The experimental in this research show that the algorithm is efficient. The source code is written in Matlab language.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

Abstract
The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfacetamide and Sulfamethaxazole in Aqueous Solution Using Tetracyanoethylene Reagent

Omar A. Al-Taee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 4, Pages 47-59
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.66952

Abstract
A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of sulfacetamide and sulfamethaxazole. The method is based on the reaction of these drugs in aqueous solution with tetracyanoethylene reagent in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce yellow colored species measured at 355 and 356 nm for sulfacetamide and sulfamethaxazole respectively. Beer's law obeyed over the concentration range1-30 and 1-25 µg ml-1 with molar absorpitivity of 10575 and 13146 L.mol-1.cm-1 and sandell index of 0.0240 and 0.0192 μg.cm-2 for the above drugs respectively. It was found that these products were formed in ratio of 1:1. The method was applied successfully to the assay of sulfacetamide and sulfamethaxazole in their pharmaceutical formulations and was agreed well with the certified values and with standard addition procedure.

Effect of some physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria

Ahmed Talal Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161050

The study was conducted in order to create the best conditions (physical and chemical factors) that necessary for the growth of the Bacillus subtilis and its production of the Xylanase enzyme.
The results include isolation and diagnosis of (40) isolates of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis obtained from (30) soil samples and study the effect of some physical factors (period and temperature of incubation, pH of the medium, ventilation) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme. The results showed that best growth and its production of the enzyme was obtained when the incubation is (48) hours and the temperature (30) Co , pH of the medium (7) and incubation with shaking at (200) rpm where the optical density value of bacterial growth was reached (0.25) and activity of the enzyme product was (3.41) unit / ml. The effect of some chemical agents (carbon and nitrogen source for medium) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme and the results revealed that the carbon source (Xylan) gave the best growth and production of the enzyme compared with other of carbon sources (Starch, Cellulose, Xylose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose), where the optical density value of growth was (0.25) and the enzyme activity (3.41) unit / ml. Regarding the effect of the nitrogen source (organic and inorganic) in medium on growth and production of the enzyme, the results showed that the best bacterial growth and the production of an Xylanase enzyme occur when organic nitrogen sources (Peptone, Beef extract, Yeast extract, Casien) were supplemented in the medium compared with inorganic nitrogen sources (KNO3, (NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3). Peptone and Yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources for stimulation of bacterial growth and the production of the enzyme with optical density value of growth reached (0.29 , 0.286) and the enzyme activity was (3.92 , 3.9) unit / ml.

improvement Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing

Suhaib AbdulJabbar Abdulbaqee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 179-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89784

Abstract
The objective of this paper is to develop a parallel Pole numerical integration method suitable for renaming in MIMD computing systems.
In this paper we improve the Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing .we compared the developed methods with initial methods the comparison showed the supervise the developed Method for the initial method.
The developed methods are suitable fof running on MIMD computing systems.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039

ABSTRACT

The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Preparation and diagnosis of Schiff bases complex with component ions Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Cd (II) derived from new amino acids

Thanaa J Yousif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 16-29
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.58782

Abstract
A new complexes of some transition metal ions (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II)) and non transition metal ions (Zn(II),Cd(II)) with a number of Schiff bases obtained from the condensation of some amino acids valine and serine with (Indol-3-carboxy aldehyde) have been prepared. All the prepared complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis(M), molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility infrared and electronic spectral. The complexes were classified as:
A- mononuclear complexes.
1- Complexes with the formulas [ML(CH3COO) (H2O)2].
2- Complexes with the formulas [ML(CH3COO)] H2O.
B- Di nuclear complexes.
Complexes with the formulas [M2(L)2(CH3COO)2] .2H2O.
M= Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II)Cd(II).
L= Indol-3-carboxy aldehyde valine imine, Indol-3-carboxy aldehyde serine imine
The physical measurements showed that the prepared complexes may have a tetra coordinated (tetrahedral or square planer) and hexa-coordinated (octahedral) structure and that all the prepared complexes were non electrolyte.

Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studys of Adsorption of Azo Dyes on The Local Bentonite Clay

Safwan .A.S.Aldbouni .A.S.Aldbouni; Emad. A.S.Alhyali A.S.Alhyali; Ammar .A.H.Alkazraji .A.H.Alkazraji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 50-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161177

 This work is included the synthesizs of two azo dyes from the reaction of p-methoxy aniline and 2-amino benzo thiazol .via diazounium ions.A number of clays are tested as adsorbents for the removal of these dyes from their aqueous solution by adsorption . The most efficied one was selected to peforme  this study . The prepared dyes are characterized by some of their physical propertier such as(lmax)  , (emax) melting point.  Stretch bond of  (N=N)   group by(IR)spectrometry and colours.
 The optimal condition of the adsorption systems undre study such as effect of does ,initial concentration ,and temperature wear investigated .
Two isotherm models,Langmuir and Freundlich  were fitted to the experimental data of adsorption .the thermodynamic Function (  H, ∆G°,∆S°) are estimated. The results of the thermodynamic study showed that ,the forces controlling the adsorption process of the systems under considerate are physical in nature . The adsorption process are exothermic , occur spontaneously in the direction of connecting the dye to the clay surface ,and forming less random system.

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