About Journal

Journal of Education and Science has been published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since January 1979. The JES is an open-access journal that publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in all fields of Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer, and Mathematics sciences. A double-blind peer reviewing process is used to assure the quality of the reviewing and publication of submitted manuscripts. JES has a regional impact and is well-known in Iraqi colleges and universities. JES has an archiving plan for electronic...
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Measurement of Osteoporosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Technique

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133542.1231

The aim of study is to measure osteoporosis in the right foot at the heel (calcaneus) by using the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique. It was measured (SOS, BUA, BQI, T-score and Z-score). While the usage of the DXA technique is measure the tissue thickness. Osteoporosis represents low bone mineral density (BMD). The heel of the foot (calcaneus) uses in QUS measurements because it contains a high ratio of trabecular bone. T-score is the predominant the diagnosis of osteoporosis used for adults, men and women over 50 years. From T-score can be to know the ratio of BMD, according to the WHO a T-score can be classified (Normal, Osteopenia and Osteoporosis). Age group 31-40 years was T-score for both sex (-0.667) is meaning (Normal bone). In the age group, 51-60 years was T-score (-1.60) for both sex represents (osteopenia). While age group 71-80 years T-score for females (-2.56) and males (-3.30), means that both males and females have (osteoporosis). P-value

Study of Optical and Structural Properties of Silver Solution Ag Nanoparticles

Muna Talal allhiby; Mutaz Salih AlJuboori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 10-16
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134548.1256

Colloidal nanoparticles attended with a pulsed Nd:YAG, Q-switch in water distilled at wavelength (1064nm) and frequency rate (1Hz) and pulse duration (10ns) and silver nanoparticles attended without the use of surface tensile as laser removal of the silver target (10ns) was attended by silver nanoparticles without the use of surface tensile as laser removal of the silver target (10ns) was attended High purity) reached purity (99.9) immersed in distilled water (deionized) where the metal target was first removed from silver placed in (5mL) from distilled water, a specific laser card (260mJ) and a number of pulse fixed laser pulses(50, 100, 150) respectively, where the size and optical characteristics of nanoparticles were distinguished by the powerful electron microscope (TEM) and visible UV spectrometry (visible-UV), respectively, and the peaks of surface plasma resonance (SPR) showed an increase at (403) and (405) Nm, which is therefore within the permitted range, showed a higher peak of 405 nm and showed sharp spectra, although the width of the spectra slightly increased and the energy gaps showed an increase in the amount of 2.54eV at pulse (50). And (2.57eV) at pulse (100) and valued (2.66eV) at pulse (150) .

Studying the effect of changing the thickness of the layers of the perovskite solar cell (ZnTe /CH3NH3PbI3 /TiO2/ZnO/FTO) using the simulation program (SCAPS 1-D)

Raddad Salem Mahmoud; raad ahmed rasool

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 17-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134981.1268

This research includes a study of the effect of the thickness of each layer of perovskite solar cell (CH3NH3PbI3) /TiO2/ZnO/FTO) and selecting the best thickness to obtain the highest efficiency of the cell, and studying the effect of adding a back surfsce layer on the efficiency of the solar cell using (SCAPS1-D). The perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) was adopted as absorption layer and its  thickness tested from (1-7µm) with an increase of (1µm) to obtain the best thickness for best efficiency of the solar cell, its best thickness was (5µm), the thickness of the buffer layer (TiO2) was tested from (0.5-1.5 µm) with an increase of (0.25µm) and its best thickness was (0.5 µm), the thickness of the transparent conduction oxide (FTO) layer was tested (0.1-1.1µm) with an increase of (0.2µm) and its best thickness was (0.1 µm) and the thickness of the window layer(ZnO) was tested (0.1-0.5 µm) with an increase of (0.1µm) and its best thickness was (0.1µm).The effect of the window layer on the thickness of the buffer layer was studied and it was found that the best thickness of the buffer layer is (0.05µm). Finally, a back surface field layer was added, which is zinc telluride (ZnTe) with a thickness of (0.1 µm) and its thickness was studied, and its best thickness was (0.05µm) .It was found that the best thickness of the absorbent layer after adding the back surface field layer is (1µm). The final outputs of the cell were as follows: Voc=1.288(V), Jsc=25mA/cm2, FF=89.55%, ƞ=28.82%

Application of two fungal strains Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans in wastewater quality improvement

Muzhda Qasim Qader; Yahya Ahmed Shekha

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 33-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134802.1261

The nutrients Phosphorous, Nitrogen and Carbon are essential for aquatic life. However, in excess they also cause serious problems. For this reason, wastewater treatment must meet nutrient effluent limits. A wastewater sample was taken near Dhahibah village from the Erbil wastewater channel in the north of Iraq. In this experiment, pure cultures of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were used to treat wastewater. Samples were measured for physicochemical parameters like EC, pH, Phosphate, Nitrate, Nitrite, and BOD5 using standard methods every third day during 21 days of experiment. The results revealed that Aspergillus niger had the maximum efficiency in removing BOD5, NH4, NO3, and EC (87.27, 89.57, 83.52, and 78.49%) respectively. On the other hand, during the experimental period, Candida albicans had the maximum efficiency in decreasing PO4, and NO2, were (91.58% and 88.89%), respectively. Statistically, there were differences (P≤0.05) between the control sample and the treated wastewater sample for both fungal stains for all parameters during the experiment.

Study of Optical and Structural Properties of Copper Metal Cu Nanoparticles

Muna Talal allhiby; Mutaz AlJuboori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 42-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134543.1255

Colloidal copper nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed (Nd:YAG,Q-switch) laser ablation in distilled water with a wavelength (1064nm) and frequency (1Hz) and the duration of the pulse was (10ns). Its purity is (99.9) immersed in distilled (deionized) water, where the metal target was first removed from copper placed in (5mL) of distilled water with a specific laser energy (260mJ) and for a number of fixed laser pulses (50, 100, 150) respectively. The size and optical properties of nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and visible-UV spectrometry, respectively. eV) at the pulse (50) and (2.77eV) at the (100) and its value was (2.69eV) at the (150) pulse. The reason for the increase is due to the amount of material removal being greater. The results of the transmission electron microscope showed colloidal nanoparticles somewhat spherical and carnivorous, as depend on the size of the noble nanoparticles have gained wide popularity with many applications and fields, and the reason for this is due to the need for precise miniaturization of electronic devices and because of their unique character that differs from those in the usual case. Metal colloids are one of the important nano-sized materials.

Studying the effect of temperature and resistances of series (Rs) and parallel (Rsh) on the performance of the solar cell (FTO/Zn2SnO4/CdS:O/CdTe/Cu2Te) using the SCAPS-1D program

Awadh Khudair Al-Luhaiby; raad ahmed rasool

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 49-66
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134830.1264

For the purpose of knowing the effect of temperature, series resistance and parallel resistance on the performance of the solar cell(FTO/ Zn2SnO4/ CdS:O/ CdTe/ Cu2Te)، Using the simulation program SCAPS-1D, the study was carried out in three stages.The first stage of this study is to study the effect of temperature on the parameters of the solar cell،It was found that the efficiency h decreases with increasing temperature. The second stage is to study the effect of series resistance (Rs) as an external factor and it was found that increasing the series resistance reduces the performance of the solar cell The third stage of the study is to study the effect of parallel resistance (Rsh) as an external factor as well on the performance of the solar cell. It was also found that increasing the parallelism resistance improves the performance of the solar cell and increases the output parameters. All phases of the study were installed by installing the default lighting spectrum on the global scale Am1.5, the temperature is 300K, the frequency is 1MHz, and the voltage is 0V. Also, the series resistance (Rs) and the parallel resistance (Rsh) were not activated in the first stage of the research, considering that the cell is an ideal cell.

Producing Interpenetrating Network from Waste Tires Rubber with commercial Unsaturated Polyester

Rasha Ali AL Jarah; Asaad Faisal Khattab

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 67-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134956.1266

Waste tires constitute environmental problems because of their three-dimensional complicated structure. The presence of different additives within their composition makes them difficult to degrade. In this research, the waste tire rubber is used as raw material after inserting effective groups, like the carboxylic group within the rubber to be used directly without the need to separate additives or recover the rubber individually. Ground tire rubber (GTR) was modified by functionalizing with different ratios of maleic anhydride. Network polyester was prepared from modified GDR and diethylene glycol. Interpenetrating networks IPNs were prepared from polyester of GTR with trade unsaturated polyester. The characterization of the IPNs was studied via infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and AFM pictures. The results indicate that there is a complete interaction between the two types of networks and the IPNs are of one phase. Also increasing the MAn ratio in the GTR gives more homogeneity to the produced IPNs, whereby the number of
crosslinking increases.

Optimal Parameters for Spatial Distribution Modeling of Global Horizontal Solar Radiation in Iraq

Mustafa Ahmed Aljaff

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 83-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135381.1269

Solar radiation plays an essential role in all interior physical processes and the radiative budget of the earth-atmosphere system. However, information about the spatial distribution of global solar radiation or its components is limited and exclusive at some scientific centers that specialized in solar radiation physics. Based on daily data of global solar radiation from (1984) to (2004) available at (16) locations in Iraq retrieved from NASA e-archive, this study aims to determine the optimal parameters of the experimental model to estimate the amount of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface as a function of latitude only. The results showed that the suggested model which is mathematically expressed by the sum of sine of latitude is highly appropriate for estimation of global solar radiation in clear sky conditions after adjusting the parameters according to geographical location. Through comparison between modeled output and an independent measured, globally used, and satellite available data and based on overall results besides some validity metrics: MBE, RMSE, pRMSD, NSE, R2, and r; It can be concluded the proposed model is achievable with high accurate practically performance to calculate and estimate the horizontal global solar radiation (GH) in Iraq region.

Evaluation of the best Edge Filters in Image Processing Based on the Color Fabric Texture

Yahya Ismail Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 96-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.136176.1280

With the development and complexity of life, the need to improve images appeared, especially when used in the fields of life, including industry and its branches, which affect the life of the citizen, such as the manufacture of fabrics. Which requires precision in the production of these fabrics from the colors and pattern of the fabric. Edge identification is the first step in many digital image-processing applications. Edge identification greatly decreases the data quantity, undesirable filters or unimportant data and provides the important data into the image. There are some issues such as false edge identification, noise issues, low contrast and other edge issues. This paper presents a practical study to compare different edge detectors to determine which edge detector achieves better results, which in turn reflects the best pattern in the fabric. These detectors are Canny, Roberts, Laplace and Gabor. A database of thirty color JPG images collected from the Internet was arranged and a quality scale was used to compare filter detectors. The system MATLAB2020 was used to program the proposed work. The results enhancement was measured by the quality coefficient. This coefficient estimated as follows for Roberts filter (44.27-51.09). Gabor filter (43.46-44.48) and Laplace filter (44.71-5.40). Finally, the quality coefficient for Canny filter equals (44.46-52.05). Therefore, it turns out that the Gabor filter is the best of these filters in defining the edges that were used in defining the pattern.

Improved Round Robin CPU Scheduling Algorithm with Different Arrival Times Based on Dynamic Quantum

ِAbdulnasir Y. Ahmad

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 105-115
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135082.1273

Modern operating systems are based on the principle of time-sharing in executing simultaneous operations. Determining the length of the time slice, and the times when processes arrive at the ready queue are problems that affect metrics such as the average waiting time (AWT), average turnaround time (ATAT), response time (RT), and number of context switches (NCS) of the time-sharing round robin RR algorithms. The research aims to propose an algorithm that achieves a short waiting time while maintaining a reasonable response time, which is the most important characteristic of time-sharing algorithms. The Different Arrival-Dynamic Quantum Round Robin (DADQRR) algorithm bases its work on different parameters to adjust the time slice value dynamically. The algorithm has been compared to three other algorithms that are similar in terms of dealing with different arrival times, namely AN, MARR, and RR. The algorithm outperformed the three algorithms at a range from 6.155% to 31.409% in terms of AWT. It achieved an outperformance of 5.924% to 30.850%, considering the TAT. The ranges of outperformance values resulted from the difference in the ranges of arrival times, as well as in the ranges of burst times.

Effect of treating the larval stage of the large waxworm Galleria mellonella with different concentrations of zinc oxide nanomaterials ZnO, titanium dioxide TiO2 and Bacillus thuringiensis spores on some aspects of the insect's life.

Duaa basim abdulrahman Ali; Adnan Mossa Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 116-129
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134812.1263

The present study was conducted to determine the impact of nanoparticles (TiO2 and ZnO) at concentrations (100,500,1000,5000) ppm and Bacillus thuringiensis spores at concentration (106
and109 cells/ml of D.W on some biological aspects of greater ,108 107
wax moth(Galleria mellonella) . The results showed that these materials have a significant effect on the development stages, larva and pupa of Galleria mellonella .The nanoparticles had a clear effect on the motility of the insect as high concentrations, 5000ppm of ZnO increased the killing rate in the larva and pupa to 80.10% and 34.64 respectively. Treatment with these materials also had a significant effect in some biological aspects of the first generation. The average number of eggs was 22.667 and 10.007 in the treatment with concentration 5000ppm of both TiO2 and ZnO respectively, while the average number of egg was 9.667 in the treatment with 106 of Bacillus thuringiensis spores . Treatment with concentration 5000ppm also caused a delay in the eggs laying of the greater wax moth to reach 87.720 and 95.163% of both, TiO2 and ZnO respectively, compared with Bacillus thuringiensis spores with showed 94.233% at106 concentration

Effect of aqueous and alcoholic leaves extract of Platanus occidentalis L. in Cupressus sempervirens root rot.

muhannad hamid younis; Anwer Noori Al-khero

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 130-141
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.136098.1279

This study was conducted in the laboratory and nursery of the Department of forest sciences, College of Agriculture and Forestry/ University of Mosul, the aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal distribution of root rot disease, which causes severe damage to cypress seedling Cupressus sempervirens L. , this study showed through a field survey conducted of some private and public nurseries in Mosul city during September and the November of 2020 and January , March, May and July of 2021, as it was found that the highest rate of infection with the disease was in May 2021, it amounted to 22%, and that the lowest rate of infection was in January of the same year,which amounted to 8%, Fusarium solani was appeared at highest rate 50% in July 2021, and the lowest rate of isolation reached 8.33% of Rhizoctonia solani in September 2020 and January 2021.
The results of study concentrations effect of Platanus occidentalis L leaves extract on fungal growth rates showed that alcoholic extract had the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani fungus, which was 100% at the fourth concentration than the first concentration of aqueous extract which showed the lowest inhibition rate 3.75%

The role of digitization in revitalizing the course system at Northern Technical University

Duha Al-Malah; Enaam Abd aljabar Sultan; Yahya Iismail Ibrahim; Ahmed El Shalawy

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 142-150
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135492.1272

Northern Technical university in Iraq relied in their education on the course system, this system was characterized by some kind of difficulties. A questionnaire was distributed to professors, technicians, administrators, and students subject to the curriculum system as a secondary source for collecting data and information. The study found that NTU as a young and modern university has an infrastructure supported by an electronic educational administrative information system, It provides an integrated digital platform for teachers to participate extensively in lectures, courses, scientific and practical workshops, create interactive lessons, create assignments, tests and assessment through a solid and efficient platform that facilitated the student to complete his homework and duties in the time available to him by notifying them and informing them by sending an email that includes educational content and information and communication technology urged the university to continue with the course system.
The study dealt with data analysis using structural equation modeling and the confirmatory factor analysis strategy as a means to measure the observational variables represented by the digitization axes, which in turn matched the measures of statistical analysis Amos.

The Effect of Azo Moiety on the Electrical Conductivity of Oxadiazole and Triazole Containing Polymers

Saja Saad Ibrahim; Asaad Faisal Khattab

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 151-168
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.136335.1285

Phenolic mercapto oxadiazole and triazole monomers were prepared and then azotized with aniline and Para-phenylene diamine. The prepared monomers have been characterized with FTIR and1HNMR. The six prepared monomers were polymerized by condensation with formaldehyde in a basic medium. The polymer was recognized by FTIR, thermal analysis, and fine elemental analysis (CHN). The results have shown that the presence of azo moiety decreases the thermal stability and the glass transition temperature of the polymers. Also, the oxadiazole polymers are more thermally stable and have higher Tg than the triazole polymers. Doping with different ratios of iodine vapor was carried out on the polymer. The electrical conductivity of the pure and doped polymers was measured by using three probe cells. The results also revealed that the azo moiety increases the conductivity of the pure polymers to some extent (from 1.45534E-11 to 4.69038E-10 ohm-1cm-1  for oxadiazole polymers and from 1.15263E-10 to 3.2680E-10 ohm-1cm-1 for triazole polymers). It was also shown that the electrical conductivity was increased by many orders of magnitude (2-3 orders).by increasing the ratio of the doping.

Air Treatment by Negative Ions

Zaid N. Yuonis; Aswan M. Ali; Emad K. Saleh; Mohamed Abdalla Mohamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135880.1276

 The research presents an effective and efficient mechanism for treating air and improving its specifications by designing and manufacturing a portable and small environmentally friendly device that works by an electric reactor to produce negative ions, which vibrate in the air during the discharge of negative charges to work on the association of negative ions with pollutants that carry a positive charge and fall by gravity and oxidize  It decomposes and its effect diminishes and the production of small amounts of ozone works to kill pathogens without irritating the respiratory passages and lungs or causing side effects of living organisms.

Measuring the density and bone mineral content of women in Mosul city

Jihan Fathi Yosef; khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134128.1247

In this work, condition bone of women in an urban group has been measured and compared to a rural group. Based on the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), T-score and Z-score, in this study. From September 5, 2021 to February 28, 2022, a cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. Since 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center’s assessment. They were divided into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Studying the participants provided detailed anthropometric data. T-, Z-score, BMD and BMC were evaluated using a DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France. All sample groups are classified according to age ranged between 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results showed that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison to the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.

The Comparison of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content between Both Urban and Rural Women Groups in Mosul Governorate

Jihan Fathi Yosef; Khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133493.1228

In this study, the bone state of women in an urban group was measured and compared to a rural group. The assessments revealed the measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). A cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center assessment. They were split into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Study participants provided detailed anthropometric data. A DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France was used to measure the T- and Z-scores. All sample groups were classified according to age from 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results show that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison with the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.


ALi Hussein Hussein; Qais Thanon Algwari

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135797.1275

In this paper, the rise time of the exciting voltage on the DC corona discharge characteristics in a coaxial electrode system is presented. The current one-dimensional simulation study focused on the distribution of the plasma species (ions and electrons as well as the excited atoms) during two different times of the applied voltage climb was classified as a fast rise time (615 ns) and a slow rise time (2710 ns). The growth time of the corona excited voltage was controlled by the external feed RC circuit that connected with the central electrode. The simulation results reveal that the corona inception which occurs at a fast rise time produces more dense plasma charged species, while the density of the excited atoms is not much affected by the applied voltage climb time. The density of excited atoms tends to depend on the rise time of the exciting voltage at the steady state.

Evaluating the Electro Magnetic Fields Radiation of the Cell Sites and Their Environmental Effects: Case of Mosul City

Zozan Saadallah Hussain; zeina Abdul-Rahmman; Ghada Yousif Abdallh; Hassaan Thabet Thabet

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135909.1277

Cell phones, also known as mobile or portable phones, have become an essential part of contemporary communication technologies. In some regions of the world, they are even the only available means of communication, as they are so well-liked for allowing people to communicate with one another without having any impact on their movements. Cell phones are becoming increasingly popular, with more than 50% of people in some nations owning one. The industrial community anticipates that by the year 2030, there will be more than 8 billion users worldwide. To accommodate broadcast and reception, more cell phone stations (towers) are being built. These stations, which are radio antennas, work to protect connections with cellular telephone equipment while using minimum power. The goal of this proposed study is to measure the electromagnetic fields radiated by cell phone towers and their effects on the local environment in a selected area of Mosul, Iraq. The results will then be compared to international standards, evaluated to help develop methods for protecting people's health, and solutions to the issue will be offered.

First record of potato virus s (PVS) and Detect ordinary strain PVS° in Nineveh Governorate

ALi Walid Ali; nabel Aziz Qasem; juhina idrees ALI

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.136313.1284

The results of a field survey of some potato growing areas in Nineveh Governorate showed the presence of Potato virus s PVS, which was detected by the Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay DAS-ELISA test.
This record is the first in the governorate. Through the absorbance readings using the elisa reader, highest value was recorded in the Sherikhan area samples, which amounted to 1.190 nm, while lowest value was recorded in the Rabia area samples with a value of 0.756 nm, while absorbance value of the negative standard sample was 0.300 nm. The frequency of virus in the Sherikhan area was 53.3%, while frequency of the virus in the Rabia area was 28.8%.
As a result of mechanical inoculation with virus isolates diagnosed by DAS-ELISA test, spread of the common strain PVSO through symptoms on Chenopodium quinoa, which was in the form of small chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves, and new leaves were devoid of any disease symptoms.

On Left Slides (Upper or Lower) in e-Abacus Diagram

Jwan Khairi Khaleel خیری khalil; Ammar Seddiq Mahmood

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.136997.1295

In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in researching various (movements) on the e-abacus diagram in attempt to determine how these movements affect the origin of the design as a form of coding. In this paper we will submit an technique is used for the first time, but from one diagram we will get several diagrams, so that they do not resemble each other except in specific parts of the diagram, which makes finding the original seem almost impossible. It will start from the bottom left side exclusively for the diagram and then in a manner similar to slides from the top to the bottom, and from the bottom to the top, followed by the top left side exclusively for the diagram and in the direction up to the bottom and finally down to the top. By dividing the diagram into slides just from the left side of the diagram, we will provide four new types in this research and in the upper or lower directions LSUUL, LSULU, LSLUL and LSLLU.

Determined the bulk etch rate VB by different methods for nuclear track detector CR-39

Zainab H Mohialdeen; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137160.1297

In this study, the bulk etch rate (VB) was measured by three different methods forCR-39 with a thickness of 200µm and an area of (1 × 1 cm2), where CR_39 was irradiated through from Am241source with energy of alpha particles is 2.6MeV and at an angle of fall perpendicular to the surface of the CR-39 detector, the detector etching with (NaOH) at a concentration of 6.25N and (70 ± 1°C) and showing the effects formed on the surface of the detector with time periods ranging from (0.25h) and the formed effects were photographed In the detector at different eching times using an optical microscope of the type (XSZ-H Series Biological Microscope) equipped with a digital camera of the type (MADC_5A) connected to a personal computer, in order to find the length, thickness and diameters of the track formed on the surface of the detector.VB determind by methods are: Removed thickness method, the second method, the saturation track method, and the diameter-length method (D_L method), as the first method does not require irradiation of the detector, but the other two methods require irradiation of the detector and measurement of lengths and diameters And the time of proving the effect, and we found that the values of VB rate for the three methods, the removed thickness method, the saturation track method, and the diameter-length of the effect ((D_L method) respectively are:, (1.206, 1.204, 1.271 (µm/h) and compare the results between the mentioned methods, as we found that they are close.

Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation and Alpha-particles on Nuclear Track Detector CR-39

Zainab H. Mohialdeen; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137328.1300

In this work, the bulk etch rate VB is calculated using various methods, including the removed thickness, the saturation track, and the length-diameter track. A 200 μm-thick CR-39 detector manufactured by Page Moldings (Pershore) in the United Kingdom was cut into several identical pieces (1x1 cm2). In order to obtain longitudinal track profiles, these sheets were exposed to alpha particles with an energy of 2.6 MeV emitted from a 241Am source, followed by 30 minutes of exposure to UV light. The CR-39 samples were etched in a 6.25 N NaOH solution at 70 C. These tracks are etched for 15 minutes before being digitally photographed with an optical microscope. It was established that the predominant lengths of alpha particle tracks are those that fall perpendicular to the detector surface. The bulk etch rates for CR-9 were found to be 1.227 μm/h for irradiation with alpha, and 2.035 μm/h for irradiation with UV and then alpha particles.

Calculating the Electrons Distribution Function for Gallium Arsenide at Low Fields by Solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation.

Noora Anwar Mohammed Jamil; Ali Abbas Mohammed Salih Al Agah

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137643.1313

The electron distribution function for gallium arsenide GaAs was calculated by using the Boltzmann transition equation in the central valley , for a range of low fields relative to the threshold field (E0 = 5.95Kv/cm) (0.3-1)E0. To obtain the distribution function, the Boltzmann transport equation was solved using a mechanism that combines the analytical and numerical methods. Analytical method involving extension of the Legendre polynomial was used and the effect of polar optical scattering was introduced as the dominant scattering mechanism in this research, as well as the effect of an asymmetric energy band structure with spherical energy surfaces in the central valley. After obtaining a partial differential equation of the second order, it is solved numerically after separation process for the variables using the direct matrix method in energy space by building a mathematical program using MATLAB. In this study, a system with dimensions of 360 × 360 was built, and the rate of change in energy was taken as 0.001.The computational system was tested by applying low electric fields, and the distribution function that was obtained had a Maxwellian distribution at very low fields, and it shifted from the Maxwellian distribution at higher fields close to the threshold field, and the results obtained were agree with previous results. While this system did not give accurate results at the high-electric fields.

Effect of annealing on etch rate of Nuclear Track Detector CR-39

Rasha Mahmood wael; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137566.1308

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of annealing on bulk etch rate (VB), which is calculated using the thickness measurement method. A 600- micro meter-thick CR-39 detector, divided into four samples (1 x 1 cm2), was vertically irradiated by alpha particles from a 241Am source at 2.6 MeV energy. The three samples were annealed at 100–140 C in 20 C increments using Memmert U4079142. All samples were etched in a 6.25 N NaOH solution at 701 C in a Memmert W200 water bath. The periodic etching time was 6 hours, every 0.5 hours. The etched image was captured using a camera (MADC_5A) attached to a microscope (XSZ-H Series Biological Microscope). The bulk etch rate and diameters increase with increasing annealing temperatures. The new method used in this paper to calculate the experimental track length is based on the relation between track length and track diameter obtained from track-test software.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

Assessment of NORM from oil refineries and fields northwest of Mosul

mustafa abdullah alsharook; Rasheed Mahmood Yousuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130357.1164

The uranium concentration and radioactivity of radon gas were measured in Al-Kasik refinery and Ain Zala field using the CR-39 detector. Soil and water samples associated with the production stages of oil, Sludge and crude oil were collected. The levels of uranium concentration in soil ranged from 0.703 to 1.480 ppm, in water samples from 0.681 to 0.716 ppm, in Sludge samples from 0.849 to 1.014 ppm, and in crude oil from 0.785 to 0.933 ppm. As for the radioactivity of radon gas, when comparing the radon rate in the samples we obtained with the global values, it was found that it falls within the internationally permissible limit, where the radon rate in the soil was 12.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) which has a value of 32 Bq/kg, and in the produced water it was 8.66 Bq/kg compared to (UNSCEAR)which has a value of 50 Bq/kg. In Sludge samples 11.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) whose value is(8-5×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg, and in crude oil samples 10.56 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Federation of Oil and Gas Producer (IOGP) whose value is (800-4×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg. As for the alpha ray hazard index, the results showed that it is within the permissible limits internationally, where the results were less than 1 and therefore does not pose a threat to the health of workers and environment.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

The hybrid Morse code

Ammar Siddiq Mahmoud; Rawia Ibrahim Bakr

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 294-311
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161056

In this research, Morse code was introduced in a new type, which we called the hybrid to be appropriate between the code itself and the theory of fragmentation, which could later be used as a type of encryption in messages between two or more parties.

Isolation And Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Some Clinical And Environmental Samples And Study It,s Activity for The Production of Pyocyanin And Protease

Nazar Mohammed Hassan Al-mamari; Adeba Younes Sharif Al-Numa,an

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 93-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163328

      The study includes isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different sources as (90) samples were collected during a period from November (2017) to February (2018), including (wounds, suckers, urine, drinking water), Twinty five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified depending on morphological and biochemical tests at a rate of (27.77%) from total samples including (13) isolates from suckers used for sucking solutions from respiratory tract, (7) isolates from wounds, (3) isolates from urine and (2) isolates from drinking water. The isolates from sucker formed the highest rate reached (14.44%) of total samples and (52%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, whereas the lowest rate was from drinking water (2.22%) of total samples and (8%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The results showed that (92%) of total isolates were pyocyanin producer on King A agar medium, It was also found that all isolates of this bacteria have the ability to produce protease.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

Journal of Education and Science, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

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