About Journal

Defining a summary about the Journal of Education and science         The University of Mosul is the formal owner of the Journal of Education and Science (EDUSJ). The articles are published quarterly in the EDUSJ. The first volume of the journal was published in 1979 including papers on both pure sciences and human sciences. Then in 1987, the journal started to publish papers in two independent volumes: one for pure sciences and the other one was for human sciences. The journal stopped being published from 1981 to 1987 during the first gulf war. The journal is well-known inside...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Effect of smoking Arkela or Al-shesha on the antioxidant in human body

Nawal Th. Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165297

The research involved collected (50) sample from serum of Arkela smokers and (50) sample control for period from 15/10/2013 to 15/3/2014 and the age between(15-60)year for men only then determination of some antioxidant (Glutathione, Ceruloplasmin, Vitamin E and C, Malondialdehyde) in serum of Arkela smokers compared with non smokers, the results demonstrated a significant increase in the level of Ceruloplasmin and Malondialdehyde concentration and a significant decrease in the level of Glutathione and Vitamin E and C concentration in smokers compared with control.
The results also demonstrated a non-significant change in the level of antioxidant concentration of Arkela smokers with age groups and Body Mass Index BMI.
While the results demonstrated a significant decrease in the level of Glutathione and Vitamin E and C and a significant increase in the level of  Ceruloplasmin and Malondialdehyde in serum blood smokers (more than two hours) in the day and (more than two years) compared with smokers in (less from hour)in the day and (1-11 months) respectively.

Rheological modifications of the asphalt-polymer system using microwave technology

Rand Raad Matti; Khalid Ahmed Owaid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 26-44
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165302

This research aimed to prepare different types of asphaltic materials having a good rheological properties compared with the non-modified asphaltic materials. Different polymers and microwaves were used to prepare the modified asphalt in different ways. The first method is based on the modification of asphalt with reclaim tire rubber using anhydrous aluminum chloride catalyst at 360 watt at different times, The second method depends on the same principle of the first method with the introduction of sulfur as an additive and the third method is based on the same principle of the first method but the change of polymer added to the polyamethyl methacrylate and with the introduction of sulfur as an additive. The latter method is the same principle of the first method but the change of polymer added to mixtures of (1:1)(polymer_polymer)(recycled tire rubber polyamethyl methacrylate)with the introduction of sulfur as an additive. The above methods we obtained asphaltic materials which can be used in paving and mastic depending on the measured (ductility, penetration , softening point).

Indirect Spectrofluorometric Determination of Enoxaparin Sodium in Pharmaceutical Formulation (Injection) by Ion Association Complex Formation with Acriflavine Dye

mohamed thamer aghwan; Elham Sadullah Al-talibi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 45-62
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125843.1001

A simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorometric method has been developed for the determination of enoxaparin sodium in bulk and dosage forms (injection). The method was based on the quantitative quenching effect of enoxaparin on the native fluorescence of acriflavine due to the formation of nonfluorescent supramolecular ion issociation complex between the studied drug and acriflavine dye in aqueous solution. The decrease of acriflavine fluorescence was observed at 506 nm after excitation at 402 nm. The relationship between quenching fluorescence intensity and concentration of enoxaparin sodium was linear in the range 0.05-20 µg/ml and with correlation coefficient 0.9990 and with LOD and LOQ 0.011 and 0.035 µg/ml respectively. The average recovery was 100.51% and RSD is less than 3.23%. The stoichiometry of enoxaparin to acriflavine was calculated a 1:4. The method was applied successfully to the determination of enoxaparin form injection samples and the results were in a good agreement with certified value and standard addition procedure.

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of Adsorption of Azo Dyes Derived for 4-amino Anti pyrene by Activated Carbon

Salah Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 63-81
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125920.1006

A commercial activated carbon was used for the study of adsorption of two di- azo dyes from aqueous solution employing batch method. These dyes were synthesized in our laboratory from the reaction of 4-amino-antipyrene 4-AAP and β-Naphthol with p-amino phenol and p-amino benzaldehyde via diazonium ions. The effect of pH, temperature, and contact time on dye removal was investigated. The apparent thermodynamic parameters were estimated and the obtained results concluded that, the dyes adsorbed onto activated carbon are driven by entropy effect, exothermic and spontaneous processes. The kinetic study of adsorption of the considered dyes was conducted by applying four models the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order ,Elovich and intra particules diffusion kinetic models. The results showed that, the second order equation fit better the experimental data. The intra particule diffusion model indicates that, there are more than mechanism
controlling the adsorption process.the adsorption process occurs through more than one mechanical and that the intra particule diffusion model is not the only mechanical that controls the adsorption of systems Studied.

Reasons of the transformed toward NOSQL Databases and its data models

Shaymaa Ahmed Razoqi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 82-100
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165303

The relational database model is the main focus of the database for the previous time. It provides robust data storage and structure that supports transaction characteristics and data retrieval with structured query language- SQL. The emergence  of web technologies and clustering technology in large servers called for the need to store unstructured data and move away from the pattern of tables and static fields and not topic to transaction conditions, especially in distributed systems. Instead, it used CAP theory. New data models are emergence including: Document Data model, Key-Value model, Column-Family model, and Graph model, And new programming languages that deal with these models.
            An asset inventory system is a model of systems that are not topic to a fixed structure. Each location in the organization has fairly different assets and assets in the same location have different specifications that are difficult to organize in the form of tables and columns. For this reason using of  NOSQL CouchDB database system was adopted and the use of MAP-REDUCE  technology to organize data display and Cloudant Query in Mango-view method to retrieve data from the inventory database.

Study the Effect of High Pressure and High Temperature on the Properties of Nacl-B1

Janan F. Ahmad; Zeena R. Mhmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 101-117
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165304

Equations  of state are used for the evaluation of pressure effects on solid (Alkali halides) at room temperature and high temperature up to melting point,
Thermodynamic properties such as   ,  of alkali halide (NaCl-B1) at  high pressure and room temperature have been evaluated and the results are compared with experimental data and gave good results up to 5 GPa but beyond it the results of these  equations of state diverge from experimental data while Bardeen equation of state gave good agreement with experimental data , the effect of high pressure and high temperature on vibration energy of atoms ( )and on heat capacity at constant volume ( ) of (NaCl-B1) are calculated by using Debye Model and gave good agreement with the theory, also thermal volume and pressure ( ),( ) and thermal expansion coefficient ( ) are calculated  by using thermal equation of state by Kumar .
Finally, melting curve of (NaCl-B1) was calculated by using Kumar thermal equation of state with Lindeman equation the results were compared with experimental data. Also inter ionic distance at melting ( ) for (NaCl-B1) was calculated by two ways, first by using lattce potential energy and second by using Anderson equation, and compared    with data of other researcher and a good fitting was observed.

Effect of Deposition Temperature on the Physical Performance of n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction

Yasir Hussein Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 118-132
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.126043.1017

Comparative study of the physical characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode has been done as a function of deposition temperature in the range of 300-600 °C. Transparent conducting (TC) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) technique on the p-Si(100) and glass substrates. Also, the influences of different deposition temperature on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO films were studied. Both the average surface roughness (from 62.8 to 18.8 nm) and the root mean square (from 78.2 to 24 nm) of ZnO films were decreased with the increase in the deposition temperature. Optical transmittance measurement results exhibited good transparency within the visible wavelength range for the films prepared at a temperature above 400 C. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction diodes exhibited rectification behavior and depend on the deposition temperature. The electrical parameters of the n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions were also affected by the deposition temperature. The diodes prepared at a temperature above 400 C were possessed lower reverse saturation current and high rectification ratio compared to those fabricated at a relatively lower temperature such as 300 C or 400 °C. Such low a temperature grown n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diodes with lower reverse saturation current could be suitable for photo-detection applications.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Candida albicans Yeast From Patients Infected With Oral Candidiasis in Mosul City and Study its Activity in Production of Phospholipase and Hemolycin

Rafea Qasim Altaee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 133-148
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.126122.1020

In this study, 63 oral swabs were collected . Thirty six yeast isolates were obtained (57.14%) grown on sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA). Symbols were given to isolates from RA1 to RA36 in order to differentiate them. The isolates were identified by growth on HiCrome Candida differential agar M1297A and identification by Vitek 2 Compact system.
The identification results showed 5 species of the isolated yeasts belonging to the genus Candida, 29 isolates belonging to the species C. albicans (80.55%) and one species from C. famata, C. glabrata, C. kefyr and C. lusitaniae (2.77% for each species). Moreover one isolate was obtained from each of the following yeasts: Saccharomyces serevisiae, Malassezia furfur and Rhodotorula glutinis (2.77% for each one).
This study included the evaluation of two virulence factors for all C. albicans isolates , phospholipase enzyme production on egg yolk agar and hemolytic activity on sugar-enriched sheep blood agar.
Phospholipase production test showed differences in phospholipase production among the isolates , twenty three isolates (79.31%) were producers and precipitation zone (Opaque zone) was observed around the grown colonies with different Pz values and the isolate RA13 exhibited highest activity (Pz value = 0.53).
The results showed also that all isolates were producers of hemolysin with different hemolytic indexes (Hi). Isolate RA7 represented the highest one in activity (Hi = 2.16). Hemolysis of all isolates involved beta hemolysis.

Existence of Positive Solutions of Boundary Value Problem For FractionalOrder Differential Equation

Noora Laith Omar Aga

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 149-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125873.1014

Recently boundary value problems for differential equations of non-integral order have studied in many papers ( see [1,2] ).
Zaho etal [ 1 ] studied the following boundary value problem of fractional differential equations.

Where denotes the Rimann-Liouville fractional derivative equation of order . By using the lower and upper solution method and fixed point theorem.
Liang and Zhang [3] studied the non-linear fractional differential boundary value problem

Where is a real number . is the Rimann-Liouville fractional differential operator of order . By means of fixed point theorems , they obtained results on the existence of positive solutions for boundary value problem of fractional differential equations.
In this paper , we deal with some existence of positive solution of the following non-linear fractional differential equation.

Where is a real number. denotes Rimann-Liouville fractional derivative of order .
Our work based on Banach contraction mapping and Krasnoel'skii fixed point theorems to investigate the existence of positive solution.
Finally , we suggest studing the existence solutions for the following Integrodifferential equation with boundary value conditions

Where H is a nonlinear integral operator given as

Experimental study of heat-killed oocysts of Cryptosporidium Parvum in Balb/ c Mice

Mohammed S. Khudhair; Nabeel E.S. Al-Niaeemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 158-173
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165305

The present study investigated the possibility of infecting Mus musculus mice, experimentally, with cryptosporidiosis by inoculation with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, after treatment with temperatures (70 °C) and non-treated oocysts, single or double doses, aiming at enrichment of information related to existence of oocysts infected, outside the body of the host when subjected to temperatures. Criteria taken into consideration are the period spent by the parasite inside the body of the host, number of oocytes shed by the parasite with the host’s stool, total and differential leukocyte count. The Results of the present study shows:
1-      Shedding of Oocysts started at the 4th day post infection by non-treated Oocysts, at single dose, and continued until the day 35 post infection, whereas with the challenge dose it continued until the 17th day  post infection.
2-      Temperature at (70Co) killed the Oocysts as infection of mice didn’t occur.
3-      Generally, a gradual increase in total and differential leukocyte count on infection with non-treated Oocysts at day 3 post infection.

Aromatase Inhibitor, Flax seed and Sage Effects on Adult Rats Fertility and Sexual Behavior

Heba mohammed jasem; Fadwa khalid tawfeek

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 174-185
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165306

The current study was designed to detect estrogen role in adult  male rats by giving aromatase inhibitor ( ltrozole 1 mg̷  Kg. B. W) for 60 days orally to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity and to study the effect of giving source of estrogen flax seeds (25 g ̷ 100 g diet) and aqueous extract sage (1000mg ̷  Kg. B.W.) orally. The study showed that adult male rats treated with ltrozole resulted in a significant decrease in the weight of testes, prostate , percentage of live sperms , number of sperms , number of mounting , intromission, ejaculation and in the time period from mixing with females to the first mounting ,  intromission and ejaculation , the time period between mount and another, intromission and another, ejaculation and another, and significant increase  in the percentages of  dead as well as abnormal  sperms. Flax seeds treatment significantly reduced percentage of live sperms, number of sperms, number of  mounting , intromission, and ejaculation, and significantly increased percentage of dead sperms compared with control group. Sage extract treatment caused a significant decrease in number of sperms, number of mounting, intromission and ejaculation , as well as a significant increase in the time period from mixing of female to the first mounting,  first intromission and first ejaculation compared with control. The results showed that administration of sage extract with letrozole showed a significant increase in testis weight, percentages of live sperms and number of sperms, and asignificant decrease in dead and abnormal sperms compared with the letrozole group. Administration of flax seed with letrozole did not significantly change weight of the testis , prostate, percentage of live, dead , abnormal sperm and number of sperm compared with letrozole group. Administration of Flax seed and sage extracts to male rats treated with letrozole did not significantly change all the done tests of sex behavior. The study concluded that estrogen has an important role in the function of male reproductive system, which is shown through the negative effects of the aromatase inhibitor on the weights of the testis, prostate, live and dead and abnormal sperm, and sexual behavior. Sage extract, but not flax seed, has benefit effects on the defect induced by aromatase inhibitor letrozole  both flax seed and sage do not produce positive effects on sexual behavior .

Synthesis of New Oxazepine and Thaizolidine Compounds derived from Pyrimidine-2(2H)-one

zainab hassan sulyman; natiq ghaniem ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 186-200
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125908.1004

In this paper the compounds (11-20) (methyl pyrimidine - 2(1H)-one and others phenyl pyrimidine -2(1H)- one) that will prepared from α, β unsaturated carbonyl compounds they are called chalcones, that compounds prepared from reaction of different aldehyde (4-methoxy benzaldehyde, 2-nitro benzaldehyde,
3-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4-N,N—dimethyle amino benzaldehyde, benzaldehyde, 4-nitro-benzaldehyde) with different ketones (acetone, acetophenone, 2-nitro acetophenone, 3-nitro acetophenone) after prepared this compounds and purified it and mesurment for physical, chemical and spectroscopy that we can do to get chalcones that reacted with urea under known chemical conditions to get pyrimidinone compounds we needed. pyrimidine compounds were reacted with two aromatic amines (2,4-dinitro aniline and 4- amino acetophenone) using glacial acetic acid as catalyst in absolute ethanol giving a new compounds of schiff's bases (21-40). New thiazolidine 4-one (41-50) were synthesized from reactions of Schiff's bases (21-30) with thioglycolic acid in absolute ethanol. 1,3- oxazepine derivatives. (51-60) are prepared from reaction between Schiff's bases (31-40) with malic anhydrid in absolut ethanol. The structures of the Synthesized compounds were estimated by IR, 1H- NMR and some physical data.

Calculate and Study the Parameter Gradient Energy Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol as a Function of Molecular Weight in conjunction with Freed Contribution

Malak Jaafar Ali; Saygin Muhamed Nuri; Shany Muhamed Rajab

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 201-215
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.126025.1016

This work studies the gradient energy coefficient ( ) which has the main function in extracting the properties of the polymer, starting from the Simha-Somcynsky theory (SS) that describes the thermodynamic properties of both low and high molecular weights in terms of occupied site fraction (y). Cahn-Hilliard (CH) theory which clarifies the free energy profile of polymer surfaces or interfaces has been also adopted in this study. To gain accurate results, these two theories have been combined with that of Freed Bawendi, which gives the architecture structure for the polymers. Ultimately, the conjunction of these theories produces important properties of polymers such as; the molecular weight, surface tension, the gradient energy coefficient. This study has been performed in the temperature range (313 -473) K and up to about (150) Mpa of pressure according to the international condition of LaGrange for polymers. The success of our study can be clearly seen in the minimum and maximum deviations in (0.036) and (0.128) respectively, while the exact value of gradient energy coefficient has been proved in the high molecular weight polymers as in (PEG 18500). The gradient energy coefficient and the reduced surface tension are directly proportional to molecular weight, while the gradient energy coefficient is inversely proportional to both hole fraction and temperature. The study has been accurately proved by the obtained results and data given in the graphs.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections Among Children in the West Bank of Mosul City


JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 216-229
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125919.1005

Bacterial infections are common in neonates, infants and children.. Some of these infections are serious and usually carry high risk of fatal complications such as septicemia / meningitis if left un-treated. Diagnosis of such infections is usually clinical together with the identification of bacteria in body fluids such as urine, stool, blood and CSF. The aim of the current study is to isolate and identify bacteria responsible for some types of serious bacterial infection in neonates such as UTI, GIT infections and bacteremia in West bank of Mosul city sand test their susceptibility to different antibiotics. Our results indicated that Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial isolate in blood (81%), whereas both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were common in urine (48% and 43% respectively). These microorganisms are highly sensitive to amoxiclav (83% for Staph , and 100% for E.coli) , levofloxavin ( 88% for Staph. and 100 % for E.coli) and meropenem (100% for both Staph and E.coli). However, both of them highly resistant to ampicillins (100% resistant rate) and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Although meropenem is effective, its use should be selected and restricted to highly resistant cases to avoid the emergence of early antibiotic resistance.

A Friendly Environment Approach for determination of paracetamol

Hanaa Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 230-240
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125964.1011

This paper involves a determination of paracetamol using less environment harmful reagent; the hydroxy analog of the pharmaceutical naproxen replaced a chemical reagent in which it is used as a coupling agent for the diazotized p-aminophenol (the hydrolysis product of paracetamol), the paper offers a determination of an analgesic paracetamol in the presence of high content of another analgesic.
Paracetamol azo-dye exhibits maximum absorption at 500 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range from 10 to 650 µg/20ml, (i.e. 0.5-32.5 ppm) with a good sensitivity (molar absorptivity 1.2x104 l.mol-1.cm-1), good precision (RSD better than ±0.275%) and high accuracy (relative error less than + 0.77%), Sandell's sensitivity index is 0.0124µg.cm-2, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.0030 µg/ml and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.0101 µg/ml. The method has been successfully applied for determination for paracetamol in dosage forms and its already applicable for the determination of paracetamol in presence of naproxen.

Using of Acetylacetone-formaldehyde Reagent in Spectrophotometric Determination of Aniline in Various Water Samples

Nabeel Othman; Safa Abdul aleem Al- Zakaria; Muna Subhe Abdulla

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 241-249
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126192.1022

A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the estimation of aniline in various water samples was done. The method was based on the condensation reaction of acetyl acetone-formaldehyde(AC-FA) reagent with aniline. to produce a yellow colored product, with maximum absorption at 417 nm, which has good stability at room temperature and it is very soluble in water (the medium of reaction). Beer's law is applied in the concentration range of 2.5 to 50 µg. ml-1 of aniline with a molar absorptivity 3.864×103 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity index 0.0241 µg.cm-2 , a relative error of – 0.51 to +4.15 % and a relative standard deviation of ±0.78 to ±1.28% depending on the concentration level. The study also included the effect of organic compounds on the recovery of aniline in water samples. Aniline is the simple type of primary aromatic amines as it enters into many industrial fields and is considered as an important material. Aniline regarded as major pollutant of water, thus, its estimation was studied in different samples of water such as river, tap and Zamzam well waters.

Physiological sway of aging on oxidative stress and levels of some minerals in diabetes type II of both female and male in Sulaimaniyah city

Maya Ibrahim Al-samman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 250-259
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126325.1031

Diabetes is a metabolic disorders disease characterized by the abnormal high levels of blood sugar due to incomplete or relative deficiency of insulin secretion as well as disorders in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
The study aims to evaluate the physiological effects of aging on oxidative stress and mineral levels in diabetes type II by measuring F.B.S,HbA1c%, levels of a number of important indicators of oxidative stress, level of ferritin ,copper and zinc in the serum. The study included the collecting of 70 blood samples from patients with NIDDM for both sexes in the center of Diabetes and Endocrinology in Sulaimaniyah city. The age of each group in this study ranged between 40-70 years. The study concluded that the rate of both FBS and T.GSH increased with age in diabetic females, the MDA increased with age in diabetic males, and ferritin increased with age in both sexes. Moreover copper decreased with age in diabetics for both sexes.

Effect of Allelopathic Potential of Corn, Sunflower , Field Capacity and Ascorbic Acid In Growth of Two Wheat cultivars

mohamed saied fisal

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 260-278
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126418.1034

This study was carried out inside a wired house and included the planting two cultivars of wheat (Sham 6 – IPA 99) in soils containing residues of corn (Zea may) and sunflower (Helianthns annuus) with exposing plants to three levels of field capacity (35, 60, 85%) and spraying plants with three concentrations of ascorbic acid (0, 100, 200) ppm in order to know the effect of these factors on some physiological, biochemical and allelopathic potential of wheat. The experiment has been designed on the basis that it is factorial and over completely Randomized Design (C.R.D) Duncan's multiple range test at 5% level was used to compare between the means and the results showed.
The addition of corn residues and sunflower showed a great effect in lowering plant height, relative water content, chlorophyll, number of grains / spike and grains yield with the increasing the concentration of catalase.
Exposure of plants to drought (35% field capacity) showed a negative effect on all traits above comparing to field capacity (60, 85%) except for the increase in antioxidant enzymes (Peroxidase, Catalase).
Plants submitted under two types of stress (drought + allelopathy) can improve their growth and reduce the negative effect of drought and the inhibitory effect of residues by treating it with ascorbic acid especially in the concentration 200 ppm.
More over, sham 6 was significantly superior on IPA 99 in most physiological and biochemical characters, which was reflected in the increasing grains yield.
Keywords: allelopathy, Field capacity, Ascorbic acid, wheat.

Assessment of Fungal Growth at Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Unit in Hawler Teaching Hospital

Vian Badraddin Al-Barzinji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126676.1049

Dialysis is used when the patient's kidneys can no longer perform their functions normally; it is a treatment that performs the functions of natural kidneys. Most patients begin dialysis when their kidneys have lost 85-90% of their ability to work naturally and they have to depend on dialysis for the rest of their lives, is called end –stage renal disease (ESRD). Infection in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is usually treated with hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). End stage renal disease a major cause of morbidity and mortality, in order to assess the fungal growth at hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis unit a descriptive study was conducted at hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis units in Hawler teaching hospital, from 15th of January to the end of May 2017;the study also includes the access sites and peritoneal catheter site. Factors that affected the access site among dialysis patient in the hospital. Sample of 63 patients, who were attending to the dialysis unit at time of the data collection, had been taken; in addition to that swab samples had been gathered from access site and peritoneal catheter site. The results of the study revealed that the fungal growth was positive at dialysis access sites, where the total percentage was 84.1% and that of peritoneal catheter site was 15.85%. In these unites, different types of filamentous fungi and yeasts had been successfully isolated.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Cefalexin monohydrate, Ceftriaxone Sodium and Cefotaxim Sodium in Pharmaceuticals Using N-Bromosuccinimde and Evans Blue Dye

mohamed thamer aghwan; Elham Sadullah Al-Talibi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125959.1009

An indirect sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of cephalexin monohydrate (CEM) ceftriaxone sodium (CFX) and cefotaxim sodium (CEF) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of (CEM), (CFX) and (CEF) in hydrochloric acid medium with known excess on N-Bromosuccinimde and subsequent determination of unreacted oxidant by decolorization of Evans blue dye (EB) and measure the absorbance of residual dye at 608 nm. Calibration curves of evans blue dye in the presence of drugs were rectilinear over the ranges 1.0-9.0 , 1.0-8.0 and 1.0-9.0 µg/ml with molar absorptivity 2.75×104 , 9.28×104 and 7.81×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and average recoveries 98.97, 102.08 and 100.08% for CEM, CFX and CEF respectively with RSD of less than 3.29%. The method was free from interference of many excipients and additives commonly found in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation resulted in a good agreement with certified value and standard addition procedure.

The Effect of Seasonal Variation on Some Physio-Chemical Properties of Water of Tigris River in Mosul City.

Eman sami Al-Sarraj

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126256.1027

This study was conducted for some physical and chemical properties by knowing the impact of pollutants of Mosul city, for three selected stations of water along the Tigris River during the seasons of 2018 and 2019.
The following field and laboratory tests were carried out: Temperature of water, Turbidity, Electrical conductivity, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) as well as µmeasuring the concentration of ions for chlorides, orthophosphate, nitrate, and sulfate.
The results showed there was a clear fluctuation in all physical and chemical variables with different seasons and geographical location. Water temperature ranged between 14.2-25.5 °C, Turbidity 2.8-23.1 NTU, EC 266-335 µc/cm, PH 7.6-8.5, DO 6.6-9.6 mg/l, BOD5 1.4-2.9 mg/l, TH 130-338 mg/l, CL 9.8-29.9 mg/l, SO4 120-177 mg/l, NO3 0.09-166 mg/l, PO4 0.011-0.036 mg/l. Although, the increasing of all values towards the south of the city, these obtained values were within the limits for local and international standards.

Time decay of pulse current in capillary glow discharge

Muayad Abdullah Ahmed

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126339.1032

A high voltage pulse generator was development and implemented. It generates a sequence spike pulses with a varying pulse height from 0 to 5 kV; and changes the pulse width in ms range. This generator tested and used to study the pulse glow discharge in argon by using the capillary tube under pressure 0.3 to 0.5 torr. This study was to establish the nature of discharge relaxation (plasma relaxation) when a high voltage pulse causes a breakdown in the gas (coverts to conducting case). It is of great importance to answer the following question. The current can decay when the voltage pulse is switched off was obtained. The electronic switching is a successful tool which can be used for generating high voltage pulses with flexibility adjustable peak height voltage pulse, pulse duration and pulse width is presented Interesting results concerning because plasma is a function of time, linearity of time decay vs. plasma. This linearity is to seem independent on gas pressure or pulse width. The slope the current decay line is very much dependent upon the initial high voltage pulse. The condition for transition from pulse to continue like DC glow discharge condition is satisfied.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Piperazine hexahydrate in Pharmaceutical Formulation with 3,5- Dinitrosalysilic Acid Reagent

Usra Ibrahim Al-Neaimy; USRA Ibrahim Al-Neaimy

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126231.1023

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of piperazine hexa- hydrate was developed. The method was based on the proton transfer reaction with 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) in basic solution to form yellow product showing a maximum absorbance at 410 nm with molar absorptivity of 8350 l/mol.cm . The method is obeyed Beer’s law over the concentration range 0.5-20 µg/ml. The average recovery % of the method is 99.12% and RSD % of the method is less than 2%.
The method was applied for the determination of piperazine hexahydrate in pharmaceutical formulation as elixir and the results were in good agreement with the standard addition method .- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Effect of Some Biochemical Parameters as Antioxidants in Placenta of infected Pregnant Weman with Toxoplasmosis

muna ismail Ibraheem; Layla Abdullah Mustafa; Ahmed yahya Ismeel

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126095.1037

. Reregulation of biochemical profile of host as a result of host cells-pathogen interaction may involve in pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis disease. The biochemical parameters in the placenta of Toxoplasma-infected pregnant women and non-infected pregnant women (control group) were investigated The criteria taken into consideration are: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) , Peroxidase (Px) , Glutathione- S- transferase (GST) , Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , Aryl esterase (AE) , Acetylcholine esterase (AchE) , Vitamin A,C and E As well as placental electrolytes including: Sodium (Na+) , Potassium (K+) , Chloride (Cl-) , Calcium (Ca++) , Selenium (Se) , Cupper (Cu) , Zinc (Zn) , Iron (Fe) , Magnesium (Mg) and Manganese (Mn). The results showed: a non-significant increase in the activity of SOD, GST, LDH and AchE during 6-9 months, and activity of AE during 1-3 months, were determined whereas the activity of Px was decreased in all periods of pregnancyA non- significant increase in the level of vitamin E and non-significant decrease in levels of vitamin A and C during pregnancy periods in placentae of infected pregnant Were observed. . A significant increase (p≤0.01) in levels of Na+ and K+ during 1-3 months and Ca++ during 3-6 months, whereas the level of Cl- decreased during pregnancy periods. A significant increase (p≤0.01) in levels of Seand Mg during 6-9 months and a non- significant increase in level of Cu during 1-3 months and 6-9 months, whereas the level of Zn, Fe and Mn significantly decreased in all periods of Pregnancy in placenta infected women.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Aminophenol Isomers Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 4-Aminoantipyrine

Reem Abed Ahmed Al-Luhaiby

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126543.1041

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of aminophenol isomers (o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol). The method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of these compounds with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of cupper sulphate as oxidizing agent in alkaine medium forming a reddish brown colour. The products show maximum absorption at 440 nm, 480 nm and 445 nm for o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol respectively. The molar absorptivities are 8.632×103 ,9.33×103 and 9.1449×103 l.mol-1.cm-1 for concentrations obeyed Beer’s law in the range 1-20, 1-24 and 1-7 μg.ml-1 for the above compounds respectively. The average recovery was ranged between 98.38% and 101.01% with relative standard deviation < 1.6 for all the studied compounds. The 4-AAP products were formed in the ratio of 1:2 aminophenol isomers : 4-AAP. The stability constant of the products was 7.4 ×108, 3.27×108 and 9.94×107 l2.mol-2 for o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol products respectively indicating the good stability of these products.

Detection of MTHFR (A1298C) Gene Polymorphism in Women Suffer from Different Types of Abortion in Mosul City

Owayes Muaffaq Alhassani; Zahra Jasim Ramadan

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126923.1064

Genetic basis of recurrent abortion is poorly understood, Single gene mutations, polygenic, and cytogenetic factors are all found to show association with recurrent abortion. The analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes with regulatory role in crucial metabolic pathways (e.g. methylene tetra hydrofolate reductase), clotting factors (Factor V leiden and prothrombin) and hormones and hormone receptors (progesterone receptor). this study included (85) pregnant women who suffer from problems during pregnancy and the age range between (25-35) years. The samples divided to four groups ,the first of this group include pregnant women who suffer from recurrent spontaneous abortion , the second group include pregnant women with missed abortion , the third group include pregnant women with recurrent spontaneous abortion and positive TORCH examination and the fourth group was considered a control group.
The result of the study showed a relationship between cases of pregnancy disorder and genetic mutations of MTHFR gene at the (A1298C) site, the result of the study for a group of women with RSA showed that the distribution of the mutant genotype CC was the highest 40% and the repetitive alleles for this group was 57.5% for mutant allele C and 42.5% for normal allele A.
While the group of missed abortion showed that that the distribution of the mutant genotype CC was the highest 40% and the repetitive alleles for this group was 52.5% for mutant allele C and 47.5% for normal allele A.

A study of essential components of three types of Bituminous Materials in Mishraq sulfur Mine

Mote&amp;#039;a Obaid Al jbouri; Hala Saad Jasim; thaer abed halo

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126679.1050

.The chemical constituentis of three types of bituminous materials found in different conditions in Mishraq sulfur Mine was studied. The FTIR spectroscopy showed reduce in the length of hydrocarbon‏ chains from the intensity of paraffinic bands in bitumenous materials of Frasch sulfur Mine (BM) compare with natural bituminous materials (NB) and Bituminous materials which extracted in-depth about 200 m without exposing to Frasch process condition (BB). The percentage of asphaltene in (MB) which increases dramatically is found 63.64% compared with (BB) and (NB) which 37.37% and 14.28% respectively and a similar decrease in percentage petrolene (maltene) . A percentage of n-hexane fraction by silica gel chromatography of petrolene (MB) is 18.49% compared with (BB and N.B) are 25.06 % and 47.05 % respectively while the cyclohexane fractions of petrolene MB are four-time of N.B and three-time of B.B .
From all results, we conclude that a reaction has occurred between sulfur and bitumenous materials especially hydrocarbon chains of Aromatics and naphthenic rings in sulfur well during Frasch process which leads to an increase in asphaltene percentage and decrease of petrolene.

A Study of the chemical nature of sulfur-containing rocks and Frasch sulfur in the Al-Mishraq Sulfur field

Mote&amp;#039;a Obaid Al jbouri; Hala Saad Jasim; thaer abed halo

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126714.1051

The economic evaluation of the exploration sulfur well depends mainly on the elemental sulfur content and its association other factors, so a sample of sulfur rocks extracted by a special excavator for one of the exploratory wells was studied and in the form of a bore hole rock. The elemental sulfur ratio reached 12.8% an important ratio in estimating the explored sulfur reserves and through XRD, the predominant crystalline composition is calcite mineral with hexagonal crystalline form and with a lesser percentage in orthorhombic crystal sulfur this supports one of the theories that explained the formation of sulfur.
Also, the mine Mishraq sulfur extracted by the underground melting method (known as the Frasch process) was studied chemically, and the elemental sulfur ratio reached 98.58% and the bituminous material 1.157%. Also, the SEM scanning electron microscope showed the presence of nanotubes of size (20-44 nm) belonging to the carb-sulfur compounds in the SEM, which are observed for the first time in this form.

Preparation and identification of some new thiazolidine -4-one compounds from Schiff base derivatives

Abdullah Dhyaa Al-khyaat; neam hazim saleem

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126881.1061

In this Study the two compounds ( 1 , 2 ) ( 5-styryl - 1,3,4- oxadiazol - 2-amine and 5-styryl - 1,3,4- thiadiazol - 2-amine ) were prepared by the reaction between ( cinammic acid ) and with of all semicarbazide , thiosemicarbazide in the middle of concentrated sulfuric acid , Then schiff bases ( 3 - 10 ) have been Prepared via by the condensation of compound ( 1 , 2 ) and the benzaldehyde dervatives ( 4-chlorobenzaldehyde , 2-chloro benzaldehyde , 4-nitro benzaldehyde , 2,4-dimethoxy benzaldehyde , 4-dimethylamino benzaldehyde ) . Finally , the new compounds ( thiazolidin-4-one ) ( 11 - 18 ) Five heterocyclic rings were prepared by the reaction of (thioglycholic acid) with Schiff bases . The synthesized compounds are identified by physical such as ( melting point , color change ) and spectral method such as ( IR , 1H - NMR ) .

Incidence and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from urinary tract infection patients in Zakho emergency hospital / Iraq

Reem F Polse; Sozan M Qarani; Mahde Saleh Assafi; Nisreen Sabaly; Fawaz Ali

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126827.1056

Uropathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered the most important causes of urinary tract infection, and recently the antibiotic resistance of this pathogen has increased dramatically. The study aims at investigating the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogenic K. pneumoniae among different ages of groups at both genders. 1737 urine specimens were collected from individuals admitted to Zakho emergency hospital from January 2016 until December 2018. K. pneumoniae was identified based on Gram stain, colony characteristics and biochemical tests, and then it was tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Out of all samples, 1076 (61.9%) showed significant bacterial yield. The UTIs among females (64.3%) were statistically higher than males (46.5%) (P<0.001). The age group of 20-29 years was highly susceptible to UTIs (43%). Among the total UTIs, K. pneumoniae represented 16.2%. K. pneumoniae in males (23.4%)was significantly higher than females (15.4%) (P=0.03).The age group 40-49 years (32.2%) was the highest group that at risk for K. pneumoniae infection. K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and was highly resistant against cephalothin (90.8%). A high prevalence of UTIs were observed among the age group of 20-29 years and the females had more risk of having UTIs. The males were more susceptible to K. pneumoniae with higher prevalence in the age group of 40-49 years. K. pneumoniae showed high sensitivity toward imipenem and high resistance to cephalothin. More awareness is required in all healthcare sectors for regular surveillance of the use of antimicrobial agents to reduce the resistance rates and to eradicate the pathogens.

Study Boundary Problem with Integral condition for Fractional Differential Equations

Nadia Adnan; Nawal Aziz Abdulkader

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126471.1038

In last many years ago there was a great interest in studying the existence of positive solutions for fractional differential equations. Many authors have considered the existence of positive solutions of non-linear differential equations of non-integer order with integral boundary value conditions using fixed point theorems.
G.wang etal(2012)in vest gated the following fractional differential equation
〖^c〗D^α W(t)+f(t,W(t))=0,0 λ is a positive number (0 < λ < 2),〖^C〗D^αis the standard Caputo fractional derivative obtained his results by means of Guo-krosnosel'skii theorem in a cone also A.Cabada etat (2013) established the following non-linear fractional differential equation with integral boundary value conditions
D^α W(t)+f(t,W(t))=0 ,00 ,λ≠α ,〗 D^αis Riemann –Liovuville standard fractional derivative and f is a continuous function the results was based on Guo-krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem in a cone .
This paper we investigate the existence results of a positive solution for integral boundary value conditions of the following system of equations:
〖^c〗D^β h(t)+k(t,h(t))=0 ,t∈(0,1)
h(0)=h^' (0)=h^''' (0)=0 ,h(1)=δ∫_0^1▒h(n)dn
where 3< β≤4 ,δ is a positive number , δ≠3 ,〖^C〗D^β denotes Caputo standard derivative and k is a continuous function.Our work based on Banach's and Schauder's theorem.

Modify the rheological properties of Daura asphalt by thermoplastic polyurethane using the microwave technique

Salam jajo Karash; Khalid Ahmed Owaid

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126651.1047

There is a growing need to produce asphalt materials with high economic feasibility, that is the production of asphalt materials with rheological properties that differ from the base asphalt (unmodified asphalt), can be used in many fields such as the production of paving asphalt, where it is not appropriate to use ordinary asphalt.
This study included the modification of the rheological properties of Daura asphalt by catalytic chemical treatment with thermoplastic polyurethane (Used in the interior parts of cars) using a microwave oven at a power of (360) watts and at different periods of time. As well as treate asphalt samples with the thermoplastic polyurethane in the presence of sulfur.
The modified asphalt samples were studied in terms of ductility, penetration, softening point and penetration Index.

A sample with good rheological specification was selected (As7) that are conform with the specifications of Iraqi Roads and Bridges Authority, The selected sample were studied in terms of conducting Marshall tests and comparing them with the original sample in order to demonstrate the possibility of using the modified sample as an paving asphalt. The obtained results showed good specifications in terms of crawl and stability values.
An aging test was also conducted on the sample (As7) of the good rheological specifications.

The rheological modification of the Daura asphalt in polycarbonate using the microwave technique

Salam jajo Karash; Khalid AL-Memary

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126779.1054

This study has included a modulation of the rheological properties of asphalt by a catalyst chemical treatment with polycarbonate, and the microwave technique was used at a power of (360) watt at time intervals. Furthermore, the modulation and treatment were done in the presence of sulfur and polycarbonate. The formed rheological properties of the new asphalt samples were studied which include (permeability, softening point, ductility and penetration index). Those asphalt samples of the new rheological properties could be used in paving field and some other samples could be used as anti-moisture materials.
The best asphalt samples with new rheological properties and those conformable with the properties of roads authority and Iraqi bridges were tested as a tiled asphalt since they were studied in terms of conducting Marshall tests and comparing them with the original sample in order to show the possibility of using the modified samples in the tiling and the obtained results were excellent in terms of stable creeping values. In addition the aging test was applied on the samples that contain good rheological properties.
Moreover, the modified asphalt has shown higher dissociation values in comparison with the original asphalt, so the modified asphalt has more resistant to high temperature and acid rains and shows an important characteristic of the quality of the asphalt that enables the modified asphalt to stick more closely to the aggregate, which gives higher resistance and greater operating age life to the streets.

The rheological properties of asphalt modified by commercial adhesive (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) and air blowing process

saad salih alzbaidy; Ammar A. Hamdoon

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126673.1048

In this study, we modify the rheolgical prioperties of asphaltic materials by addative and air blowing. For this process, asphaltic materials have been oxidized by air blowing in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst for this process . Air blowing was conducted in different condtions of temperature and times using 0.5%(by weight) from catalyst, after determining the optimal conditions for air blowing, we changged the percentage of catalyst to get the optimal perecentage which can be using in modified process, then the asphalt was treated with the commercial adhesive (EVA) in two phaths:
The first path was included addtion of different percentages from commercial adhesive under the optimal condition from air blowing and perecentage of alaminum chloride.
The second path was included dissolved the commercial adhesive in the toluene and then the modified process was conducted at same conditions in the first path, ( toluene was added to the commercial adhesive by ratio (1:6) (weight of commercial adhesive: ml of toluene).
The results showe rheological properties that are compeletly differentj from the original asphaltic materials . The study was gave modified asphaltic materials that can be using in different fields, some samples can be using in paving as in samples
(AS19, AS24, AS25) and other as mastic or as flattening as in samples (AS15, AS16, AS17, AS21, AS22). The usage of asphalitic materials in various fields depends on the measurments of different properties such as (ductility, penetration, softining point ,asphaltens percentage, penetration index ,aging test, marshall test).

The use of lignin in the rheological modification of Dura asphalt

saad salih alzbaidy; Ammar Al-Khazraji

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126782.1055

This study was included treatment of the Dura asphalt with lignin as a natural polymeric additive and air blowing with three paths.
The first path: the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified by adding the lignin to the asphalt and in various proportions in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst for this process at the optimum conditions for the catalytic oxidation process that was identified which is 150 centigrade and a time of 60 min.
The second path : the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified using the use of lignin as an additive and with the presence of 1% sulfur(by weight)at a time of 60 minutes and a temperature of 180 ° C which is the optimal conditions for the non-catalytic air blowing process that was identified.
As for the third track, the lignin was treated with asphalt without the use of anhydrous aluminum chloride under optimal conditions for the non-catalytic process.
The study showed asphalt with completely different rheological properties compared to the original asphalt, which represents the primary goal behind the continuous quest for altering the rheological specifications of the original asphalt in a way that is compatible with the nature of use in different and specific fields, some samples can be using in paving as in samples(,AS19,AS20 ,AS50).As well as a moisture inhibitor and flattening as in samples(AS22,AS40,AS41 ,AS51, AS52).The use of asphalt in various fields is determined depending on the measurements made, ductility ,softening point,penetration,asphaltenes percentage,penetration index,aging test,marshall test .

Synthesis and Identification of Some Complexes of 4-[N-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene ) imino] Antipyrinyl with Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2) Ligands and Evaluation of Their Bacteria Activities

abdallah fathi fathi; amira alshaheen

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126837.1058

This work involves,the preparation, new ligands 4-[N- (2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene) imino] antipyrinyl Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2),. from these ligands ,ten Complexes have been synthesized with metal ions Co(II) ,Ni(II) Cu(II) Zn (II) and Cd(II) in molar ratio (1:1) Metal: Ligand and these complexes have been characterized on the basis of physiochemical,investigations(1HNMR),(IR) electronicspectroscopy(U.V-Vis), molar,conductance, magnetic moment measurement, Thermal analysis (TGA), ,elemental analysis, Powder X-ray diffraction and spectral studies. Infrared data suggest that the ligands( L1) and( L2) behave as tetradentate ligands and coordinated through (N, N, O, O) as adonor,atoms sequence towards the metal ions, and they give an square planer and tetrahedral complexes, finally some of these,prepared complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activities against two classes of human pathogenic; bacteria Gram positive eg: Staphylococcus.aureus, and Gram negativebacteria including,Pseudomonas,aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoni and.Escherichiacoli, The performance results explain that the metal complexes have greater action more essential than the free ligand

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Via Decolorization of Eriochrom Black-T With N-Bromosuccinimide

Theia&amp;#039;a Al-Sabha; Zahraa Jameel Al-Gubouri

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126846.1060

A simple, precise and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of Paracetamol in its pure form and pharmaceutical formulations in the aqueous medium. The method is based on the oxidation of the Paracetamol with an excess of N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) in alkaline medium and the residual oxidizing agent bleaches the purple-colored Eriochrom black-T (EBT) to colorless species which is measured at 516 nm at room temperature. Calibration graph is linear over 0.5-9 µg mL-1 and molar absorptivity is 3.7×104 L.mol-1.cm-1. The detection and quantification limits were 0.068 and 0.229 µgmL-1 respectively. The accuracy (Average recovery %) is 98.57, and Precision (RSD) is ≤ 1.5. No interference effect has been observed from the excipients that exist in drug formulations. The method has been applied successfully in the determination of the Paracetamol in its commercial formulations (injection, syrup, and tablet), and compared favorably with other spectrophotometric methods used different reagents. The reaction mechanism for the oxidation of Paracetamol and EBT was postulated.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiamine hydrochloride Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction Using 4-Aminoantipyrine

Reem Abed Ahmed Al-Luhaiby; Mohammed Alenizzi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126895.1062

A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride by oxidative coupling reaction of thiamine with the reagent 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of copper sulphate as oxidizing agent in alkaine medium forming a reddish brown colour. The product show maximum absorption at 335 nm. The molar absorptivitiy is 26410.59 l/mol.cm for concentrations obeyed Beer’s law in the range 0.2-18 μg.ml-1. The recovery was 100.93 % with relative standard deviation < 2.0 % for thiamine hydrochloride.Thiamine and reagent 4-AAP product was formed in the ratio of 1:1. The stability constant of the product was 3.39×106 l.mol-1 for thiamine hydrochloride indicating the good stability of this product. The optimum conditions for full colour development are described and the proposed method was applied successfully for determination of thiamine in the pharmaceutical preparation (Neurorubine). The common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical do not interfere in the proposed method.

Calculation Values of potential Stickiness (S*) and Apparent Activation Energy (AAE) from Adsorption of Some Aromatic Carboxylic Acids on the Surface of a New Adsorbent Substance

Khaleel Ibrahim Alniemi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126168.1021

This study includes calculation of the potential stickiness (S*) and apparent activation energy (AAE) by the adsorption process of some aromatic carboxylic acids using sand (clay) as a new adsorbent material. This clay was collected from dust storms coming to the city of Mosul. The obtained results showed that physical adsorption which is achieved by applying the modified Arrhenius equation through the values of (S *) and (AAE) which have low values and bear a negative charge is preferable Adsorption process occurs in two-step mechanism. The effect of the concentration of the acidic solution, temperature and the substituted groups SO3, NO2, OH, NH2 on the aromatic ring) was studied to clarify the nature of the association between organic carboxylic acid anions and inorganic metal oxides to form a complex surface model. The study concluded that the values of (S *) for all acids were less than one and they were more than the value of zero. Also, the values of (AAE) gave an indication that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The presence of water molecules and (H+) ions in solution is very important to change the nature of the clay surface.

Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Leaves for Some Cultivars of Pyrus malus L. and Pyrus communis L. Cultivated in North of Iraq and Identification by Using HPLC and Spectral Characters

Muna Omar Shehab; Amer Mohsen Al-Ma&#039;thidy

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127061.1068

The present work identified (8) cultivars belonging to the species Pyrus malus L. that included ("EarlyGold", "GrannySmith", "Royal Cala", "Red Delicious", "Golden Delicious", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh" and Cox") as well as (6) Cultivars of the species Pyrus communis L. namely ("Coneference", Decana", "Bonica", "Alkhatuni","Alothmani" and "William) by using spectral and chemical characteristics. The spectral study showed that different max appeared among all the cultivars of the species, and the result of chemical study identified (7) phenolic compounds in alcoholic extracts of leaves by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) including (Apigenin, Kaempferol, Catichen, Rutin, Luteolin, Quercetin and Coumarin) using (7) standard compounds for comparison among the cultivars. The compounds Apigenin, Kaempferol, Catichen, Leuteolin and Quercetin found in all cultivars of the species Pyrus communis L. while Rutine, Leuteolin, Quercetin and Coumarin found in all cultivars of the species Pyrus malus L. but Kaempferol compound found only in "Early Gold", "Royal Cala" and "Honey Crisp". The cultivar "EarlyGold" showed that lowest concentration of the compound Rutin (1.13) g/g and highest concentration of the compound Quercetin (685.96) g/g.
The spectral and chemical characters showed a good taxonomic value in identification and separation the cultivars of the two species.

Comparative Morphological Study of Pollen Grains and Seeds of Cultivars from the Species Pyrus malus L. and Pyrus communis L. Cultivated in Northern of Iraq

Muna Omar Shehab; Amer Mohsen Al-Ma&#039;thidy

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127063.1069

The present research includes a comparative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds of (8) cultivars belonging the species Pyrus malus L. namely ("EarlyGold", "GrannySmith", "Royal Cala", "Red Delicious", "Golden Delicious", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh", Cox") and (6) Cultivars belonge to the species Pyrus communis L. namely ("Coneference", Decana", "Bonica", "Alkhatuni","Alothmani", "William) which cultivated in northern of Iraq. Were examined by light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of pollen grains showed that pattern tricolporate and the shape in polar view triangular or spherical -triangular or tetrangular but in equatorial view spherical or ovate and surface configuration was striate in all cultivars of the species. The morphological characters of seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension of width and Length, Number of seeds in fruit), in addition to indumentum were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the two species. In addition to its surface configuration, it was Striate in "EarlyGold", "RoyalCala", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh" and "Cox" and Striate papillae in GrannySmith, while the "Coneference", "Decana" and "Bonica, Alkhatuni, and Alothmani had a surface configuration pitted, and Irregular Reticular in Red Delicious and Reticulate papillae in cultivar William, while Golden Deliciou was unique as having an alveolate surface, The quantitative and qualitative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the species.

Comparative Anatomical Study for the Cultivars of Morus L. Species cultivated in North of Iraq

Raad Hammad Al-Badrany; Aamer Mohsen Al-Mathidy

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127117.1075

The current study is a comparative anatomical study of cultivars species belonging to the genus Moras L. which are cultivated in north of Iraq Namely Morus alba L. ("Beautiful Day", "Big White", "Rease", "Greece", "Pearl", "Border Sweet", "Pendula"); Morus latifolia Poir ("Kokuse Korean"); Morus rubra L. ("Amarah"); Morus nigra ("Shami"); Morus macroura Miq ("King White"); "Dwarf" and Morus hybrid ("Tice", "Wellington").
The anatomical study included (blade leaf, midrib and venation system) in addition to non-living components (crystals) in the mesophyll of the blade leaf. The result of the anatomical characteristics of (blade thickness, cuticle, epidermis cell, thickness and layers of palisade and spongy tissue, thickness and shape of arc vascular curve, number and dimension of ressles in the midrib and the shape of idioblast in cystolith). In addition to the venation system of the leaf which found the Brochidodromous type in all cultivars excepted "BigWhite" and "Pendula" cultivars of species Morus alba and "KokusoKorean" cultivars of species Morus latifolia founded from Craspedromous type.
The characteristic showed have importance taxonomic value in the separation and identification between the cultivars of the species studied belong to the genus Morus L.

Investigate Oblique Incident Alpha Particle Tracks on CR-39 Detector

Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; Yasser Taha Khlile

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127268.1081

In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and Track-Test data for track profile.
In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and

Investigating the Numerical solution of the BoltzmannTransport Equation in silicon in Momentum Space Using Computational Systems of Different Dimensions

Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien; Mahmood Majed Mahmood

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126828.1057

The Boltzmann transport equation is the basic equation for solving the transport of charge carrier (electrons, holes) problems in semiconductor devices. The distribution function has been obtained from the solution of this equation. The distribution function is important in calculating semiconductor properties, which can be used to calculate the average electron energy, the charge carrier concentration, and other properties. In this work the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation in silicon was solved using analytical / numerical methods in steady state case in momentum space. The analytical solution is requires expressing the distribution function using Legendre polynomials expansion the first two terms of the expansion, by taking into account the effect of both acoustic elastic scattering and nonelastic scattering in addition to the effect of non-parabolic energy band structure. In order to obtain the numerical solution of Boltzmann transport equation the finite difference method is used. The differential equation is transformed to linear difference equation which can represented by matrices. Numerical systems with different dimensions are designed to calculate the distribution function with the least possible time to maintain the accuracy of the solution for different applied electric field which represent the low and high field regions at temperatures T= (77, 300) K. The obtained results showed good agreement with published data that used other calculation methods such as the Monte Carlo simulation method for all the system used in this work.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

Preparation of Some Benzothiazole Polymers and Study Their Electrical Conductivity Properties

Asaad Faisal Khattab; Haitham Ahmed Ayoob; Laith Mohammed Altaan

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126945.1066

As the conjugated polymers are doped with some electron donor or acceptor dopants, their electrical conductivity increased thoroughly to about 10-6 Ω-1.cm-1. The doping of the polymers may give an n or p semiconductor characteristic according to the types of the dopants that are used. Within the frame of this work, four types of conjugated polymers with benzothiazole as a major moiety in their backbone have been prepared. The prepared monomers and polymers have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Elemental analysis of the polymers (CHN) demonstrates their chemical structure while the DSC thermal analysis illustrates its Tg. The polymers were doped with two types of dopants, iodine and sodium iodide. The electrical conductivity of the doped polymers was measured with three probe cell. The results show increasing in the electrical conductivity with dopant concentration to some levels. The activation energy of the electrical conductivity process was also studied by measuring the electrical conductivity in different temperature. According to the magnitude of the activation energy, we can conclude that the chain flexibility is the dominate factor that influenced on electrical conductivity. Hall Effect and hot probe measurements reveal that the polymer can be considered as n or p type according to the type of the doping. It was concluded that the doping with iodine produced an n-type while the doping with sodium iodide produced the p- type.

A Comparative Morphological Study of the Genus Juniperus L. ( Cupressaceae) in North of Iraq

Dr.Haees Sayel Al Jowary; Aseel Aamer Aanad Al-Sharefy

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127106.1073

A new species of juniper is Juniperus macrocarpa, permissions not previously registered in Flora of Iraq that were composed ( Guest researchers and Ali al-Rawi,1966) so only two species of Juniperus oxycedrus and Juniperus polycarpos were registered at the time. The research included a classification of the species Juniperus which belong to the Cupressaceae family that grown a wild plants in north of Iraq, using the morphological characteristics of (3) species of veins mentioned in (7) sites distributed in provinces of ( FNI,MAM and MSU )Nineveh, Dohuk and Sulaymaniyah.
The study includes the characteristics of stems, branches, bark, needle leaves, male and female cones, seeds and flower buds, as well as examining the overcoming of appearance between species and individuals of the same species in the studied sites, and sometimes the species have clear variations among them and the individuals of the same species did not show marked changes, and it became clear that the studied morphological characteristics have taxonomic. Significant in the diagnosis and isolation of species from each other, and the study was reinforced with photographs, shapes and illustrations, as well as the study showed that sexual characteristics (male and female cones and flower buds) are more proven compared to the rest of the characters, and It has a significant and taxonomic role in diagnosing the studied species into groups, so the needle leaves showed clear variations, which makes them the task of classifying them either in their quantitative or qualitative characteristics.

A Taxonomic Study of Macro-and Micro Morphological Features of Fruits and Seeds Cultivars of the Species Belonging to the Genus Morus L. (Moraceae) Cultivated in the North of Iraq

Raad Hammad Al-Badrany; Aamer Mohsen Al-Mathidy

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127107.1074

The present work deal with the morphological characters of the fruits and seed of the cultivars belonging to the species Morus alba L. Namely ("Beautiful Day", "Big White", "Rease", "Greece", "Pearl", "Border Sweet", "Pendula"); Morus latifolia Poir ("Kokuse Korean"); Morus rubra L. ("Amarah"); Morus nigra ("Shami"); Morus macroura Miq ("King White"); "Dwarf" and Morus hybrid ("Tice", "Wellington") Which cultirated in North of Iraq.
The study includes the characters of the fruits (Shape, Color, Dimension, Size, Number of the fruitlet in the fruit) and the characters of the seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension, Number of the seeds in the fruit, and surface ornamentation).
The results of some morphological characteristic of the fruits and seeds examined by light microscope (L.M), in addition to the surface ornamentation of the seeds examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Showed five type of the surface ornamentation (Reticulate, Muricate, Foreate undulate, Polygonal, and Ruminate) for cultivars species studied, showed that importance value in the separation between the cultivars of the species studied belonging to the genus Morus L.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

Genetic Algorithm to Solve Sliding Tile 8-Puzzle Problem

Ruqaya Zedan Shaban; Isra Natheer Alkallak; Mowada Mohamad Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58405

The research tackled the classical problem in artificial intelligence as 8-puzzle problem with genetic algorithm. The research present the fundamental of genetic algorithm with sliding tile 8-puzzle problem. Starting from current state for state space search into a goal state by depending on the tile’s move (tiles out of place) in the current and compare with the solution of the problem (goal), without blank’s move. population size chose by the summation of probabilities misplaced tile’s move (tiles out of place) in current state comparing with goal state. In this research, depended on the Crossover and mutation for ordered chromosomes method. The experimental in this research show that the algorithm is efficient. The source code is written in Matlab language.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Sulfacetamide and Sulfamethaxazole in Aqueous Solution Using Tetracyanoethylene Reagent

Omar A. Al-Taee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 4, Pages 47-59
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.66952

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of sulfacetamide and sulfamethaxazole. The method is based on the reaction of these drugs in aqueous solution with tetracyanoethylene reagent in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce yellow colored species measured at 355 and 356 nm for sulfacetamide and sulfamethaxazole respectively. Beer's law obeyed over the concentration range1-30 and 1-25 µg ml-1 with molar absorpitivity of 10575 and 13146 L.mol-1.cm-1 and sandell index of 0.0240 and 0.0192 μg.cm-2 for the above drugs respectively. It was found that these products were formed in ratio of 1:1. The method was applied successfully to the assay of sulfacetamide and sulfamethaxazole in their pharmaceutical formulations and was agreed well with the certified values and with standard addition procedure.

Effect of some physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria

Ahmed Talal Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161050

The study was conducted in order to create the best conditions (physical and chemical factors) that necessary for the growth of the Bacillus subtilis and its production of the Xylanase enzyme.
The results include isolation and diagnosis of (40) isolates of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis obtained from (30) soil samples and study the effect of some physical factors (period and temperature of incubation, pH of the medium, ventilation) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme. The results showed that best growth and its production of the enzyme was obtained when the incubation is (48) hours and the temperature (30) Co , pH of the medium (7) and incubation with shaking at (200) rpm where the optical density value of bacterial growth was reached (0.25) and activity of the enzyme product was (3.41) unit / ml. The effect of some chemical agents (carbon and nitrogen source for medium) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme and the results revealed that the carbon source (Xylan) gave the best growth and production of the enzyme compared with other of carbon sources (Starch, Cellulose, Xylose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose), where the optical density value of growth was (0.25) and the enzyme activity (3.41) unit / ml. Regarding the effect of the nitrogen source (organic and inorganic) in medium on growth and production of the enzyme, the results showed that the best bacterial growth and the production of an Xylanase enzyme occur when organic nitrogen sources (Peptone, Beef extract, Yeast extract, Casien) were supplemented in the medium compared with inorganic nitrogen sources (KNO3, (NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3). Peptone and Yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources for stimulation of bacterial growth and the production of the enzyme with optical density value of growth reached (0.29 , 0.286) and the enzyme activity was (3.92 , 3.9) unit / ml.

improvement Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing

Suhaib AbdulJabbar Abdulbaqee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 179-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89784

The objective of this paper is to develop a parallel Pole numerical integration method suitable for renaming in MIMD computing systems.
In this paper we improve the Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing .we compared the developed methods with initial methods the comparison showed the supervise the developed Method for the initial method.
The developed methods are suitable fof running on MIMD computing systems.

Preparation and diagnosis of Schiff bases complex with component ions Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Cd (II) derived from new amino acids

Thanaa J Yousif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 16-29
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.58782

A new complexes of some transition metal ions (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II)) and non transition metal ions (Zn(II),Cd(II)) with a number of Schiff bases obtained from the condensation of some amino acids valine and serine with (Indol-3-carboxy aldehyde) have been prepared. All the prepared complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis(M), molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility infrared and electronic spectral. The complexes were classified as:
A- mononuclear complexes.
1- Complexes with the formulas [ML(CH3COO) (H2O)2].
2- Complexes with the formulas [ML(CH3COO)] H2O.
B- Di nuclear complexes.
Complexes with the formulas [M2(L)2(CH3COO)2] .2H2O.
M= Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II)Cd(II).
L= Indol-3-carboxy aldehyde valine imine, Indol-3-carboxy aldehyde serine imine
The physical measurements showed that the prepared complexes may have a tetra coordinated (tetrahedral or square planer) and hexa-coordinated (octahedral) structure and that all the prepared complexes were non electrolyte.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studys of Adsorption of Azo Dyes on The Local Bentonite Clay

Safwan .A.S.Aldbouni .A.S.Aldbouni; Emad. A.S.Alhyali A.S.Alhyali; Ammar .A.H.Alkazraji .A.H.Alkazraji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 50-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161177

 This work is included the synthesizs of two azo dyes from the reaction of p-methoxy aniline and 2-amino benzo thiazol .via diazounium ions.A number of clays are tested as adsorbents for the removal of these dyes from their aqueous solution by adsorption . The most efficied one was selected to peforme  this study . The prepared dyes are characterized by some of their physical propertier such as(lmax)  , (emax) melting point.  Stretch bond of  (N=N)   group by(IR)spectrometry and colours.
 The optimal condition of the adsorption systems undre study such as effect of does ,initial concentration ,and temperature wear investigated .
Two isotherm models,Langmuir and Freundlich  were fitted to the experimental data of adsorption .the thermodynamic Function (  H, ∆G°,∆S°) are estimated. The results of the thermodynamic study showed that ,the forces controlling the adsorption process of the systems under considerate are physical in nature . The adsorption process are exothermic , occur spontaneously in the direction of connecting the dye to the clay surface ,and forming less random system.

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