About Journal

Defining a summary about the Journal of Education and science         The University of Mosul is the formal owner of the Journal of Education and Science (EDUSJ). The articles are published quarterly in the EDUSJ. The first volume of the journal was published in 1979 including papers on both pure sciences and human sciences. Then in 1987, the journal started to publish papers in two independent volumes: one for pure sciences and the other one was for human sciences. The journal stopped being published from 1981 to 1987 during the first gulf war. The journal is well-known inside...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

The Effect of Nickel and Aluminum Concentration on Cyclic Oxidation Resistance of Mild Steel (AISI 1020)

Yahya A. Salman; Mahmood A. Hmood; edrees edaan ghadeer

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.166256

Experimental studies have been made to determine the oxidation be heavier of several coatings system on commercial mild steel alloy (AISI 1020). The oxidation kinetics of a single stage coating such as Aluminized and Nickel have been  under )1000°C( using a thermal cyclic oxidation.The structures were studied using optical microscope to identify a phases. Most coating use to enhance the formation of protective oxid scale, in this research, the results for Nickel coating  showed some reduction in resistance of )AISI 1020( alloy and It is found they  follow linear rate law, but Aluminized coating using a pack – cementation technique, exhibited the greatest resistance to oxidation, followed parabolic law (protective oxidation behavior). because it has a good ductility and its capability to form a protective oxid Layer )Al2O3(, such Alumina scale is known as thermally and electrically insulator and characterized with slow gowning rate.  

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Cefalexin monohydrate, Ceftriaxone Sodium and Cefotaxim Sodium in Pharmaceuticals Using N-Bromosuccinimde and Evans Blue Dye

mohamed thamer aghwan; Elham Sadullah Al-Talibi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 11-31
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125959.1009

An indirect sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of cephalexin monohydrate (CEM) ceftriaxone sodium (CFX) and cefotaxim sodium (CEF) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of (CEM), (CFX) and (CEF) in hydrochloric acid medium with known excess on N-Bromosuccinimde and subsequent determination of unreacted oxidant by decolorization of Evans blue dye (EB) and measure the absorbance of residual dye at 608 nm. Calibration curves of evans blue dye in the presence of drugs were rectilinear over the ranges 1.0-9.0 , 1.0-8.0 and 1.0-9.0 µg/ml with molar absorptivity 2.75×104 , 9.28×104 and 7.81×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 and average recoveries 98.97, 102.08 and 100.08% for CEM, CFX and CEF respectively with RSD of less than 3.29%. The method was free from interference of many excipients and additives commonly found in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation resulted in a good agreement with certified value and standard addition procedure.

Effect of Seasonal Variation on Some Physio-Chemical Properties of Water of Tigris River in Mosul City.

Eman sami Al-Sarraj

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 32-45
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126256.1027

This study was conducted for some physical and chemical properties by knowing the impact of pollutants of Mosul city, for three selected stations of water along the Tigris River during the seasons of 2018 and 2019.
The following field and laboratory tests were carried out: Temperature of water, Turbidity, Electrical conductivity, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) as well as µmeasuring the concentration of ions for chlorides, orthophosphate, nitrate, and sulfate.
The results showed there was a clear fluctuation in all physical and chemical variables with different seasons and geographical location. Water temperature ranged between 14.2-25.5 °C, Turbidity 2.8-23.1 NTU, EC 266-335 µc/cm, PH 7.6-8.5, DO 6.6-9.6 mg/l, BOD5 1.4-2.9 mg/l, TH 130-338 mg/l, CL 9.8-29.9 mg/l, SO4 120-177 mg/l, NO3 0.09-166 mg/l, PO4 0.011-0.036 mg/l. Although, the increasing of all values towards the south of the city, these obtained values were within the limits for local and international standards.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Piperazine hexahydrate in Pharmaceutical Formulation with 3,5- Dinitrosalysilic Acid Reagent

Usra Ibrahim Al-Neaimy; USRA Ibrahim Al-Neaimy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126231.1023

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of piperazine hexa- hydrate was developed. The method was based on the proton transfer reaction with 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) in basic solution to form yellow product showing a maximum absorbance at 410 nm with molar absorptivity of 8350 l/mol.cm . The method is obeyed Beer’s law over the concentration range 0.5-20 µg/ml. The average recovery % of the method is 99.12% and RSD % of the method is less than 2%.
The method was applied for the determination of piperazine hexahydrate in pharmaceutical formulation as elixir and the results were in good agreement with the standard addition method .- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Effect of Some Biochemical Parameters as Antioxidants in Placenta of infected Pregnant Weman with Toxoplasmosis

muna ismail Ibraheem; Layla Abdullah Mustafa; Ahmed yahya Ismeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126095.1037

. Reregulation of biochemical profile of host as a result of host cells-pathogen interaction may involve in pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis disease. The biochemical parameters in the placenta of Toxoplasma-infected pregnant women and non-infected pregnant women (control group) were investigated The criteria taken into consideration are: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) , Peroxidase (Px) , Glutathione- S- transferase (GST) , Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , Aryl esterase (AE) , Acetylcholine esterase (AchE) , Vitamin A,C and E As well as placental electrolytes including: Sodium (Na+) , Potassium (K+) , Chloride (Cl-) , Calcium (Ca++) , Selenium (Se) , Cupper (Cu) , Zinc (Zn) , Iron (Fe) , Magnesium (Mg) and Manganese (Mn). The results showed: a non-significant increase in the activity of SOD, GST, LDH and AchE during 6-9 months, and activity of AE during 1-3 months, were determined whereas the activity of Px was decreased in all periods of pregnancyA non- significant increase in the level of vitamin E and non-significant decrease in levels of vitamin A and C during pregnancy periods in placentae of infected pregnant Were observed. . A significant increase (p≤0.01) in levels of Na+ and K+ during 1-3 months and Ca++ during 3-6 months, whereas the level of Cl- decreased during pregnancy periods. A significant increase (p≤0.01) in levels of Seand Mg during 6-9 months and a non- significant increase in level of Cu during 1-3 months and 6-9 months, whereas the level of Zn, Fe and Mn significantly decreased in all periods of Pregnancy in placenta infected women.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Aminophenol Isomers Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 4-Aminoantipyrine

Reem Abed Ahmed Al-Luhaiby; Mohammed Alenizzi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 68-84
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126543.1041

A spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of aminophenol isomers (o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol). The method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of these compounds with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of cupper sulphate as oxidizing agent in alkaine medium forming a reddish brown colour. The products show maximum absorption at 440 nm, 480 nm and 445 nm for o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol respectively. The molar absorptivities are 8.632×103 ,9.33×103 and 9.1449×103 l.mol-1.cm-1 for concentrations obeyed Beer’s law in the range 1-20, 1-24 and 1-7 μg.ml-1 for the above compounds respectively. The average recovery was ranged between 98.38% and 101.01% with relative standard deviation < 1.6 for all the studied compounds. The 4-AAP products were formed in the ratio of 1:2 aminophenol isomers : 4-AAP. The stability constant of the products was 7.4 ×108, 3.27×108 and 9.94×107 l2.mol-2 for o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol products respectively indicating the good stability of these products.

Modify the rheological properties of Daura asphalt by thermoplastic polyurethane using the microwave technique

Salam jajo Karash; Khalid Ahmed Owaid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 85-101
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126651.1047

There is a growing need to produce asphalt materials with high economic feasibility, that is the production of asphalt materials with rheological properties that differ from the base asphalt (unmodified asphalt), can be used in many fields such as the production of paving asphalt, where it is not appropriate to use ordinary asphalt.
This study included the modification of the rheological properties of Daura asphalt by catalytic chemical treatment with thermoplastic polyurethane (Used in the interior parts of cars) using a microwave oven at a power of (360) watts and at different periods of time. As well as treate asphalt samples with the thermoplastic polyurethane in the presence of sulfur.
The modified asphalt samples were studied in terms of ductility, penetration, softening point and penetration Index.

A sample with good rheological specification was selected (As7) that are conform with the specifications of Iraqi Roads and Bridges Authority, The selected sample were studied in terms of conducting Marshall tests and comparing them with the original sample in order to demonstrate the possibility of using the modified sample as an paving asphalt. The obtained results showed good specifications in terms of crawl and stability values.
An aging test was also conducted on the sample (As7) of the good rheological specifications.

The rheological properties of asphalt modified by commercial adhesive (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) and air blowing process

saad salih alzbaidy; Ammar A. Hamdoon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 102-118
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126673.1048

In this study, we modify the rheolgical prioperties of asphaltic materials by addative and air blowing. For this process, asphaltic materials have been oxidized by air blowing in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst for this process . Air blowing was conducted in different condtions of temperature and times using 0.5%(by weight) from catalyst, after determining the optimal conditions for air blowing, we changged the percentage of catalyst to get the optimal perecentage which can be using in modified process, then the asphalt was treated with the commercial adhesive (EVA) in two phaths:
The first path was included addtion of different percentages from commercial adhesive under the optimal condition from air blowing and perecentage of alaminum chloride.
The second path was included dissolved the commercial adhesive in the toluene and then the modified process was conducted at same conditions in the first path, ( toluene was added to the commercial adhesive by ratio (1:6) (weight of commercial adhesive: ml of toluene).
The results showe rheological properties that are compeletly differentj from the original asphaltic materials . The study was gave modified asphaltic materials that can be using in different fields, some samples can be using in paving as in samples
(AS19, AS24, AS25) and other as mastic or as flattening as in samples (AS15, AS16, AS17, AS21, AS22). The usage of asphalitic materials in various fields depends on the measurments of different properties such as (ductility, penetration, softining point ,asphaltens percentage, penetration index ,aging test, marshall test).

A study of essential components of three types of Bituminous Materials in Mishraq sulfur Mine

Motea Al jbouri; Hala Saad Jasim; thaer abed halo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 119-129
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126679.1050

.The chemical constituentis of three types of bituminous materials found in different conditions in Mishraq sulfur Mine was studied. The FTIR spectroscopy showed reduce in the length of hydrocarbon‏ chains from the intensity of paraffinic bands in bitumenous materials of Frasch sulfur Mine (BM) compare with natural bituminous materials (NB) and Bituminous materials which extracted in-depth about 200 m without exposing to Frasch process condition (BB). The percentage of asphaltene in (MB) which increases dramatically is found 63.64% compared with (BB) and (NB) which 37.37% and 14.28% respectively and a similar decrease in percentage petrolene (maltene) . A percentage of n-hexane fraction by silica gel chromatography of petrolene (MB) is 18.49% compared with (BB and N.B) are 25.06 % and 47.05 % respectively while the cyclohexane fractions of petrolene MB are four-time of N.B and three-time of B.B .
From all results, we conclude that a reaction has occurred between sulfur and bitumenous materials especially hydrocarbon chains of Aromatics and naphthenic rings in sulfur well during Frasch process which leads to an increase in asphaltene percentage and decrease of petrolene.

Detection of MTHFR (A1298C) Gene Polymorphism in Women Suffer from Different Types of Abortion in Mosul City

Owayes Muaffaq Alhassani; Zahra Jasim Ramadan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 130-141
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126923.1064

Genetic basis of recurrent abortion is poorly understood, Single gene mutations, polygenic, and cytogenetic factors are all found to show association with recurrent abortion. The analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes with regulatory role in crucial metabolic pathways (e.g. methylene tetra hydrofolate reductase), clotting factors (Factor V leiden and prothrombin) and hormones and hormone receptors (progesterone receptor). this study included (85) pregnant women who suffer from problems during pregnancy and the age range between (25-35) years. The samples divided to four groups ,the first of this group include pregnant women who suffer from recurrent spontaneous abortion , the second group include pregnant women with missed abortion , the third group include pregnant women with recurrent spontaneous abortion and positive TORCH examination and the fourth group was considered a control group.
The result of the study showed a relationship between cases of pregnancy disorder and genetic mutations of MTHFR gene at the (A1298C) site, the result of the study for a group of women with RSA showed that the distribution of the mutant genotype CC was the highest 40% and the repetitive alleles for this group was 57.5% for mutant allele C and 42.5% for normal allele A.
While the group of missed abortion showed that that the distribution of the mutant genotype CC was the highest 40% and the repetitive alleles for this group was 52.5% for mutant allele C and 47.5% for normal allele A.

Preparation and identification of some new thiazolidine -4-one compounds from Schiff base derivatives

Abdullah Dhyaa Al-khyaat; neam hazim saleem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 142-156
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126881.1061

In this Study the two compounds ( 1 , 2 ) ( 5-styryl - 1,3,4- oxadiazol - 2-amine and 5-styryl - 1,3,4- thiadiazol - 2-amine ) were prepared by the reaction between ( cinammic acid ) and with of all semicarbazide , thiosemicarbazide in the middle of concentrated sulfuric acid , Then schiff bases ( 3 - 10 ) have been Prepared via by the condensation of compound ( 1 , 2 ) and the benzaldehyde dervatives ( 4-chlorobenzaldehyde , 2-chloro benzaldehyde , 4-nitro benzaldehyde , 2,4-dimethoxy benzaldehyde , 4-dimethylamino benzaldehyde ) . Finally , the new compounds ( thiazolidin-4-one ) ( 11 - 18 ) Five heterocyclic rings were prepared by the reaction of (thioglycholic acid) with Schiff bases . The synthesized compounds are identified by physical such as ( melting point , color change ) and spectral method such as ( IR , 1H - NMR ) .

Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Leaves for Some Cultivars of Pyrus malus L. and Pyrus communis L. Cultivated in North of Iraq and Identification by Using HPLC and Spectral Characters

Muna Omar Shehab; Amer Al-Maathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 157-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127061.1068

The present work identified (8) cultivars belonging to the species Pyrus malus L. that included ("EarlyGold", "GrannySmith", "Royal Cala", "Red Delicious", "Golden Delicious", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh" and Cox") as well as (6) Cultivars of the species Pyrus communis L. namely ("Coneference", Decana", "Bonica", "Alkhatuni","Alothmani" and "William) by using spectral and chemical characteristics. The spectral study showed that different max appeared among all the cultivars of the species, and the result of chemical study identified (7) phenolic compounds in alcoholic extracts of leaves by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) including (Apigenin, Kaempferol, Catichen, Rutin, Luteolin, Quercetin and Coumarin) using (7) standard compounds for comparison among the cultivars. The compounds Apigenin, Kaempferol, Catichen, Leuteolin and Quercetin found in all cultivars of the species Pyrus communis L. while Rutine, Leuteolin, Quercetin and Coumarin found in all cultivars of the species Pyrus malus L. but Kaempferol compound found only in "Early Gold", "Royal Cala" and "Honey Crisp". The cultivar "EarlyGold" showed that lowest concentration of the compound Rutin (1.13) g/g and highest concentration of the compound Quercetin (685.96) g/g.
The spectral and chemical characters showed a good taxonomic value in identification and separation the cultivars of the two species.

Comparative Anatomical Study for the Cultivars of Morus L. Species cultivated in North of Iraq

Raad Hammad Al-Badrany; Aamer Mohsen Al-Mathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 178-195
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127117.1075

The current study is a comparative anatomical study of cultivars species belonging to the genus Moras L. which are cultivated in north of Iraq Namely Morus alba L. ("Beautiful Day", "Big White", "Rease", "Greece", "Pearl", "Border Sweet", "Pendula"); Morus latifolia Poir ("Kokuse Korean"); Morus rubra L. ("Amarah"); Morus nigra ("Shami"); Morus macroura Miq ("King White"); "Dwarf" and Morus hybrid ("Tice", "Wellington").
The anatomical study included (blade leaf, midrib and venation system) in addition to non-living components (crystals) in the mesophyll of the blade leaf. The result of the anatomical characteristics of (blade thickness, cuticle, epidermis cell, thickness and layers of palisade and spongy tissue, thickness and shape of arc vascular curve, number and dimension of ressles in the midrib and the shape of idioblast in cystolith). In addition to the venation system of the leaf which found the Brochidodromous type in all cultivars excepted "BigWhite" and "Pendula" cultivars of species Morus alba and "KokusoKorean" cultivars of species Morus latifolia founded from Craspedromous type.
The characteristic showed have importance taxonomic value in the separation and identification between the cultivars of the species studied belong to the genus Morus L.

Investigate Oblique Incident Alpha Particle Tracks on CR-39 Detector

Yasser Taha Khlile; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 196-210
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127268.1081

In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and Track-Test data for track profile.
In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and

Study of Some Biochemical Parameters and Fatty Acids Composition in Blood Serum of Men with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Mohamed A. H. Jasim; Luma abdalmunim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 211-217
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.166250

The current study includes a comparison of a number of biochemical variables   and the percentage of fatty acids in the blood of patients with Laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer who were diagnosed with the disease, as (25) samples were chosen for patients in the Oncology and Atomic Medicine Hospital in the city of Mosul from various age groups, in addition to (25) samples of healthy people. They did not suffer from any disease and in the same age groups as a control group. Where a number of biochemical variables and the percentage of fatty acids were measured using different techniques and the results of this study showed the presence of many significant differences for the studied variables, which indicates the existence of a significant effect of the studied disease condition on these variables.

Synthesis and Study of Some fused Substituted 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-Triazoles from 4-Chloro- phenoxy acetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid

Mudhar A. Othman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 218-226
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.166251

In this work the synthesis of some substituted 1,2,4-triazoles and five ring system's reported. 2-(4-Chlorophenoxy) acetic acid (S1) was synthesis from corresponding substituted phenol by its reaction with chloroacetic acid in sodium hydroxide solution, the acids  (Q1 and S1) esterified with methanol and sulfuric acid to give esters (Q2 and S2) which converted to acid hydrazides (Q3 and S3) by their reaction with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol.
      The acid hydrazides (Q3 and S3) were treated with carbon disulfide in potassium hydroxide solution to give potassium salts (Q4 and S4) the  formed salts were treated with hydrazine hydrate to give substituted          4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles (Q5 and S5).
         4-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole (Q5 and S5) were converted to (Q6 and S6),      (Q9 and S9) and (Q10 and S10) by treating with CS2 in  pyridine, urea and chloroacetic acid. While reaction of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole (Q5 and S5) with phenyl isothiocyanate gave thiosemicarbazide derivatives (Q7 and S7) that converted to N-phenyl substituted 1,2,4-triazole (Q8 and S8).
     The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral data.

Time decay of pulse current in capillary glow discharge

Muayad Abdullah Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 227-236
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126339.1032

A high voltage pulse generator was development and implemented. It generates a sequence spike pulses with a varying pulse height from 0 to 5 kV; and changes the pulse width in ms range. This generator tested and used to study the pulse glow discharge in argon by using the capillary tube under pressure 0.3 to 0.5 torr. This study was to establish the nature of discharge relaxation (plasma relaxation) when a high voltage pulse causes a breakdown in the gas (coverts to conducting case). It is of great importance to answer the following question. The current can decay when the voltage pulse is switched off was obtained. The electronic switching is a successful tool which can be used for generating high voltage pulses with flexibility adjustable peak height voltage pulse, pulse duration and pulse width is presented Interesting results concerning because plasma is a function of time, linearity of time decay vs. plasma. This linearity is to seem independent on gas pressure or pulse width. The slope the current decay line is very much dependent upon the initial high voltage pulse. The condition for transition from pulse to continue like DC glow discharge condition is satisfied.

Study Boundary Problem with Integral condition for Fractional Differential Equations

Nawal Aziz Abdulkader; Nadia Adnan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 237-245
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126471.1038

In last many years ago there was a great interest in studying the existence of positive solutions for fractional differential equations. Many authors have considered the existence of positive solutions of non-linear differential equations of non-integer order with integral boundary value conditions using fixed point theorems.
G.wang etal(2012)in vest gated the following fractional differential equation
〖^c〗D^α W(t)+f(t,W(t))=0,0 λ is a positive number (0 < λ < 2),〖^C〗D^αis the standard Caputo fractional derivative obtained his results by means of Guo-krosnosel'skii theorem in a cone also A.Cabada etat (2013) established the following non-linear fractional differential equation with integral boundary value conditions
D^α W(t)+f(t,W(t))=0 ,00 ,λ≠α ,〗 D^αis Riemann –Liovuville standard fractional derivative and f is a continuous function the results was based on Guo-krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem in a cone .
This paper we investigate the existence results of a positive solution for integral boundary value conditions of the following system of equations:
〖^c〗D^β h(t)+k(t,h(t))=0 ,t∈(0,1)
h(0)=h^' (0)=h^''' (0)=0 ,h(1)=δ∫_0^1▒h(n)dn
where 3< β≤4 ,δ is a positive number , δ≠3 ,〖^C〗D^β denotes Caputo standard derivative and k is a continuous function.Our work based on Banach's and Schauder's theorem.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Via Decolorization of Eriochrom Black-T With N-Bromosuccinimide

Theiaa Al-Sabha; Zahraa Jameel Al-Gubouri

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 246-256
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126846.1060

A simple, precise and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of Paracetamol in its pure form and pharmaceutical formulations in the aqueous medium. The method is based on the oxidation of the Paracetamol with an excess of N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS) in alkaline medium and the residual oxidizing agent bleaches the purple-colored Eriochrom black-T (EBT) to colorless species which is measured at 516 nm at room temperature. Calibration graph is linear over 0.5-9 µg mL-1 and molar absorptivity is 3.7×104 L.mol-1.cm-1. The detection and quantification limits were 0.068 and 0.229 µgmL-1 respectively. The accuracy (Average recovery %) is 98.57, and Precision (RSD) is ≤ 1.5. No interference effect has been observed from the excipients that exist in drug formulations. The method has been applied successfully in the determination of the Paracetamol in its commercial formulations (injection, syrup, and tablet), and compared favorably with other spectrophotometric methods used different reagents. The reaction mechanism for the oxidation of Paracetamol and EBT was postulated.

Incidence and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from urinary tract infection patients in Zakho emergency hospital / Iraq

Reem F Polse; Sozan M Qarani; Mahde Saleh Assafi; Nisreen Sabaly; Fawaz Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 257-268
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126827.1056

Uropathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered the most important causes of urinary tract infection, and recently the antibiotic resistance of this pathogen has increased dramatically. The study aims at investigating the prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of uropathogenic K. pneumoniae among different ages of groups at both genders. 1737 urine specimens were collected from individuals admitted to Zakho emergency hospital from January 2016 until December 2018. K. pneumoniae was identified based on Gram stain, colony characteristics and biochemical tests, and then it was tested for their antibiotic sensitivity. Out of all samples, 1076 (61.9%) showed significant bacterial yield. The UTIs among females (64.3%) were statistically higher than males (46.5%) (P<0.001). The age group of 20-29 years was highly susceptible to UTIs (43%). Among the total UTIs, K. pneumoniae represented 16.2%. K. pneumoniae in males (23.4%)was significantly higher than females (15.4%) (P=0.03).The age group 40-49 years (32.2%) was the highest group that at risk for K. pneumoniae infection. K. pneumoniae was highly susceptible to imipenem (100%) and was highly resistant against cephalothin (90.8%). A high prevalence of UTIs were observed among the age group of 20-29 years and the females had more risk of having UTIs. The males were more susceptible to K. pneumoniae with higher prevalence in the age group of 40-49 years. K. pneumoniae showed high sensitivity toward imipenem and high resistance to cephalothin. More awareness is required in all healthcare sectors for regular surveillance of the use of antimicrobial agents to reduce the resistance rates and to eradicate the pathogens.

A Study of the chemical nature of sulfur-containing rocks and Frasch sulfur in the Al-Mishraq Sulfur field

Mote&amp;#039;a Obaid Al jbouri; Hala Saad Jasim; thaer abed halo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126714.1051

The economic evaluation of the exploration sulfur well depends mainly on the elemental sulfur content and its association other factors, so a sample of sulfur rocks extracted by a special excavator for one of the exploratory wells was studied and in the form of a bore hole rock. The elemental sulfur ratio reached 12.8% an important ratio in estimating the explored sulfur reserves and through XRD, the predominant crystalline composition is calcite mineral with hexagonal crystalline form and with a lesser percentage in orthorhombic crystal sulfur this supports one of the theories that explained the formation of sulfur.
Also, the mine Mishraq sulfur extracted by the underground melting method (known as the Frasch process) was studied chemically, and the elemental sulfur ratio reached 98.58% and the bituminous material 1.157%. Also, the SEM scanning electron microscope showed the presence of nanotubes of size (20-44 nm) belonging to the carb-sulfur compounds in the SEM, which are observed for the first time in this form.

A Study of Optical Properties of Tetraborate Glasses Containing CaO, MgO & BaO

Aynur Bahaaldeen Baha. kamal; Manaf A.Hassan al-azzawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127127.1076

Glasses with compositions (100-x) % Na2B4O7–x % MO (X=10,20,30,40) where (M) is Ba, Mg and Ca, are prepared using conventional melt quenching method. X-rays diffractions are performed. The result of (XRD) confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The measured density increases with increasing content of BaO, MgO & CaO in glass network. The position and shifting rate of absorption edge, optical band energy (Eopt) and band tails energy (Eo) were investigated. The Eopt and Eo values of all glasses studied in this work were found to be comparable with the values corresponding to some semiconductors. The structure of the glasses was investigated by means of IR spectroscopy. It found from the experimental results of IR spectra that the groups (BO3)- and (B2O7)- are dominant the structure of these glasses. Also It is found that the shifting in band position is small with increasing of (Ba, Mg, Ca) oxide in the glass network.

Pathophysiological consequences of SARS CoV-2

Hadeel Mohammad Hameed; hiyam natheer maty; fanar ablahad isihak

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127225.1089

Abstract
Coronavirus outbreak occurred in late 2019 and called (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 which firstly emerged in Wuhan city/China. This virus mostly attacks the respiratory system and therefore is more likely to destroy lung tissue and cause pneumonia; although lung is the target tissue but many organs of COVID 19 patients affect by virus invasion and showed numerous Physiological consequences. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors for the virus attachment are distributed in human's tissues including “lungs, heart, kidneys, intestines, brain and testes” that are recognized as a possible targets of COVID-19.The vital functions of these organs may impaired with different levels as a result of viral infection and replication. Patient with type A especially those formerly have been identified with cardiovascular diseases in particular increased blood pressure, are more expected to develop acute COVID-19 symptoms. Clot producing disorders with SARS CoV-2 infected patients were observed firstly by researchers in China. Thus untreated patients revealed large arterial pulmonary clots can put permanent pressure on the heart, leading to cardiac attack. Anxiety about the coronavirus outbreak is extremely common. Therefore, some individual may showed a huge concern that can disturb their regular life. Stress and fear from infection can be devastating and cause powerful excitements in children and adults. Therefore this study aims to shed light on pathophysiological consequences and stressful conditions of COVID-19 in patients including many of boby organs and ABO system.

Histopathological changes that induced by Monsodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite on the eyes of white mice Mus musculus and the protective role of Grape seeds oil

Sanabel Al-Thanoon; ali ashgar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127648.1091

Current study tackled potency of MSG and NaNO2 to induce histopathological changes in eye texture of Swiss-mice and protective role of grape seed-oil against toxicity these substances may cause.
In this study, 36 adult mice divided into six groups with control. One group was dosed with MSG at 9g/kg; another was injected with NaNO2 at 110mg/kg for two months, groups with interference of two substances, and two groups with interference of grape seeds-oil with each substance.
Results showed emergence of histopathological lesions. In treatment with MSG, there was wide destruction and damage to photoreceptor cells and outer, inner nuclear layer, separation corneal stroma and gliosis in optic nerve. In treatment with NaNO2, damage was extensive in components of eye; it was noted the appearance of roseat pattern in outer, inner nuclear layer, necrosis of outer plexus layer and contraction of lens fibres. When treating with an interference of MSG and NaNO2, damage was observed to the surface epithelial tissue of cornea, stroma fibres, reduction in fibroblasts, necrosis in some cells of ciliary body, and in retina extensive damage was observed in its layers.
When treating by MSG with oil, increase in the inner plexus vasa, nerve fibres, and the inner nuclear layer was observed and slight damage to the outer pieces of the photoreceptors. When treating with NaNO2, oil, infiltration of inflammatory cells appeared in the ganglion cells, increased vasa, edema and hyperplasia in the epithelium of the lens.

Investigation of The Numerical Solution for One Dimensional Drift-Diffusion Model in Silicon in Steady State

Mumtaz Hussien; Rozana Noori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127055.1067

Abstract
The drift-diffusion model is considered as one of the most important models which is used to describe the characteristics of semiconductor devices and can be applied to wide range of applications started from micro up to nano scale devices after applying the suitable correction on it. The Poisson, continuity, and current equations are considered as the basic equations for semiconductor devices, these equations are partial differential equations, used in the drift diffusion model. These equations described the semiclassical electron and hole transport in semiconductor in the presence of uniformly applied electric field. In this paper a numerical method (finite difference method) has been used to find the solution of these equations depending on Gummel method and Scharfetter-Gummel scheme, the drift diffusion model is applied after many approximation and suitable boundary condition which has been considered for the pn diode in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium cases at room temperature, from this simulation model a MATLAB program has been prepared to obtained diode parameters as a function of distance at the junction region, these parameters are (conduction band, carrier concentration, electric field and charge density) two diode model has been tested with different doping concentration the first with N_A=N_D and the second with N_A>N_D also the diode characteristic in the forward biased is obtained.

Kinetic and inhibitory study of partially purified lipoxygenase from epilepsy patients serum

Nashwan Ibrahem Al-lehebe; Ahmed Al-Fayyad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127778.1093

Abstract
This research was included partially purification of lipoxygenase (LOX) from serum of patients with epilepsy using ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and ion-exchange chromatography with specific activity (0.751 U / mg) , (0.935 U/mg) and (2.60 U/mg) respectively . Optimum conditions for enzyme activity were determined. The best enzyme activity was showed at 7 minutes of incubation time , 3 minutes of reaction time, pH = 7, temperature 40Cº and finally substrate concentration (linoleic acid) was (1.2 mmol/L) . By applying Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk Equations, Michaelis-Menten constant (km) and Vmax values were found 0.3 (mM) and (0.9 U/ml) respectively. Also this study included the effect of some antiepileptic drugs such as valproic acid , carbamazepine and acetozolamide. Acetazolamide showed the highest inhibition of lipooxygenase activity(96.2٪) , valproic acid (95.6) and Carbamazapine (95.1٪). Inhibition type was studied and the result showed noncompetitive inhibition by using Lineweaver-Burke plot for all above drugs.

Effect of Annona Muricata Extracts on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats Exposed to Induced Liver Tumor

Mohammed Ibrahim Al-naqshabandey; Luma abdalmunim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127597.1088

This research included a study of some Biochemical variables of male rats Wister with Induced liver Cancer and a study of the effect of extracts of three parts Annona Muricata, including seeds, core, and leaves to study its effects on the disease. The animals were divided into eight groups: I Control group, II treated with TAA, III treated with extract Core, IV treated with extract Seed, V treated with extract Leave, VI treated With TAA with extract Core, VII treated with TAA and extract Seed and, VIII TAA with extract Leave. In this study, the measurement kit was used to measure the Total Protein, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein. Manual Methods used to estimate Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, and Paraoxonase. The results showed a significant increase in the tumor-infected rats of Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine-transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the control group, while there was a significant decrease in rats which treated with TAA of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the control group. The results show a significant decrease in the levels in tumor-affected animals and treated with extract seed for each Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the group of rats affected and treated with the extract Core, and leaves, The results also showed a significant increase in the affected rats which treated with extract seeds for the level of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the group treated with Core, leaves.

Refactoring for software maintenance: A Review of the literature

Rasha Alsarraj; atica Altaie

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127426.1085

One of the techniques to increase the value of the software quality is refactoring - the set of activities for code enhancement through altering inner structure and not altering outer behavior of code. It is a technique to clean-up the source code that decreasing the opportunities of code faults. Refactoring can be defined as one of the most significant practices for maintaining the advanced software systems. It has been indicated by the empirical studies that refactoring has positive effect on maintainability and understandability of the software systems. This study introduces a literature review of 22 researches that study and summarize the influence of refactoring and their effect on the attributes of software quality specially maintainability. Through the review, the study sums the following points: (1) applying refactoring activities will increase the values of some attributes of quality like Understandability and maintainability. (2)There are several factors that affect reconstruction activities, including cohesion, coupling, hiding of information and encapsulation, (3) Refactoring helps to improve the source code without changing the behavior of the program, (4) refactoring activates can be applied many times to the source code.

Preparation and Studying of Zeolite with Catalytic Properties From Local Silica and Bauxite Ores

Ragheed Yousif Ghazal; Tamarah Abdulsalam Younus

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127990.1104

The research included a method for preparing zeolite by utilizing the components of clay mineral ores (silica and alumina). The two ores(Local Silicate and Bauxite) were studied through chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The results showed that they contained good quantities of these two substances, which were converted into sodium silicate and sodium aluminate, then the zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal method at (pH=11) in the presence of the structural directing agent (triethylamine) then converted to the formula (H-zeolite) to improve its acidic properties, And then a number of measurements have been done for the prepared zeolite, which is a thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) ,it showed that it contains amounts of moisture and crystallization water as well as its thermal stability at (700°C). As for the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), it showed its good crystallization rate and its possession of a crystalline cube system, and the measurement of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) showed that it had a high percentage of silicon and aluminum, this indicates a balanced and equal interaction between these two materials when preparing of zeolite. The measurement of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the high pore system and the fine particles that were around (18.17 nm), Finally the measurement of adsorption by The intention (BET) that explained the prepared zeolite have a high surface area (244.3766 m2/g).

Adopting Text Similarity Methods and Cloud Computing to Build a College Chatbot Model

Zaid Mundher; Wissam Khalf Khater; Laith Mohammed Ganeem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127244.1079

A chatbot is a computer program which is designed to interact with users and answer questions. Nowadays, chatbots are one of the most common systems that are used in many fields and by different companies to achieve different tasks. Cloud computing is gaining increasing interest. A myriad of fields and applications have been developed based on cloud computing.
In this paper, a college chatbot was developed and implemented to assist students to interact with their college and ask questions related to faculty, activities, exams, admission, amongst other tasks. Text similarity algorithms were adopted to achieve the proposed system. More specifically, cosine similarity and jaccard similarity algorithms were used to find the closest question in the dataset. Firebase real-time database, which is one of the Google cloud services, was used as a connector channel between users and the chatbot server.
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of cosine similarity and jaccard similarity methods, and to compare the results of both. In addition, real-time database was also evaluated as a chatbot connecter channel.

preparation of palladium Catalyst from bauxite ore and using for kerosene treatment

Wafa Saeed; Qaidar Salim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127951.1103

The research was aimed to used bauxite ore that has a high aluminum minerals which available in Al-Hussainiyat near al-Anbar district as a source of alumina which it used as a catalyst support after being loaded with palladium metal , The components of both bauxite ore and prepared catalyst were studied by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the prepared catalyst , After this the catalyst was used in the treatment of kerosene which is distilled at (150-260C0) under different conditions of the (temperature , reaction time and the ratio of catalyst) to know the optimal reaction conditions that determid by measuring the (FTIR) and chemical analysis. The optimal conditions: temperature was (250C0), reaction time was (2hours) and the catalyst ratio was (2%) .The catalyst appeard the ability to dehydrogenation reaction and reforming to form olefinic and aromatic compounds. The research also included the study of n-paraffins separated from kerosene samples that were treating in different temperatures (150,200,250C0 ) using (1HNMR).The results showed the ability of the catalyst towards catalytic cracking and converting n-paraffins to iso-paraffins

Isolation and diagnosis of Rhizobium bacteria isolated from the root nodules of leguminous plants and studying their plasmid content

Wissam Jihad Alubidy; Mohammed عبدالاله Al-Shakarchi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127846.1098

Abstract
The study included thirty-six isolates of rhizobia bacteria were isolated from the nodules located on the roots of nine types of leguminous family plants that were planted in four areas of the city of Mosul for the winter agricultural season for the year 2020-2019, where they studied the phenotypic and agricultural characteristics of the isolated bacteria in addition to a study of resistance and sensitivity to the isolates of rhizobia bacteria The study included ten antibiotics, and resistance ratios differed between isolates groups, where the highest resistance rate for residual bacteria isolates was 100% for Nystatin and Amoxicillin, and the lowest resistance was for Tetracycline and Streptomycin, as it reached 22.2%. As for the rest of the antibiotics, there is a difference between that.
As for heavy metal salts, all the isolates of rhizobia bacteria under study were resistant to both CdCl2 chloride and CoCl2 cobalt by 100%, while their resistance to nickel chloride NiCl2 was 77.7% and the lowest resistance to heavy metal was mercury chloride HgCl2, reaching 33.3%.
The plasmid DNA content was described for the studied isolates, as the results showed that there are two types of plasmid DNA bundles, the first type close to large-scale gel drilling called Mega plasmid represents symbiotic plasmids that carry the genes of contract formation and nitrogen fixation and the second type moves far from the gel drilling and they are sizes small equal representing non-symbiotic plasmids.

Synthesis of New 3-Substituted Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Compounds Via Linking of Some Five-Membered Ring Heterocyclic Moieties With Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Nucleus

Rand Arshad Saad-Aldeen; Mohammed Ahmed Al-iraqi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127904.1101

In this research new compounds containing quinazolin-4(3H)-one nucleus linked to heterocyclic moieties were synthesized using ethyl (4'-oxoquinazolin-3'-yl) acetate (2) as a synthon. This compound was synthesized via 4-quinazolinone's (1) reaction with ethyl chloroacetate in the existence of K2CO3 as a base and acetone as a solvent. The ethyl α-(4'-oxoquinazolin-3'-yl) acetate (2) was converted to the corresponding hydrazide through its reaction with hydrazine hydrate (85 %). Compound (3) was reacted with two of acyl chlorides to synthesize the diacyl hydrazine compounds (4,5). The compound (5) was cyclized to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazole (6) in presence of phosphorous oxychloride. The formyl derivative (7) of the hydrazide (3) was synthesized via its reaction with formic acid and consequently cyclized by phosphorous oxychloride to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazole (8). The hydrazide (3) was also converted to the thiosemicarbazide derivative (9) by its reaction with ammonium thiocyanate under acidic conditions. Whereas other substituted thiosemicarbazide derivatives (10-12) were synthesized by the reaction of hydrazide (3) with organic isothiocyanate compounds. The resultant compounds (11, 12) were cyclized under basic conditions (4% sodium hydroxide solution) to give 1,3,4-triazole-2-thiole derivatives (13,14), whereas the cyclization of compounds (10-12) was performed under the acidic medium (conc. H2SO4) to give 2-substituted amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (15-17). On the other side, the hydrazide's (3) reaction with isocyanate compounds affords the semicarbazide compounds (18,19). These compounds were cyclized under the basic condition to afford 1,3,4-triazol-2-ol compounds (20,21). The structures of the synthesized compounds were corroborated depending on the physical and spectral data.

AEPRD: An Enhanced Algorithm for Predicting Results of Orthodontic Operations

Ammar Thaher Yaseen Al Abd Alazeez Thaher Al Abd Alazeez

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127785.1094

The face is the most critical component which is clear on first sight for an individual. Delicate tissue of the face alongside the fundamental dentoskeletal tissues portrays the facial attributes of a person. Social affirmation, mental well-being, and self-esteem of an individual are related to physical appearance. Strikingly, facial properties are regularly packed in profile. Orthodontic assurance and treatment orchestrating are continuously being established on profiles rather than basically on Angle's concept of molar relationship. It was seen that particular skeletal exact guidelines, proportion of constitution of the delicate tissue, and facial solid position can affect the assessment of the profile.
One of the uncommon challenges in orthodontics is the treatment orchestrating and the leading body of orthognathic careful cases. These cases require a mix of both orthodontics and orthognathic medical procedure to accomplish an even impediment, appropriate function, and agreeable facial feel. Early analyze of malocclusion is exceptionally helpful to get legitimate teeth straight. Thusly, in this paper we built up a straightforward PC supported program that could help foreseeing teeth impediment. In other word, we take an image of individual and order it into one of the three primary types Class I, Class II, and Class III and predict the after all treatments of Class II and Class III. This study gives information which can be used in treatment orchestrating by authorities, for instance, orthodontists, prosthodontists, plastic specialists, and maxillofacial experts, who have the ability to change the delicate tissue facial highlights.

Diagnosis of Local Isolates of Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Biochemical Methods

Haitham Abdalelah Aljader; Zena Wajeh Al_gader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127840.1096

Abstract
In this study 10 local isolates of yeast Saccharomyces were obtained from the local markets of Mosul .The Isolates were diagnosed by morphological and cultural characters in addition to biochemical tests. the results of the tests showed that they belong to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type . Local isolates were tested for resistance to 8 different types of antibiotics and 5 salts of heavy metals. all isolates were resistant to each of Chloramphenicol , Ampicillin , Tetracycline and Streptomycin at 100%. As for the Erythromycin antibiotic most of the local isolates were resistant except for the isolates (SY4 , SY5 , SY6) As well as Amoxicillin all isolates were resistant except for (SY4) . While the isolates showed sensitivity to Nystatin at 80% and for Flagyl at 90% . The isolates also showed resistance to all Zinc chloride ZnCl2 , Nickel chloride NiCl2 and Cobalt chloride CoCl2 at 100% , as for mercury chloride all isolates were resistant except for (SY2) which showed sensitivity to it . sensitivity of the isolates was clear to Cadmium chloride CdCl2 except for the isolates (SY3 , SY9 , SY10) .

Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation Biological Activity of Cobalt (II) with Mixed Ligands complexes

Ahlam Mohammed Yaseen Al-Bayati; Zuhoor Fathi Dawood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128321.1110

New cobalt (II) complexes with mixed ligands including [(2- oxime-4-hydrazone) pentane (L1H) and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone(T1H) ,or 3,4-dimethoxy acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (T2H); glycine (GH) or metformin (mf)] have been prepared in both pH (6.5-7) and (9.5-10) using classical and microwave techniques. The resulting complexes have been characterized using physio- chemical and spectral techniques. The study suggested that the complexes have the generalformulate [Co(L1H)(TH)(BH)](CH3COO)2and[Co(L1)(TH)(G)]or[Co(L1)(T)(mf)] at pH (6.5-7) and (9.5- 10), respectively {where TH= T1H or T2H; T= deprotonated T1H or T2H; L1H=L1=deprotenated; BH= GH or mf; G= deprotonated GH]. Hexacoordinated mononuclear complexes having distorted octahedral geometries have been investigated. The biologicall activity of the ligands and complexes have been evaluated by agar plate diffusion technique against Echerichia coli, Klipsila pnnemoia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some compounds have been found to have antibacterial activity. 

Theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on graphene nanostructures functionalized with nickel for solid state hydrogen storage

ameer albyatei; Issa Zainalabddeen assaflly

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128376.1112

Hydrogen adsorption and storage on nickel- activated, pure graphene and boron-doped graphene was study using density functional theory simulations based on generalized gradient approximation methods (DFT-GGA). It was found that the nickel atoms tend to clustering on the surface of pure graphene due to the high cohesive energy of nickel compared to the energy of nickel binding to the surface of pure graphene, which decrease the storage capacity of hydrogen. It was also found that the storage capacity of seven hydrogen molecules on pure and activated graphene with a nickel atom is equal to (10.2 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.27 eV), and the storage capacity for the same number of hydrogen molecules is (11.3 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.22 eV), This indicates that the adsorption process will take place at ambient conditions. The process of inoculating graphene-doped boron and nickel activating is an effective strategy for improving the average binding energies and the storage capacity of hydrogen molecules in the graphene nanostructures.

Estimating the Level of Some Inflammatory Cytokines in the Serum of Women Exposed to Abortion and the Relationship with Toxoplasmosis

Raqaa Alubaidi; Adeeba Shareef

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128415.1113

This study includes the collection of (90) blood samples, eighty samples belongs to patients experienced to spontaneous or recurrent abortions, and the ten samples from women with normal pregnancy. The results showed a significant increase in the levels of cytokines in patients serum as their concentrations were (218.15±105.1 pg/L for IL-1β, 63.10±35.17 ng/L for TNF-α and 31.77±25.3ng/ml for IFN-g) compared to the control as it(151.0±0.76 pg/L ,34.96±0.42 ng/L and 11.15±3.49 ng/ml) for the cytokines respectively. The level of cytokines reached (352.18 pg/L,117.8 ng/L and 63.8 ng/ml) for IL-1β,TNF-α and IFN-g respectively in women infected with Toxoplasmosis compared to non-infected women (337.1 pg/L , 101.3 ng/L and 54.06 ng/ml). This indicate that toxoplasmosis has a role in the induction of immune system.

An Overview of the Evolution of the Porous Silicon material: A review

Ghazwan Ghazi Ali; Marwan Hafeedh Younus; Ivan Karomi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128341.1111

Recently, the properties and applications of the porous became the main subject of several books and the vast numbers of review articles. Porous silicon has demonstrated significant versatility and promise for a wide range of optoelectronic applications thanks to its large surface area and intense photoluminescence at room temperature. In this review, we describe the fabrication techniques and experimental improvements made towards porous silicon (PSi) and we provide a full picture of realization and characterization of this material. We also highlight its important properties, such as chemical, structure and surface properties. We summarize the techniques that have been used, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, atomic force microscope images (AFM) and a scanning probe microscope (SEM). Additionally, the effect of the current density and etching time are also documented in this review. In summary, porous silicon has undergone vast improvement in both fabrication and characterization methods, which makes it an attractive modern material.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

Genetic Algorithm to Solve Sliding Tile 8-Puzzle Problem

Ruqaya Zedan Shaban; Isra Natheer Alkallak; Mowada Mohamad Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58405

ABSTRACT
The research tackled the classical problem in artificial intelligence as 8-puzzle problem with genetic algorithm. The research present the fundamental of genetic algorithm with sliding tile 8-puzzle problem. Starting from current state for state space search into a goal state by depending on the tile’s move (tiles out of place) in the current and compare with the solution of the problem (goal), without blank’s move. population size chose by the summation of probabilities misplaced tile’s move (tiles out of place) in current state comparing with goal state. In this research, depended on the Crossover and mutation for ordered chromosomes method. The experimental in this research show that the algorithm is efficient. The source code is written in Matlab language.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

Abstract
The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

The effect of static pressure on the loss of transition through an optical fiber with a constant multi-pattern refractive index

Khalil Mustafa; Mazen Khalil; Abd Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2006, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 150-167
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77504

This work presents the study of the effect of the static pressure on the propagation of laser beam in the fibers. Three types of fiber have been used in this studies; multimode & step index fiber, Plastic Clad Plastic (PCP) with and with-out jacket and Glass core fiber (bare core). Normal pressure of rang (0 ~ 1300 ) bar were applied on a section (20 cm) length of fiber.
The variation of power attenuation as a function of time during the applied pressure were also investigated .The sensitivity of each fiber was determined when used as a fiber optical pressure sensor.
The results show PCP with jacket gives poor response to the pressure up to 500 bar, while glass core fiber fail as a sensor when the pressure is 1300 bar. PCP with-out jacket show two times sensitivity more when compared with other fiber under the same pressure used in this study.

Effect of some physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria

Ahmed Talal Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161050

The study was conducted in order to create the best conditions (physical and chemical factors) that necessary for the growth of the Bacillus subtilis and its production of the Xylanase enzyme.
The results include isolation and diagnosis of (40) isolates of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis obtained from (30) soil samples and study the effect of some physical factors (period and temperature of incubation, pH of the medium, ventilation) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme. The results showed that best growth and its production of the enzyme was obtained when the incubation is (48) hours and the temperature (30) Co , pH of the medium (7) and incubation with shaking at (200) rpm where the optical density value of bacterial growth was reached (0.25) and activity of the enzyme product was (3.41) unit / ml. The effect of some chemical agents (carbon and nitrogen source for medium) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme and the results revealed that the carbon source (Xylan) gave the best growth and production of the enzyme compared with other of carbon sources (Starch, Cellulose, Xylose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose), where the optical density value of growth was (0.25) and the enzyme activity (3.41) unit / ml. Regarding the effect of the nitrogen source (organic and inorganic) in medium on growth and production of the enzyme, the results showed that the best bacterial growth and the production of an Xylanase enzyme occur when organic nitrogen sources (Peptone, Beef extract, Yeast extract, Casien) were supplemented in the medium compared with inorganic nitrogen sources (KNO3, (NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3). Peptone and Yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources for stimulation of bacterial growth and the production of the enzyme with optical density value of growth reached (0.29 , 0.286) and the enzyme activity was (3.92 , 3.9) unit / ml.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039

ABSTRACT

The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

improvement Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing

Suhaib AbdulJabbar Abdulbaqee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 179-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89784

Abstract
The objective of this paper is to develop a parallel Pole numerical integration method suitable for renaming in MIMD computing systems.
In this paper we improve the Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing .we compared the developed methods with initial methods the comparison showed the supervise the developed Method for the initial method.
The developed methods are suitable fof running on MIMD computing systems.

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

ABSTRACT
This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Construction and protection of secure databases for the General Company for the distribution of petroleum products in Mosul

Raya Jassim Issa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 163-178
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51411

Abstract
This paper aims to design a database and protecting it using Oracle Language and MD5 algorithm for encryption for the Oil Products Distribution Company (OPDC) in Mosul. The study assumes “the possibility of establishing a scientific, applicable and secure database and protect it, in light of the OPDC data, organizational structure and information those internally certified.
Three detectives on work: Oracle databases and Oracle language for structural and management of the data; the protection and the mechanism of action of secure cryptographic algorithm; the stages of the building for OPDC. The study reached conclusive results, the most important is that it could build databases and protect it. It has been tested and proven a successful operation in the demo application.

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