About Journal

The University of Mosul is the formal owner of the Journal of Education and Science (EDUSJ). The journal is published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1979. The (EDUSJ) is an open-access journal and accept scientific articles from all over the world. The (EDUSJ) publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in the field of (Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer science and Mathematics) science. The Journal using iThenticate to check the plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

The rheological modification of the Daura asphalt in polycarbonate using the microwave technique

Salam jajo Karash; Khalid AL-Memary

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126779.1054

This study has included a modulation of the rheological properties of asphalt by a catalyst chemical treatment with polycarbonate, and the microwave technique was used at a power of (360) watt at time intervals. Furthermore, the modulation and treatment were done in the presence of sulfur and polycarbonate. The formed rheological properties of the new asphalt samples were studied which include (permeability, softening point, ductility and penetration index). Those asphalt samples of the new rheological properties could be used in paving field and some other samples could be used as anti-moisture materials.
The best asphalt samples with new rheological properties and those conformable with the properties of roads authority and Iraqi bridges were tested as a tiled asphalt since they were studied in terms of conducting Marshall tests and comparing them with the original sample in order to show the possibility of using the modified samples in the tiling and the obtained results were excellent in terms of stable creeping values. In addition the aging test was applied on the samples that contain good rheological properties.
Moreover, the modified asphalt has shown higher dissociation values in comparison with the original asphalt, so the modified asphalt has more resistant to high temperature and acid rains and shows an important characteristic of the quality of the asphalt that enables the modified asphalt to stick more closely to the aggregate, which gives higher resistance and greater operating age life to the streets.

The use of lignin in the rheological modification of Dura asphalt

saad salih alzbaidy; Ammar Al-Khazraji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 22-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126782.1055

This study was included treatment of the Dura asphalt with lignin as a natural polymeric additive and air blowing with three paths.
The first path: the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified by adding the lignin to the asphalt and in various proportions in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst for this process at the optimum conditions for the catalytic oxidation process that was identified which is 150 centigrade and a time of 60 min.
The second path : the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified using the use of lignin as an additive and with the presence of 1% sulfur(by weight)at a time of 60 minutes and a temperature of 180 ° C which is the optimal conditions for the non-catalytic air blowing process that was identified.
As for the third track, the lignin was treated with asphalt without the use of anhydrous aluminum chloride under optimal conditions for the non-catalytic process.
The study showed asphalt with completely different rheological properties compared to the original asphalt, which represents the primary goal behind the continuous quest for altering the rheological specifications of the original asphalt in a way that is compatible with the nature of use in different and specific fields, some samples can be using in paving as in samples(,AS19,AS20 ,AS50).As well as a moisture inhibitor and flattening as in samples(AS22,AS40,AS41 ,AS51, AS52).The use of asphalt in various fields is determined depending on the measurements made, ductility ,softening point,penetration,asphaltenes percentage,penetration index,aging test,marshall test .

Synthesis and Identification of Some Complexes of 4-[N-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene ) imino] Antipyrinyl with Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2) Ligands and Evaluation of Their Bacteria Activities

abdallah fathi fathi; amira alshaheen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 42-61
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126837.1058

This work involves,the preparation, new ligands 4-[N- (2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene) imino] antipyrinyl Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2),. from these ligands ,ten Complexes have been synthesized with metal ions Co(II) ,Ni(II) Cu(II) Zn (II) and Cd(II) in molar ratio (1:1) Metal: Ligand and these complexes have been characterized on the basis of physiochemical,investigations(1HNMR),(IR) electronicspectroscopy(U.V-Vis), molar,conductance, magnetic moment measurement, Thermal analysis (TGA), ,elemental analysis, Powder X-ray diffraction and spectral studies. Infrared data suggest that the ligands( L1) and( L2) behave as tetradentate ligands and coordinated through (N, N, O, O) as adonor,atoms sequence towards the metal ions, and they give an square planer and tetrahedral complexes, finally some of these,prepared complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activities against two classes of human pathogenic; bacteria Gram positive eg: Staphylococcus.aureus, and Gram negativebacteria including,Pseudomonas,aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoni and.Escherichiacoli, The performance results explain that the metal complexes have greater action more essential than the free ligand

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiamine hydrochloride Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction Using 4-Aminoantipyrine

Reem Abed Ahmed Al-Luhaiby; Mohammed Alenizzi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 62-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126895.1062

A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride by oxidative coupling reaction of thiamine with the reagent 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of copper sulphate as oxidizing agent in alkaine medium forming a reddish brown colour. The product show maximum absorption at 335 nm. The molar absorptivitiy is 26410.59 l/mol.cm for concentrations obeyed Beer’s law in the range 0.2-18 μg.ml-1. The recovery was 100.93 % with relative standard deviation < 2.0 % for thiamine hydrochloride.Thiamine and reagent 4-AAP product was formed in the ratio of 1:1. The stability constant of the product was 3.39×106 l.mol-1 for thiamine hydrochloride indicating the good stability of this product. The optimum conditions for full colour development are described and the proposed method was applied successfully for determination of thiamine in the pharmaceutical preparation (Neurorubine). The common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical do not interfere in the proposed method.

Calculation Values of potential Stickiness (S*) and Apparent Activation Energy (AAE) from Adsorption of Some Aromatic Carboxylic Acids on the Surface of a New Adsorbent Substance

Khaleel Ibrahim Alniemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 76-89
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126168.1021

This study includes calculation of the potential stickiness (S*) and apparent activation energy (AAE) by the adsorption process of some aromatic carboxylic acids using sand (clay) as a new adsorbent material. This clay was collected from dust storms coming to the city of Mosul. The obtained results showed that physical adsorption which is achieved by applying the modified Arrhenius equation through the values of (S *) and (AAE) which have low values and bear a negative charge is preferable Adsorption process occurs in two-step mechanism. The effect of the concentration of the acidic solution, temperature and the substituted groups SO3, NO2, OH, NH2 on the aromatic ring) was studied to clarify the nature of the association between organic carboxylic acid anions and inorganic metal oxides to form a complex surface model. The study concluded that the values of (S *) for all acids were less than one and they were more than the value of zero. Also, the values of (AAE) gave an indication that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The presence of water molecules and (H+) ions in solution is very important to change the nature of the clay surface.

Comparative Morphological Study of Pollen Grains and Seeds of Cultivars from the Species Pyrus malus L. and Pyrus communis L. Cultivated in Northern of Iraq

Muna Omar Shehab; Amer Mohsen Al-Maathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 90-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127063.1069

The present research includes a comparative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds of (8) cultivars belonging the species Pyrus malus L. namely ("EarlyGold", "GrannySmith", "Royal Cala", "Red Delicious", "Golden Delicious", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh", Cox") and (6) Cultivars belonge to the species Pyrus communis L. namely ("Coneference", Decana", "Bonica", "Alkhatuni","Alothmani", "William) which cultivated in northern of Iraq. Were examined by light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of pollen grains showed that pattern tricolporate and the shape in polar view triangular or spherical -triangular or tetrangular but in equatorial view spherical or ovate and surface configuration was striate in all cultivars of the species. The morphological characters of seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension of width and Length, Number of seeds in fruit), in addition to indumentum were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the two species. In addition to its surface configuration, it was Striate in "EarlyGold", "RoyalCala", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh" and "Cox" and Striate papillae in GrannySmith, while the "Coneference", "Decana" and "Bonica, Alkhatuni, and Alothmani had a surface configuration pitted, and Irregular Reticular in Red Delicious and Reticulate papillae in cultivar William, while Golden Deliciou was unique as having an alveolate surface, The quantitative and qualitative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the species.

Investigating the Numerical solution of the BoltzmannTransport Equation in silicon in Momentum Space Using Computational Systems of Different Dimensions

Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien; Mahmood Majed Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 108-123
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126828.1057

The Boltzmann transport equation is the basic equation for solving the transport of charge carrier (electrons, holes) problems in semiconductor devices. The distribution function has been obtained from the solution of this equation. The distribution function is important in calculating semiconductor properties, which can be used to calculate the average electron energy, the charge carrier concentration, and other properties. In this work the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation in silicon was solved using analytical / numerical methods in steady state case in momentum space. The analytical solution is requires expressing the distribution function using Legendre polynomials expansion the first two terms of the expansion, by taking into account the effect of both acoustic elastic scattering and nonelastic scattering in addition to the effect of non-parabolic energy band structure. In order to obtain the numerical solution of Boltzmann transport equation the finite difference method is used. The differential equation is transformed to linear difference equation which can represented by matrices. Numerical systems with different dimensions are designed to calculate the distribution function with the least possible time to maintain the accuracy of the solution for different applied electric field which represent the low and high field regions at temperatures T= (77, 300) K. The obtained results showed good agreement with published data that used other calculation methods such as the Monte Carlo simulation method for all the system used in this work.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

Preparation of Some Benzothiazole Polymers and Study Their Electrical Conductivity Properties

Asaad Faisal Khattab; Haitham Ahmed Ayoob; Laith Mohammed Altaan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 140-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126945.1066

As the conjugated polymers are doped with some electron donor or acceptor dopants, their electrical conductivity increased thoroughly to about 10-6 Ω-1.cm-1. The doping of the polymers may give an n or p semiconductor characteristic according to the types of the dopants that are used. Within the frame of this work, four types of conjugated polymers with benzothiazole as a major moiety in their backbone have been prepared. The prepared monomers and polymers have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Elemental analysis of the polymers (CHN) demonstrates their chemical structure while the DSC thermal analysis illustrates its Tg. The polymers were doped with two types of dopants, iodine and sodium iodide. The electrical conductivity of the doped polymers was measured with three probe cell. The results show increasing in the electrical conductivity with dopant concentration to some levels. The activation energy of the electrical conductivity process was also studied by measuring the electrical conductivity in different temperature. According to the magnitude of the activation energy, we can conclude that the chain flexibility is the dominate factor that influenced on electrical conductivity. Hall Effect and hot probe measurements reveal that the polymer can be considered as n or p type according to the type of the doping. It was concluded that the doping with iodine produced an n-type while the doping with sodium iodide produced the p- type.

A Comparative Morphological Study of the Genus Juniperus L. ( Cupressaceae) in North of Iraq

Dr.Haees Sayel Al Jowary; Aseel Aamer Aanad Al-Sharefy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 154-176
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127106.1073

A new species of juniper is Juniperus macrocarpa, permissions not previously registered in Flora of Iraq that were composed ( Guest researchers and Ali al-Rawi,1966) so only two species of Juniperus oxycedrus and Juniperus polycarpos were registered at the time. The research included a classification of the species Juniperus which belong to the Cupressaceae family that grown a wild plants in north of Iraq, using the morphological characteristics of (3) species of veins mentioned in (7) sites distributed in provinces of ( FNI,MAM and MSU )Nineveh, Dohuk and Sulaymaniyah.
The study includes the characteristics of stems, branches, bark, needle leaves, male and female cones, seeds and flower buds, as well as examining the overcoming of appearance between species and individuals of the same species in the studied sites, and sometimes the species have clear variations among them and the individuals of the same species did not show marked changes, and it became clear that the studied morphological characteristics have taxonomic. Significant in the diagnosis and isolation of species from each other, and the study was reinforced with photographs, shapes and illustrations, as well as the study showed that sexual characteristics (male and female cones and flower buds) are more proven compared to the rest of the characters, and It has a significant and taxonomic role in diagnosing the studied species into groups, so the needle leaves showed clear variations, which makes them the task of classifying them either in their quantitative or qualitative characteristics.

A Taxonomic Study of Macro-and Micro Morphological Features of Fruits and Seeds Cultivars of the Species Belonging to the Genus Morus L. (Moraceae) Cultivated in the North of Iraq

Raad Hammad Al-Badrany; Aamer Mohsen Al-Mathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 177-192
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127107.1074

The present work deal with the morphological characters of the fruits and seed of the cultivars belonging to the species Morus alba L. Namely ("Beautiful Day", "Big White", "Rease", "Greece", "Pearl", "Border Sweet", "Pendula"); Morus latifolia Poir ("Kokuse Korean"); Morus rubra L. ("Amarah"); Morus nigra ("Shami"); Morus macroura Miq ("King White"); "Dwarf" and Morus hybrid ("Tice", "Wellington") Which cultirated in North of Iraq.
The study includes the characters of the fruits (Shape, Color, Dimension, Size, Number of the fruitlet in the fruit) and the characters of the seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension, Number of the seeds in the fruit, and surface ornamentation).
The results of some morphological characteristic of the fruits and seeds examined by light microscope (L.M), in addition to the surface ornamentation of the seeds examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Showed five type of the surface ornamentation (Reticulate, Muricate, Foreate undulate, Polygonal, and Ruminate) for cultivars species studied, showed that importance value in the separation between the cultivars of the species studied belonging to the genus Morus L.

Synthesis of Some Heterocyclic Compounds Derived From 2-Amino Benzothiazole

Zainab Muataz Mahmood; Ahmad Kh. Ahmad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 193-205
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127562.1087

In this thesis, Anmber of heterocylic compound with five and six memberd, Such as substituted imidazole, triazin and thiazolidine.
The N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-chloro acetamide compound(1) was prepared from the reaction of the compound (2-amino benzothiazole) with chloroacetyl chloride. The product(1) was reacted with thiourea and urea to prepare both (imidazole -2-thione (2) and imidazole -2-one(3)) , respectively. As did compound(1) with thiosemicarbazide and semicarbazide to prepared the two compounds (1,2,4-triazine -3-thione (4) and 1,2,4-triazine -3-one (5)) ,respectively. Also compound(1) with ammonium thiocyanate to prepare the compound thiazolidin -4-one (6). From the reaction of compound(1) with phenyl thiourea attended imidazole -2-thione(7).
Also from the reaction of (2-amino benzothiazole) with phthalic anhydride or malic anhydride attended compounds (8) and (9) ,respectively. And by reaction compound(8) or (9) with o-phenylene diamine attended compounds (10) and (11) ,respectively. The synthesized compounds are identified by physical (melting points, colour change) and spectral methods such as (IR, proton-NMR).

The Effect of Some Antioxidants Compounds on Enzymatic and Nonenzymic Browning of Quince Juice During Thermal Treatment

Aya I Rashan; Omar Al-abbasy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 206-221
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127190.1078

Abstract: Enzymatic browning by tyrosinase and nonenzymatic browning (Maillard reaction) are responsible for producing new compounds which contributes considerably to the undesirable of aroma, taste and colour in food. In this study, tyrosinase activity and browning intensity in quince juice were inhibited by treating them with antioxidant compounds vanillin, glutathione and melatonin as compared to the control. The maximum inhibition percentages of Tyrosinase were 83, 68.8 and 90.3 % and the maximum inhibitory effects of browning intensity were 13.9, 9.7 and 29.8% respectively.
For untreated quince juice which heated to 5 hours at 100 oC, the results showed increasing in A294, Browning intensity (A420) and reducing power, as well as decreasing in reducing sugar, free amino group, phenolic compounds contents and inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation. The decreasing of A294, browning intensity and increasing in reducing power were showed after treating with (10mM) vanillin and (8mM) glutathione compared to control. Conversely to glutathione, the addition of vanillin to quince juice revealed increasing in inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation, reducing sugar and phenolic contents and decreasing in free amino acid content compared to control. Inhibition Mode of tyrosinase by melatonin is non-competitive. The Km value remains constant (1.96mM), while Vmax reduced from 228.13 to 114.06 U.ml-1.min-1. Inhibition constant Ki value was 6.9 mM.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Salbutamol Sulphate and Mefenamic Acid Using Azur-A Dye in Presence of Oxidizing Agent N-bromosuccinimide

subhi Mohsin jarullah; Asmaa Hamza Abbas Al-Hashemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 222-244
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127113.1072

A simple, accurate and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of salbutamol sulphate and mefenamic acid in pure forms and in pharmaceutical preparations (capsule, syrup, tablet). This method based on the bromination of the drug with N-bromosuccinimide in acidic medium and the unreacted oxidizing agent react with constant amount of Azur-A dye solution due to bleach their colour and measured the absorbance of the residual colour dye at 606.5 nm.The molar absorptivity for salbutamol sulphate and mefenamic acid are 2.3 × 104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and 8.1× 103 L.mol-1.cm-1 respectively. Beer's Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 1.6 -12.8 µg/ml for salbutamol sulphate and1.6 -13.6 µg/ml for mefenamic acid. The limit of detection (LOD) were 0.0367µg/ml and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.1226 µg/ml for both drugs. In addition, the recovery levels of the drugs were in the range 100.56% and 100.74%. The method was created to be simple, cost-effective and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs.

Employing Cloud Technologies in E-Learning Systems: University Students and Teachers’ Ability in Storing Information in “Cloud”: A “Google Classroom” Study

luqman Abdulrahman qader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 245-258
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127247.1080

E-learning today has a significant impact on learning, due to its ease of accessibility and the fact that it does not take into account geography, politics, or narrow economic interests. This significance gains a special status, especially when having doubts regarding the possibility of a final settlement of the pandemic Coved-19 in a short period. Education using digital technologies allows students to expand their access to knowledge resources and to special skills which support the curriculum, as well as carrying using important features such as continuous assessments that enable them to advance in the field of research and to develop their ideas, and perhaps provide more opportunities to extend their knowledge and stimulate critical thinking that is formed by allowing students to gain knowledge and reach conclusions by themselves. With the spread of this huge number of smartphones, also of the availability of internet service at any time and place allows digital services to go beyond many boundaries to share information. “Cloud” computing technology provides optimal solutions for setting an effective infrastructure that allows researchers, teachers, and students to access services from anywhere and by using any kind of digital devices connected to the Internet to get valuable resources and services and to take advantage of the capabilities and functions provided by these modern environments. This contributes to providing the tools for supporting learning, teaching, and cooperative work. “Cloud” computing gives students and teachers a more convenient and effective learning experience.

Study The Responsory And Quantum Efficiency of Silicon P-N Junction by Using Pulse Plasma

Salah A. Sheet; Mohammad N. Abdulwahab

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 259-278
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.167287

In this work we have used plasma pulsed injector to prepare a P-N junction. Antimony was deposited on P-type silicon wafer and Indium was deposited on N-type silicon wafer. They were considered as thin film which was bombarded with accelerated hydrogen-ions from the pulsed plasma injector.
            Optical tests were conducted for the both junctions to evaluate their performance as optical detectors. These include the spectral response quantum efficiency and detectivity. They showed high response and efficiency for the long wavelength in the near IR region. It showed a relatively higher detectivity which increased with the number of discharges.
            For antimony and indium implanted samples we have noticed an increase in the response time of the detector with the number of discharges. These findings allow the possibility to use them in the near IR-detector and semiconductor lasers in the wavelength range 850-950nm as well as in the applications of optical communication systems.
            This work also revealed the possibility of using the pulsed plasma injection to modify the material surfaces as well as the ultering the semiconductor surfaces.

Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation Biological Activity of Cobalt (II) with Mixed Ligands complexes

Ahlam Mohammed Yaseen Al-Bayati; Zuhoor Fathi Dawood

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128321.1110

New cobalt (II) complexes with mixed ligands including [(2- oxime-4-hydrazone) pentane (L1H) and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone(T1H) ,or 3,4-dimethoxy acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (T2H); glycine (GH) or metformin (mf)] have been prepared in both pH (6.5-7) and (9.5-10) using classical and microwave techniques. The resulting complexes have been characterized using physio- chemical and spectral techniques. The study suggested that the complexes have the generalformulate [Co(L1H)(TH)(BH)](CH3COO)2and[Co(L1)(TH)(G)]or[Co(L1)(T)(mf)] at pH (6.5-7) and (9.5- 10), respectively {where TH= T1H or T2H; T= deprotonated T1H or T2H; L1H=L1=deprotenated; BH= GH or mf; G= deprotonated GH]. Hexacoordinated mononuclear complexes having distorted octahedral geometries have been investigated. The biologicall activity of the ligands and complexes have been evaluated by agar plate diffusion technique against Echerichia coli, Klipsila pnnemoia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some compounds have been found to have antibacterial activity. 

Theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on graphene nanostructures functionalized with nickel for solid state hydrogen storage

ameer albyatei; Issa Zainalabddeen assaflly

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128376.1112

Hydrogen adsorption and storage on nickel- activated, pure graphene and boron-doped graphene was study using density functional theory simulations based on generalized gradient approximation methods (DFT-GGA). It was found that the nickel atoms tend to clustering on the surface of pure graphene due to the high cohesive energy of nickel compared to the energy of nickel binding to the surface of pure graphene, which decrease the storage capacity of hydrogen. It was also found that the storage capacity of seven hydrogen molecules on pure and activated graphene with a nickel atom is equal to (10.2 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.27 eV), and the storage capacity for the same number of hydrogen molecules is (11.3 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.22 eV), This indicates that the adsorption process will take place at ambient conditions. The process of inoculating graphene-doped boron and nickel activating is an effective strategy for improving the average binding energies and the storage capacity of hydrogen molecules in the graphene nanostructures.

Estimating the Level of Some Inflammatory Cytokines in the Serum of Women Exposed to Abortion and the Relationship with Toxoplasmosis

Raqaa Alubaidi; Adeeba Shareef

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128415.1113

This study includes the collection of (90) blood samples, eighty samples belongs to patients experienced to spontaneous or recurrent abortions, and the ten samples from women with normal pregnancy. The results showed a significant increase in the levels of cytokines in patients serum as their concentrations were (218.15±105.1 pg/L for IL-1β, 63.10±35.17 ng/L for TNF-α and 31.77±25.3ng/ml for IFN-g) compared to the control as it(151.0±0.76 pg/L ,34.96±0.42 ng/L and 11.15±3.49 ng/ml) for the cytokines respectively. The level of cytokines reached (352.18 pg/L,117.8 ng/L and 63.8 ng/ml) for IL-1β,TNF-α and IFN-g respectively in women infected with Toxoplasmosis compared to non-infected women (337.1 pg/L , 101.3 ng/L and 54.06 ng/ml). This indicate that toxoplasmosis has a role in the induction of immune system.

An Overview of the Evolution of the Porous Silicon material: A review

Ghazwan Ghazi Ali; Marwan Hafeedh Younus; Ivan Karomi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128341.1111

Recently, the properties and applications of the porous became the main subject of several books and the vast numbers of review articles. Porous silicon has demonstrated significant versatility and promise for a wide range of optoelectronic applications thanks to its large surface area and intense photoluminescence at room temperature. In this review, we describe the fabrication techniques and experimental improvements made towards porous silicon (PSi) and we provide a full picture of realization and characterization of this material. We also highlight its important properties, such as chemical, structure and surface properties. We summarize the techniques that have been used, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, atomic force microscope images (AFM) and a scanning probe microscope (SEM). Additionally, the effect of the current density and etching time are also documented in this review. In summary, porous silicon has undergone vast improvement in both fabrication and characterization methods, which makes it an attractive modern material.

Image Fusion by Shift Invariant Discrete Wavelet Transform for Remote Sensing Applications

Abdalrahman Ramzi Qubaa

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128261.1109

The fusion technique of the spectral bands captured by the sensors carried onboard satellites is one digital processing method for extracting information and detecting ground targets. Image fusion - also known as pan-sharpening-provides the necessary means to combine many images into a single composite image that is suitable in visual interpretation processes or in digital interpretation. The principal objective of this study is to find the best suitable algorithms for obtaining integrative information from several separate images in one combined image. Based on the above, a special software system was designed to implement and test the fusion methods used in remote sensing applications by selecting and applying a Shift Invariant Wavelet Transform (SIWT) method to the remote sensing images and then comparing with four other different image fusion algorithms. Two objective mathematical methods were also used to measure the amount of shared information obtained in the images resulting from the fusion, as well as using the visual and Near-Infrared images of the new Sentinel-2 European satellite for a part of Nineveh province as experimental images. The results showed a preference of the wavelet transform method over the other fusion methods for the remote sensing images.

Investigation of Important Fatty Acids in Biofuel Production From Number of Microalgae

Taha Abdulwahab Al-Someidae; Yousef Jabar Al-Shahery &lrm;; Qutaiba Shuaib Al-&lrm;Nema

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128619.1115

Algae biofuels is considered as an alternative source to fossil fuels. In recent ‎decades, there was a ‎significant increase in the use of energy sources in order ‎to avoid the depletion of traditional ‎sources such as coal and petroleum. The ‎produced fuel from algal oil had important ‎characteristics compared to that ‎from other vegetable crops. This is due to the short life cycle of ‎development, ‎a fast-growing and easy to be developed. In this study, three types of micro-‎algae ‎Scendesmus dimorphus, Chlorella vulgaris and‏ ‏Chlorococcum ‎humicola‏ ‏were used and grown in in a 5 liter photobioreactor. The dry ‎biomass productivity of the three algae was estimated, and then a chemical ‎analysis ‎of the total fatty was performed to detect their biological contents as ‎well as diagnose the ‎fatty acid. Results showed that S. dimorphus produced ‎the highest levels in both biomass, 1.58 g ‎l-1 from dry weight and estimation of ‎the total fat ‎indicated C. vulgaris has the highest total fat yield, at 29.6 ‎‎%. ‎Results of fats characterization using ‎‏)‏GLC) showed that‏ ‏S. dimorphus ‎produced the high ‎percentage of saturated fatty acids for the meristic acid ‎ester (C14: 0) by 47% and the lincoseric ‎acid ester (C24: 0) was 7.194%. In ‎contrast, both Chlorella vulgaris and Chlo. humicola showed less ‎level of ‎saturated fatty acids. This indicates the suitability of algae oil derived from S. ‎dimorphus in ‎ the synthesis of fatty acid, a major source in producing ‎biofuels

Numerical modeling negative corona under the influence of applied voltage variation

Hala Alnaemi; Qais Thanon Algwari

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128762.1120

In high-voltage gaseous insulation systems, the corona discharge is important because it can lead to drop of the insulating qualities of the gas in addition to the production of harm by-products. The influence of the applied voltage variation on the negative corona characteristics in a coaxial electrode geometry has been investigated based on one-dimensional dynamic model of corona discharge includes one-dimensional continuity equations and Poisson equation. The one-dimensional fluid model of corona discharge is solved by finite difference flux correction method (FD-FCT). The calculations were performed on oxygen gas under the atmospheric pressure using COMSOL multiphysics software. The corona discharge parameters are simulated under different voltage of 4kV, 6kV, 8kV and 10kV, respectively. The effect of the applied voltage on the spatial distribution of main charged species and electron as well as the ozone was considered. The results show that as the negative applied voltage on the cathode increased the total current density also increase while the electron density decrease. The ozone density do not much affected by the increasing the applied voltage.

Study of Light Wavelength and Some Concentration Salts in Growth Medium on Growth, Protein and Nitrogen Content of Hapalosiphon arboreus 3OW05S02

Fatin Mahdi Saleh Al-Rashidy; Yousef Jabar Al-Shaheree

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.128991.1122

Local isolation was obtained from cyanobacteria fixing atmospheric nitrogen, and isolated from the local environment of the city of Mosul (Tigris River forest area). A molecular diagnosis of this isolate was carried out for the purpose of genetic diagnosis, and it was found that it is a pure isolate of cyanobacteria Hapalosiphon. arboreus 3OW05S02. And the phenotypic diagnosis coincided with autopsy.This isolation was grown laboratory in the medium of Chu10. As for the change of wavelengths of light, The results showed that the best wavelength of light was (620-750)nm for red light, the biomass is (770) mg / liter, the protein content is (230) mg / liter, the nitrogen content is (119) mg / liter. Also I studied a number of mineral elements that affect growth and nitrogen fixation, and it was found that the best concentration of potassium phosphate K2HPO4 is (50)mg/liter, as recorded the biomass is (802) mg / liter, the protein content is (202)mg / liter, the nitrogen content is (107) mg / liter. When adding Ca(No3)2 to the medium with different concentrations and comparing them without adding this material to the medium, the best concentration was (60) mg/liter, the biomass is (790) mg/liter, the protein content is (138) mg /liter, the nitrogen content is (74) mg /liter.

Electrical Conductivity of Oxadiazole and Triazole Polymer Content

Asaad Faisal Khattab; Aya Abdul Wahhab

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129094.1131

Three types of oxadiazle and traizole monomers were prepared. The monomers are polymerized with different monomers to prepare eight different polymers. The polymers are differs in the type of bonding unit. The prepared polymers are identified by using infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The prepared polymers are doped with different ratios of iodine and protonic acid (HCl). The electrical conductivity of the pure and doped polymers was measured. Many different factors can effect on the conductivity of the polymers. The long flexible aliphatic moiety in the back bone of the polymer increase the electrical conductivity, while the presence of long aliphatic arm grafted as aside chain will decrease the conductivity. Also the type of the bonding group (amide or azomethin ) have a significant effect on the electrical conductivity. The study proved that the oxadiazole and triazole rings can participating in the conjugation of polymeric chain and enhanced the electrical conductivity. The nitrogen and oxygen atoms within the ring can participate with conjugation by their lone pair of electron and can be considered as a sites for doping. The electrical conductivity of the prepared polymers increased by increasing the ratio of the dopant but to limited percent. It was proved that the nitrogen atoms is more ready to protonated by acid than the oxygen atom

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

Genetic Algorithm to Solve Sliding Tile 8-Puzzle Problem

Ruqaya Zedan Shaban; Isra Natheer Alkallak; Mowada Mohamad Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58405

The research tackled the classical problem in artificial intelligence as 8-puzzle problem with genetic algorithm. The research present the fundamental of genetic algorithm with sliding tile 8-puzzle problem. Starting from current state for state space search into a goal state by depending on the tile’s move (tiles out of place) in the current and compare with the solution of the problem (goal), without blank’s move. population size chose by the summation of probabilities misplaced tile’s move (tiles out of place) in current state comparing with goal state. In this research, depended on the Crossover and mutation for ordered chromosomes method. The experimental in this research show that the algorithm is efficient. The source code is written in Matlab language.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

Effect of some physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria

Ahmed Talal Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161050

The study was conducted in order to create the best conditions (physical and chemical factors) that necessary for the growth of the Bacillus subtilis and its production of the Xylanase enzyme.
The results include isolation and diagnosis of (40) isolates of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis obtained from (30) soil samples and study the effect of some physical factors (period and temperature of incubation, pH of the medium, ventilation) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme. The results showed that best growth and its production of the enzyme was obtained when the incubation is (48) hours and the temperature (30) Co , pH of the medium (7) and incubation with shaking at (200) rpm where the optical density value of bacterial growth was reached (0.25) and activity of the enzyme product was (3.41) unit / ml. The effect of some chemical agents (carbon and nitrogen source for medium) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme and the results revealed that the carbon source (Xylan) gave the best growth and production of the enzyme compared with other of carbon sources (Starch, Cellulose, Xylose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose), where the optical density value of growth was (0.25) and the enzyme activity (3.41) unit / ml. Regarding the effect of the nitrogen source (organic and inorganic) in medium on growth and production of the enzyme, the results showed that the best bacterial growth and the production of an Xylanase enzyme occur when organic nitrogen sources (Peptone, Beef extract, Yeast extract, Casien) were supplemented in the medium compared with inorganic nitrogen sources (KNO3, (NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3). Peptone and Yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources for stimulation of bacterial growth and the production of the enzyme with optical density value of growth reached (0.29 , 0.286) and the enzyme activity was (3.92 , 3.9) unit / ml.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

improvement Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing

Suhaib AbdulJabbar Abdulbaqee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 179-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89784

The objective of this paper is to develop a parallel Pole numerical integration method suitable for renaming in MIMD computing systems.
In this paper we improve the Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing .we compared the developed methods with initial methods the comparison showed the supervise the developed Method for the initial method.
The developed methods are suitable fof running on MIMD computing systems.

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