About Journal

The University of Mosul is the formal owner of the Journal of Education and Science (EDUSJ). The journal is published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1979. The (EDUSJ) is an open-access journal and accept scientific articles from all over the world. The (EDUSJ) publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in the field of (Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer science and Mathematics) science. The Journal using iThenticate to check the plagiarism and to ensure the originality...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

A Study of the chemical nature of sulfur-containing rocks and Frasch sulfur in the Al-Mishraq Sulfur field

Hala Saad Jasim; thaer abed halo; Motea O. Al jbouri

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126714.1051

The economic evaluation of the exploration sulfur well depends mainly on the elemental sulfur content and its association other factors, so a sample of sulfur rocks extracted by a special excavator for one of the exploratory wells was studied and in the form of a bore hole rock. The elemental sulfur ratio reached 12.8% an important ratio in estimating the explored sulfur reserves and through XRD, the predominant crystalline composition is calcite mineral with hexagonal crystalline form and with a lesser percentage in orthorhombic crystal sulfur this supports one of the theories that explained the formation of sulfur.
Also, the mine Mishraq sulfur extracted by the underground melting method (known as the Frasch process) was studied chemically, and the elemental sulfur ratio reached 98.58% and the bituminous material 1.157%. Also, the SEM scanning electron microscope showed the presence of nanotubes of size (20-44 nm) belonging to the carb-sulfur compounds in the SEM, which are observed for the first time in this form.

A Study of Optical Properties of Tetraborate Glasses Containing CaO, MgO & BaO

Aynur Bahaaldeen Baha. kamal; Manaf A.Hassan al-azzawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 10-23
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127127.1076

Glasses with compositions (100-x) % Na2B4O7–x % MO (X=10,20,30,40) where (M) is Ba, Mg and Ca, are prepared using conventional melt quenching method. X-rays diffractions are performed. The result of (XRD) confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The measured density increases with increasing content of BaO, MgO & CaO in glass network. The position and shifting rate of absorption edge, optical band energy (Eopt) and band tails energy (Eo) were investigated. The Eopt and Eo values of all glasses studied in this work were found to be comparable with the values corresponding to some semiconductors. The structure of the glasses was investigated by means of IR spectroscopy. It found from the experimental results of IR spectra that the groups (BO3)- and (B2O7)- are dominant the structure of these glasses. Also It is found that the shifting in band position is small with increasing of (Ba, Mg, Ca) oxide in the glass network.

Pathophysiological consequences of SARS CoV-2

Hadeel Mohammad Hameed; hiyam natheer maty; fanar ablahad isihak

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 24-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127225.1089

Coronavirus outbreak occurred in late 2019 and called (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 which firstly emerged in Wuhan city/China. This virus mostly attacks the respiratory system and therefore is more likely to destroy lung tissue and cause pneumonia; although lung is the target tissue but many organs of COVID 19 patients affect by virus invasion and showed numerous Physiological consequences. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors for the virus attachment are distributed in human's tissues including “lungs, heart, kidneys, intestines, brain and testes” that are recognized as a possible targets of COVID-19.The vital functions of these organs may impaired with different levels as a result of viral infection and replication. Patient with type A especially those formerly have been identified with cardiovascular diseases in particular increased blood pressure, are more expected to develop acute COVID-19 symptoms. Clot producing disorders with SARS CoV-2 infected patients were observed firstly by researchers in China. Thus untreated patients revealed large arterial pulmonary clots can put permanent pressure on the heart, leading to cardiac attack. Anxiety about the coronavirus outbreak is extremely common. Therefore, some individual may showed a huge concern that can disturb their regular life. Stress and fear from infection can be devastating and cause powerful excitements in children and adults. Therefore this study aims to shed light on pathophysiological consequences and stressful conditions of COVID-19 in patients including many of boby organs and ABO system.

Histopathological changes that induced by Monsodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite on the eyes of white mice Mus musculus and the protective role of Grape seeds oil

Sanabel Al-Thanoon; ali ashgar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 34-45
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127648.1091

Current study tackled potency of MSG and NaNO2 to induce histopathological changes in eye texture of Swiss-mice and protective role of grape seed-oil against toxicity these substances may cause.
In this study, 36 adult mice divided into six groups with control. One group was dosed with MSG at 9g/kg; another was injected with NaNO2 at 110mg/kg for two months, groups with interference of two substances, and two groups with interference of grape seeds-oil with each substance.
Results showed emergence of histopathological lesions. In treatment with MSG, there was wide destruction and damage to photoreceptor cells and outer, inner nuclear layer, separation corneal stroma and gliosis in optic nerve. In treatment with NaNO2, damage was extensive in components of eye; it was noted the appearance of roseat pattern in outer, inner nuclear layer, necrosis of outer plexus layer and contraction of lens fibres. When treating with an interference of MSG and NaNO2, damage was observed to the surface epithelial tissue of cornea, stroma fibres, reduction in fibroblasts, necrosis in some cells of ciliary body, and in retina extensive damage was observed in its layers.
When treating by MSG with oil, increase in the inner plexus vasa, nerve fibres, and the inner nuclear layer was observed and slight damage to the outer pieces of the photoreceptors. When treating with NaNO2, oil, infiltration of inflammatory cells appeared in the ganglion cells, increased vasa, edema and hyperplasia in the epithelium of the lens.

Investigation of The Numerical Solution for One Dimensional Drift-Diffusion Model in Silicon in Steady State

Rozana Noori; Mumtaz Hussien

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127055.1067

The drift-diffusion model is considered as one of the most important models which is used to describe the characteristics of semiconductor devices and can be applied to wide range of applications started from micro up to nano scale devices after applying the suitable correction on it. The Poisson, continuity, and current equations are considered as the basic equations for semiconductor devices, these equations are partial differential equations, used in the drift diffusion model. These equations described the semiclassical electron and hole transport in semiconductor in the presence of uniformly applied electric field. In this paper a numerical method (finite difference method) has been used to find the solution of these equations depending on Gummel method and Scharfetter-Gummel scheme, the drift diffusion model is applied after many approximation and suitable boundary condition which has been considered for the pn diode in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium cases at room temperature, from this simulation model a MATLAB program has been prepared to obtained diode parameters as a function of distance at the junction region, these parameters are (conduction band, carrier concentration, electric field and charge density) two diode model has been tested with different doping concentration the first with N_A=N_D and the second with N_A>N_D also the diode characteristic in the forward biased is obtained.

Kinetic and inhibitory study of partially purified lipoxygenase from epilepsy patients serum

Ahmed Al-Fayyad; Nashwan Ibrahem Al-lehebe

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 58-71
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127778.1093

This research was included partially purification of lipoxygenase (LOX) from serum of patients with epilepsy using ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and ion-exchange chromatography with specific activity (0.751 U / mg) , (0.935 U/mg) and (2.60 U/mg) respectively . Optimum conditions for enzyme activity were determined. The best enzyme activity was showed at 7 minutes of incubation time , 3 minutes of reaction time, pH = 7, temperature 40Cº and finally substrate concentration (linoleic acid) was (1.2 mmol/L) . By applying Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk Equations, Michaelis-Menten constant (km) and Vmax values were found 0.3 (mM) and (0.9 U/ml) respectively. Also this study included the effect of some antiepileptic drugs such as valproic acid , carbamazepine and acetozolamide. Acetazolamide showed the highest inhibition of lipooxygenase activity(96.2٪) , valproic acid (95.6) and Carbamazapine (95.1٪). Inhibition type was studied and the result showed noncompetitive inhibition by using Lineweaver-Burke plot for all above drugs.

Effect of Annona Muricata Extracts on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats Exposed to Induced Liver Tumor

Mohammed Ibrahim Al-naqshabandey; Luma abdalmunim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 72-88
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127597.1088

This research included a study of some Biochemical variables of male rats Wister with Induced liver Cancer and a study of the effect of extracts of three parts Annona Muricata, including seeds, core, and leaves to study its effects on the disease. The animals were divided into eight groups: I Control group, II treated with TAA, III treated with extract Core, IV treated with extract Seed, V treated with extract Leave, VI treated With TAA with extract Core, VII treated with TAA and extract Seed and, VIII TAA with extract Leave. In this study, the measurement kit was used to measure the Total Protein, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein. Manual Methods used to estimate Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, and Paraoxonase. The results showed a significant increase in the tumor-infected rats of Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine-transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the control group, while there was a significant decrease in rats which treated with TAA of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the control group. The results show a significant decrease in the levels in tumor-affected animals and treated with extract seed for each Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the group of rats affected and treated with the extract Core, and leaves, The results also showed a significant increase in the affected rats which treated with extract seeds for the level of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the group treated with Core, leaves.

Refactoring for software maintenance: A Review of the literature

Rasha Alsarraj; atica Altaie

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 89-102
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127426.1085

One of the techniques to increase the value of the software quality is refactoring - the set of activities for code enhancement through altering inner structure and not altering outer behavior of code. It is a technique to clean-up the source code that decreasing the opportunities of code faults. Refactoring can be defined as one of the most significant practices for maintaining the advanced software systems. It has been indicated by the empirical studies that refactoring has positive effect on maintainability and understandability of the software systems. This study introduces a literature review of 22 researches that study and summarize the influence of refactoring and their effect on the attributes of software quality specially maintainability. Through the review, the study sums the following points: (1) applying refactoring activities will increase the values of some attributes of quality like Understandability and maintainability. (2)There are several factors that affect reconstruction activities, including cohesion, coupling, hiding of information and encapsulation, (3) Refactoring helps to improve the source code without changing the behavior of the program, (4) refactoring activates can be applied many times to the source code.

Preparation and Studying of Zeolite with Catalytic Properties From Local Silica and Bauxite Ores

Ragheed Yousif Ghazal; Tamarah Abdulsalam Younus

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 103-116
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127990.1104

The research included a method for preparing zeolite by utilizing the components of clay mineral ores (silica and alumina). The two ores(Local Silicate and Bauxite) were studied through chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The results showed that they contained good quantities of these two substances, which were converted into sodium silicate and sodium aluminate, then the zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal method at (pH=11) in the presence of the structural directing agent (triethylamine) then converted to the formula (H-zeolite) to improve its acidic properties, And then a number of measurements have been done for the prepared zeolite, which is a thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) ,it showed that it contains amounts of moisture and crystallization water as well as its thermal stability at (700°C). As for the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), it showed its good crystallization rate and its possession of a crystalline cube system, and the measurement of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) showed that it had a high percentage of silicon and aluminum, this indicates a balanced and equal interaction between these two materials when preparing of zeolite. The measurement of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the high pore system and the fine particles that were around (18.17 nm), Finally the measurement of adsorption by The intention (BET) that explained the prepared zeolite have a high surface area (244.3766 m2/g).

Adopting Text Similarity Methods and Cloud Computing to Build a College Chatbot Model

Zaid Mundher; Wissam Khalf Khater; Laith Mohammed Ganeem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 117-125
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127244.1079

A chatbot is a computer program which is designed to interact with users and answer questions. Nowadays, chatbots are one of the most common systems that are used in many fields and by different companies to achieve different tasks. Cloud computing is gaining increasing interest. A myriad of fields and applications have been developed based on cloud computing.
In this paper, a college chatbot was developed and implemented to assist students to interact with their college and ask questions related to faculty, activities, exams, admission, amongst other tasks. Text similarity algorithms were adopted to achieve the proposed system. More specifically, cosine similarity and jaccard similarity algorithms were used to find the closest question in the dataset. Firebase real-time database, which is one of the Google cloud services, was used as a connector channel between users and the chatbot server.
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of cosine similarity and jaccard similarity methods, and to compare the results of both. In addition, real-time database was also evaluated as a chatbot connecter channel.

preparation of palladium Catalyst from bauxite ore and using for kerosene treatment

Wafa Saeed; Qaidar Salim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 126-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127951.1103

The research was aimed to used bauxite ore that has a high aluminum minerals which available in Al-Hussainiyat near al-Anbar district as a source of alumina which it used as a catalyst support after being loaded with palladium metal , The components of both bauxite ore and prepared catalyst were studied by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the prepared catalyst , After this the catalyst was used in the treatment of kerosene which is distilled at (150-260C0) under different conditions of the (temperature , reaction time and the ratio of catalyst) to know the optimal reaction conditions that determid by measuring the (FTIR) and chemical analysis. The optimal conditions: temperature was (250C0), reaction time was (2hours) and the catalyst ratio was (2%) .The catalyst appeard the ability to dehydrogenation reaction and reforming to form olefinic and aromatic compounds. The research also included the study of n-paraffins separated from kerosene samples that were treating in different temperatures (150,200,250C0 ) using (1HNMR).The results showed the ability of the catalyst towards catalytic cracking and converting n-paraffins to iso-paraffins

Isolation and Diagnosis of Rhizobium Bacteria Isolated from The Root Nodules of Leguminous Plants and Studying Their Plasmid Content.

Wissam Jihad Alubidy; Mohammed عبدالاله Al-Shakarchi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 141-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127846.1098

The study included thirty-six isolates of rhizobia bacteria were isolated from the nodules located on the roots of nine types of leguminous family plants that were planted in four areas of the city of Mosul for the winter agricultural season for the year 2020-2019, where they studied the phenotypic and agricultural characteristics of the isolated bacteria in addition to a study of resistance and sensitivity to the isolates of rhizobia bacteria The study included ten antibiotics, and resistance ratios differed between isolates groups, where the highest resistance rate for residual bacteria isolates was 100% for Nystatin and Amoxicillin, and the lowest resistance was for Tetracycline and Streptomycin, as it reached 22.2%. As for the rest of the antibiotics, there is a difference between that.
As for heavy metal salts, all the isolates of rhizobia bacteria under study were resistant to both CdCl2 chloride and CoCl2 cobalt by 100%, while their resistance to nickel chloride NiCl2 was 77.7% and the lowest resistance to heavy metal was mercury chloride HgCl2, reaching 33.3%.
The plasmid DNA content was described for the studied isolates, as the results showed that there are two types of plasmid DNA bundles, the first type close to large-scale gel drilling called Mega plasmid represents symbiotic plasmids that carry the genes of contract formation and nitrogen fixation and the second type moves far from the gel drilling and they are sizes small equal representing non-symbiotic plasmids.

Synthesis of New 3-Substituted Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Compounds Via Linking of Some Five-Membered Ring Heterocyclic Moieties With Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Nucleus

Mohammed Ahmed Al-iraqi; Rand Arshad Saad-Aldeen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 158-172
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127904.1101

In this research new compounds containing quinazolin-4(3H)-one nucleus linked to heterocyclic moieties were synthesized using ethyl (4'-oxoquinazolin-3'-yl) acetate (2) as a synthon. This compound was synthesized via 4-quinazolinone's (1) reaction with ethyl chloroacetate in the existence of K2CO3 as a base and acetone as a solvent. The ethyl α-(4'-oxoquinazolin-3'-yl) acetate (2) was converted to the corresponding hydrazide through its reaction with hydrazine hydrate (85 %). Compound (3) was reacted with two of acyl chlorides to synthesize the diacyl hydrazine compounds (4,5). The compound (5) was cyclized to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazole (6) in presence of phosphorous oxychloride. The formyl derivative (7) of the hydrazide (3) was synthesized via its reaction with formic acid and consequently cyclized by phosphorous oxychloride to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazole (8). The hydrazide (3) was also converted to the thiosemicarbazide derivative (9) by its reaction with ammonium thiocyanate under acidic conditions. Whereas other substituted thiosemicarbazide derivatives (10-12) were synthesized by the reaction of hydrazide (3) with organic isothiocyanate compounds. The resultant compounds (11, 12) were cyclized under basic conditions (4% sodium hydroxide solution) to give 1,3,4-triazole-2-thiole derivatives (13,14), whereas the cyclization of compounds (10-12) was performed under the acidic medium (conc. H2SO4) to give 2-substituted amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (15-17). On the other side, the hydrazide's (3) reaction with isocyanate compounds affords the semicarbazide compounds (18,19). These compounds were cyclized under the basic condition to afford 1,3,4-triazol-2-ol compounds (20,21). The structures of the synthesized compounds were corroborated depending on the physical and spectral data.

AEPRD: An Enhanced Algorithm for Predicting Results of Orthodontic Operations

Ammar Thaher Yaseen Al Abd Alazeez Thaher Al Abd Alazeez

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 173-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127785.1094

The face is the most critical component which is clear on first sight for an individual. Delicate tissue of the face alongside the fundamental dentoskeletal tissues portrays the facial attributes of a person. Social affirmation, mental well-being, and self-esteem of an individual are related to physical appearance. Strikingly, facial properties are regularly packed in profile. Orthodontic assurance and treatment orchestrating are continuously being established on profiles rather than basically on Angle's concept of molar relationship. It was seen that particular skeletal exact guidelines, proportion of constitution of the delicate tissue, and facial solid position can affect the assessment of the profile.
One of the uncommon challenges in orthodontics is the treatment orchestrating and the leading body of orthognathic careful cases. These cases require a mix of both orthodontics and orthognathic medical procedure to accomplish an even impediment, appropriate function, and agreeable facial feel. Early analyze of malocclusion is exceptionally helpful to get legitimate teeth straight. Thusly, in this paper we built up a straightforward PC supported program that could help foreseeing teeth impediment. In other word, we take an image of individual and order it into one of the three primary types Class I, Class II, and Class III and predict the after all treatments of Class II and Class III. This study gives information which can be used in treatment orchestrating by authorities, for instance, orthodontists, prosthodontists, plastic specialists, and maxillofacial experts, who have the ability to change the delicate tissue facial highlights.

Diagnosis of Local Isolates of Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Biochemical Methods

Haitham Abdalelah Aljader; Zena Wajeh Al_gader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 191-202
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127840.1096

In this study 10 local isolates of yeast Saccharomyces were obtained from the local markets of Mosul .The Isolates were diagnosed by morphological and cultural characters in addition to biochemical tests. the results of the tests showed that they belong to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type . Local isolates were tested for resistance to 8 different types of antibiotics and 5 salts of heavy metals. all isolates were resistant to each of Chloramphenicol , Ampicillin , Tetracycline and Streptomycin at 100%. As for the Erythromycin antibiotic most of the local isolates were resistant except for the isolates (SY4 , SY5 , SY6) As well as Amoxicillin all isolates were resistant except for (SY4) . While the isolates showed sensitivity to Nystatin at 80% and for Flagyl at 90% . The isolates also showed resistance to all Zinc chloride ZnCl2 , Nickel chloride NiCl2 and Cobalt chloride CoCl2 at 100% , as for mercury chloride all isolates were resistant except for (SY2) which showed sensitivity to it . sensitivity of the isolates was clear to Cadmium chloride CdCl2 except for the isolates (SY3 , SY9 , SY10) .

Calculation of The Electronic Energy Band Structure of GaAs Crystal Using The Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Th. T. Yahya; Mumtaz Mohammad Salih Hussien

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129475.1140

In this paper, the semi-empirical tight binding method for the nearest neighbors in the first Brillouin zone has been used to calculate the energy band structure of GaAs crystal which have zinc blend ZB structure, the band structure has been calculated by using sp^3 model which have 9 parameters and sp^3 s^* which have 13 parameters, both these models are used to calculate the main characteristic of both valence and conduction bands. The matrix elements were determined using the method followed by Cohen and Vogl, by identifying points in the wave vector space within the reduced Brillouin zone between the points of high symmetry and calculating the eigenvalues of all these points by building a computer program in MATLAB to form the energy band structure. The effective mass m^* along the direction [111] for the lowest conduction bands has been calculated. A comparison between the sp^3 model used by Cohen and the sp^3 s^* model used by Vogl has been made. The energies of the band structure at points the high symmetry Γ and X obtained from the study were compared with the results of the published research. The results showed that there is a difference in the energy gap between sp^3 and sp^3 s^* models and there is good agreement between the band energies at high symmetry points between these two models and the published results.

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

ghada mohammad tahir mohammad tahir kasim; Ashraf AL thanoon; Haleema Solayman

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129161.1134

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

From the last 70 years, there is continuous development in the field of digital image processing such as geology, biology as well as in medical fields. Solving many problems in the case of numerous application image processing plays an important role. Recently, wireless communication has been a dominant medium. When a signal or image is transmitted via the wireless environment, the quality of the image or signal gets degraded. It is the biggest issue. This happens because of acquisition and color space conversion. Hence, priority is given to enhance the quality of the image or signal. Enhancement is the process responsible to enhance the quality of the signal. In this paper, we focused on various enhancement techniques for image and signal enhancement. Furthermore, this study put down the result for various enhancement techniques for improvement in the image. Theoretically, the signal enhancement was discussed shortly.

Study of Electrical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon

Mohammed ابراهیم alsaalihiu; Ghazwan Ghazi Al Nuaimi

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129664.1147

In this paper, porous silicon has been prepared and studied by photochemical etching method using a n-type silicon wafer with electrical resistivity (0.01-0.02 Ω.cm), orientation (100), hydrofluoric acid of 20% HF, current density of 15 mA / cm2 and etching time at (5 min). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been deposited using laser ablation by drop casting with different laser energy of 400,600 and 800m J. The electrical properties (I-V measurements) of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon have studied in both light and dark conditions. It can be seen the samples behave a rectifier and the current density increases with increase laser energy due to increase in concentration of silver nanoparticles, which lead to a decrease in the values of resistivity as the laser energy increases, this is attributed to the pores are filled with silver nanoparticles and lead to interference between silver and the porous silicon layer. The silver nanoparticles play an important role in forming a homogeneous layer and enhancing the crystal stability of the porous silicon layer.

Study the effect of annealing on the some physical properties of ZnO and NiO nanostructures

abubakir AL-duory; Mutaz AL-juboori

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129592.1144

            The annealing process was carried out for the Nano composed oxides (zinc and nickel) at different temperatures (200 ° C, 500 ° C, 700 ° C) and for a specific time of one hour for each temperature change in order to get rid of the internal pressures and the change in their physical and chemical properties and study the structural properties. The optical and surface diffraction results of the nanocrystalline oxides after each temperature change, as the results of the X-ray diffraction of zinc oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure and of the hexagonal type and the X-ray diffraction  of nickel oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure of the cubic type. After the annealing process using Brake law and calculating the average Crystallite size by Debye Shearer method, it was observed that there was an increase in the average crystal size after each temperature change and the results of FTIR showed the emergence of the chemical Zn-O band of zinc oxide, as most Studies indicate the emergence of a (Zn-O) band within the (cm-1) spectral range (400-700) and the emergence of a (Ni-O) chemical bond of nickel oxide, where the peak intensity of this bond decreases due to the hot change. Get up in temperatures. The results of (FESEM) images showed that it is within the nanoscale and that the grain size increases after each temperature change process..

Speaker Recognition: Progression and challenges

Yusra Faisal Al-Irahyim; Qasim Sadiq Mahmood

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129802.1150

Speaker recognition is one of the field topics widely used in the field of speech technology, many research works has been conducted and little progress has been made in the past five to six years, and due to the advancement of deep learning techniques in most areas of machine learning, it has been replaced previous research methods in speaking recognition and verification. The topic of deep learning is now the most advanced solution to verifying and identifying a speaker's identity. The algorithms used are (x-vectors) and (i-vectors) which are considered the baseline in modern work. The aim of this study is to review deep learning methods applied in identifying speakers and tasks for validating older solutions (Gaussian mixture model, Gaussian mixture super vector model and i-vector model) to new solutions using deep neural networks (deep belief network, deep corrective learning network). ) As well as the types of metrics to verify the speaker (cosine distance, probabilistic linear discrimination analysis) as well as the databases used for neural network training (TIMIT, VCTK, VoxCeleb2, LibriSpeech).

Study of optical and structural properties of gold nanoparticles prepared by pulse laser scraping method

Noor Mohammed Ali Fadhil; Fathi Mohammed Jasim

DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129702.1148

In this paper, the ablation of pure gold target in distilled water (DW) using Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm and different laser energies (480, 680, 880) mj, with repetition frequency of 6Hz and number of pulses 300 pulse were studied. The optical properties were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, and the spectra showed the appearance of sharp peaks as a result of the plasmonic absorption surface at (529, 531, 532) nm corresponding to the above mentioned energies. The results of the atomic force microscope (AFM) test also showed that the average size of gold nanoparticles decreases with the increase of the energy of the pulsed laser, that gold nanoparticles possess a cube crystalline phase (FCC) according to x-ray diffraction (XRD) test whereas the results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles have an almost spherical shape.

Laser skimming of solids in liquid has opened up unique prospects for the manufacture of nanostructures and as a result there has been rapid growth of studies in the composition of nanostructures by this new technology in recent years. The resulting nanoparticles are somewhat crystallized, and can be obtained in an easy and one-step way without any subsequent heat treatment. Due to the high potency of the cut-off parts, pure colloidal solutions of nanoparticles can form a product that accumulates in the colloidal solution obtained in a very easy way. Colloidal gold is very attractive to many applications in biotechnology and biomedicine because of its unique physical and chemical properties

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Genetic Algorithm to Solve Sliding Tile 8-Puzzle Problem

Ruqaya Zedan Shaban; Isra Natheer Alkallak; Mowada Mohamad Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 3, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58405

The research tackled the classical problem in artificial intelligence as 8-puzzle problem with genetic algorithm. The research present the fundamental of genetic algorithm with sliding tile 8-puzzle problem. Starting from current state for state space search into a goal state by depending on the tile’s move (tiles out of place) in the current and compare with the solution of the problem (goal), without blank’s move. population size chose by the summation of probabilities misplaced tile’s move (tiles out of place) in current state comparing with goal state. In this research, depended on the Crossover and mutation for ordered chromosomes method. The experimental in this research show that the algorithm is efficient. The source code is written in Matlab language.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

Effect of some physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria

Ahmed Talal Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 187-201
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161050

The study was conducted in order to create the best conditions (physical and chemical factors) that necessary for the growth of the Bacillus subtilis and its production of the Xylanase enzyme.
The results include isolation and diagnosis of (40) isolates of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis obtained from (30) soil samples and study the effect of some physical factors (period and temperature of incubation, pH of the medium, ventilation) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme. The results showed that best growth and its production of the enzyme was obtained when the incubation is (48) hours and the temperature (30) Co , pH of the medium (7) and incubation with shaking at (200) rpm where the optical density value of bacterial growth was reached (0.25) and activity of the enzyme product was (3.41) unit / ml. The effect of some chemical agents (carbon and nitrogen source for medium) on bacterial growth and its production of an Xylanase enzyme and the results revealed that the carbon source (Xylan) gave the best growth and production of the enzyme compared with other of carbon sources (Starch, Cellulose, Xylose, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose), where the optical density value of growth was (0.25) and the enzyme activity (3.41) unit / ml. Regarding the effect of the nitrogen source (organic and inorganic) in medium on growth and production of the enzyme, the results showed that the best bacterial growth and the production of an Xylanase enzyme occur when organic nitrogen sources (Peptone, Beef extract, Yeast extract, Casien) were supplemented in the medium compared with inorganic nitrogen sources (KNO3, (NH4) 2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3). Peptone and Yeast extract were the best nitrogen sources for stimulation of bacterial growth and the production of the enzyme with optical density value of growth reached (0.29 , 0.286) and the enzyme activity was (3.92 , 3.9) unit / ml.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

An epidemiological study of the amoeba parasite The condition of the tissueEntameoba histolytican in the province of Nineveh

Duaa Alnafoli; Zuhair Rahemo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74137

The study has been conducted to reveal the presence of amboebiasis in Neinava governorate for two successive years, 2002 and 2003 respectively. It was found , after depending on the mean numbers of the infected persons ,that the high prevalence was in June in both years as the average of the infected persons (49..800) in 2002, (44.700) in 2003, while the lowest average of infection was in January(11.500) in 2002 and in May( 5.80) in 2003 .And after depending on the percentages of infections the highest infection rate was in December (46.2963) in 2002 and in April(62.6016) in 2003., while lowest infection rate was in April(4.6607) and December(3.8777) in 2002 and in March(2.2073) in 2003. It is concluded that the percentages of infection give more accurate status of infection.
As concern relation between the infection and the age groups, the infection rate was high in the (5-9) years age groups as it reacted (37.583 ) in 2002 and (34.625) in 2003, while the lowest infection rate was in (45) years and more (8.833) in 2002 and (6.917) in 2003.
Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed between the infection and the kind of sex . Also it appeared that the infection rate was high among those sent for general stool examination in July 2002 and October and December in 2003 and the rate was low in January 2002 and April 2003.

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