About Journal

Journal of Education and Science has been published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since January 1979. The JES is an open-access journal that publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in all fields of Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer, and Mathematics sciences. A double-blind peer reviewing process is used to assure the quality of the reviewing and publication of submitted manuscripts. JES has a regional impact and is well-known in Iraqi colleges and universities. JES has an archiving plan for electronic...
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Measuring the density and bone mineral content of women in Mosul city

Jihan Fathi Yosef; khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134128.1247

In this work, condition bone of women in an urban group has been measured and compared to a rural group. Based on the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), T-score and Z-score, in this study. From September 5, 2021 to February 28, 2022, a cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. Since 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center’s assessment. They were divided into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Studying the participants provided detailed anthropometric data. T-, Z-score, BMD and BMC were evaluated using a DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France. All sample groups are classified according to age ranged between 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results showed that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison to the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.


ALi Hussein Hussein; Qais Thanon Algwari

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 12-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135797.1275

In this paper, the rise time of the exciting voltage on the DC corona discharge characteristics in a coaxial electrode system is presented. The current one-dimensional simulation study focused on the distribution of the plasma species (ions and electrons as well as the excited atoms) during two different times of the applied voltage climb was classified as a fast rise time (615 ns) and a slow rise time (2710 ns). The growth time of the corona excited voltage was controlled by the external feed RC circuit that connected with the central electrode. The simulation results reveal that the corona inception which occurs at a fast rise time produces more dense plasma charged species, while the density of the excited atoms is not much affected by the applied voltage climb time. The density of excited atoms tends to depend on the rise time of the exciting voltage at the steady state.

Evaluating the Electro Magnetic Fields Radiation of the Cell Sites and Their Environmental Effects: Case of Mosul City

Zozan Saadallah Hussain; zeina Abdul-Rahmman; Ghada Yousif Abdallh; Hassaan Thabet Thabet

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 22-30
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135909.1277

Cell phones, also known as mobile or portable phones, have become an essential part of contemporary communication technologies. In some regions of the world, they are even the only available means of communication, as they are so well-liked for allowing people to communicate with one another without having any impact on their movements. Cell phones are becoming increasingly popular, with more than 50% of people in some nations owning one. The industrial community anticipates that by the year 2030, there will be more than 8 billion users worldwide. To accommodate broadcast and reception, more cell phone stations (towers) are being built. These stations, which are radio antennas, work to protect connections with cellular telephone equipment while using minimum power. The goal of this proposed study is to measure the electromagnetic fields radiated by cell phone towers and their effects on the local environment in a selected area of Mosul, Iraq. The results will then be compared to international standards, evaluated to help develop methods for protecting people's health, and solutions to the issue will be offered.

First record of potato virus s (PVS) and Detect ordinary strain PVS° in Nineveh Governorate

ALi Walid Ali; nabel Aziz Qasem; juhina idrees ALI

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.136313.1284

The results of a field survey of some potato growing areas in Nineveh Governorate showed the presence of Potato virus s PVS, which was detected by the Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay DAS-ELISA test.
This record is the first in the governorate. Through the absorbance readings using the elisa reader, highest value was recorded in the Sherikhan area samples, which amounted to 1.190 nm, while lowest value was recorded in the Rabia area samples with a value of 0.756 nm, while absorbance value of the negative standard sample was 0.300 nm. The frequency of virus in the Sherikhan area was 53.3%, while frequency of the virus in the Rabia area was 28.8%.
As a result of mechanical inoculation with virus isolates diagnosed by DAS-ELISA test, spread of the common strain PVSO through symptoms on Chenopodium quinoa, which was in the form of small chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves, and new leaves were devoid of any disease symptoms.

On Left Slides (Upper or Lower) in e-Abacus Diagram

Jwan Khairi khalil; Ammar Mahmood

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 38-46
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.136997.1295

In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in researching various (movements) on the e-abacus diagram in attempt to determine how these movements affect the origin of the design as a form of coding. In this paper we will submit an technique is used for the first time, but from one diagram we will get several diagrams, so that they do not resemble each other except in specific parts of the diagram, which makes finding the original seem almost impossible. It will start from the bottom left side exclusively for the diagram and then in a manner similar to slides from the top to the bottom, and from the bottom to the top, followed by the top left side exclusively for the diagram and in the direction up to the bottom and finally down to the top. By dividing the diagram into slides just from the left side of the diagram, we will provide four new types in this research and in the upper or lower directions LSUUL, LSULU, LSLUL and LSLLU.

Determined the bulk etch rate VB by different methods for nuclear track detector CR-39

Zainab H Mohialdeen; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 47-55
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137160.1297

In this study, the bulk etch rate (VB) was measured by three different methods forCR-39 with a thickness of 200µm and an area of (1 × 1 cm2), where CR_39 was irradiated through from Am241source with energy of alpha particles is 2.6MeV and at an angle of fall perpendicular to the surface of the CR-39 detector, the detector etching with (NaOH) at a concentration of 6.25N and (70 ± 1°C) and showing the effects formed on the surface of the detector with time periods ranging from (0.25h) and the formed effects were photographed In the detector at different eching times using an optical microscope of the type (XSZ-H Series Biological Microscope) equipped with a digital camera of the type (MADC_5A) connected to a personal computer, in order to find the length, thickness and diameters of the track formed on the surface of the detector.VB determind by methods are: Removed thickness method, the second method, the saturation track method, and the diameter-length method (D_L method), as the first method does not require irradiation of the detector, but the other two methods require irradiation of the detector and measurement of lengths and diameters And the time of proving the effect, and we found that the values of VB rate for the three methods, the removed thickness method, the saturation track method, and the diameter-length of the effect ((D_L method) respectively are:, (1.206, 1.204, 1.271 (µm/h) and compare the results between the mentioned methods, as we found that they are close.

Calculating the Electrons Distribution Function for Gallium Arsenide at Low Fields by Solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation.

Noora Anwar Mohammed Jamil; Ali Abbas Mohammed Salih Al Agah

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 56-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137643.1313

The electron distribution function for gallium arsenide GaAs was calculated by using the Boltzmann transition equation in the central valley , for a range of low fields relative to the threshold field (E0 = 5.95Kv/cm) (0.3-1)E0. To obtain the distribution function, the Boltzmann transport equation was solved using a mechanism that combines the analytical and numerical methods. Analytical method involving extension of the Legendre polynomial was used and the effect of polar optical scattering was introduced as the dominant scattering mechanism in this research, as well as the effect of an asymmetric energy band structure with spherical energy surfaces in the central valley. After obtaining a partial differential equation of the second order, it is solved numerically after separation process for the variables using the direct matrix method in energy space by building a mathematical program using MATLAB. In this study, a system with dimensions of 360 × 360 was built, and the rate of change in energy was taken as 0.001.The computational system was tested by applying low electric fields, and the distribution function that was obtained had a Maxwellian distribution at very low fields, and it shifted from the Maxwellian distribution at higher fields close to the threshold field, and the results obtained were agree with previous results. While this system did not give accurate results at the high-electric fields.

Software Code Refactoring: A Comprehensive Review

Hiba Muneer Yahya Al-shakarjy; Dujan Basheer Taha

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 71-80
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137163.1298

The complexity of software has increased because of the development as well as the difficulty of requirements during the development of software, or to add new features that eventually lead to reduce the quality of the software as a whole. Software refactoring can be defined as included processes in the maintenance period of a software life cycle, and it is a technique to clean the software code from code bad smell and to improve the internal structure of the software, in addition to increasing the quality of software by using a set of activities without changing the external behavior of a software. Researchers have been developing techniques to reform software during the code or design standard to decrease the effort and time required for maintenance processes. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature for 17 studies of code standards, An automatic search is utilized in the digital libraries to look for the relevant studies that were published from 2014 to 2021, the best five researchers are chosen in this subject, five studies or less are chosen for each depending on the number of reference in the database of scientific sites, or using an approach or a new method to get good results. Eventually, each paragraph is analyzed and mentions the method or algorithm used in rebuilding software, further the aims, and the result for each paper.

Solving Fredholm integral equation based on Padé approximants using Particle swarm optimization

Israa Ibrahim mohammed sheekhoo; Azzam Salahuddin Aladool

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 81-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137531.1309

         Several scientific and engineering applications are usually described as integral equations.  A  new approach for solving the type of linear and nonlinear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind is proposed. Although many methods provide an analytic solution,  there are different types of integral equations are difficult to solve. Therefore, the numerical approach for solving integral equations is used. Fredholm integral equations of the second kind have been converted to unconstrained optimization problems to find their approximate solutions. This work employs particle swarm optimization combined with padé expansion to find an approximate solution of the Fredholm integral equation. This is applied by minimizing the fitness function value. The fitness function is calculated using the discrete least squares weighted function. The proposed algorithm is applied to solve linear and non-linear FIE. The results are compared to exact solutions. The stability of the proposed algorithm is also presented. The results are promising in terms of convergence , stability and accuracy of the approximate solution.

Classification of Lateral Incisor Teeth for Aesthetic Dentistry Using Intelligent Techniques

Younis Samir Younis; Israa Mohammed Khudher Alhamdani

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 91-108
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137076.1296

The six upper front teeth determine the appearance of Aesthetic dentistry. The study will define lateral incisors based on their lower angles as round, square, or square/round. LORIN molds to shape teeth were utilized. It extracted 144 teeth images from him and used 36 photographs of denture lateral incisors. The aim of the proposed work is to develop a model capable of determining the most likely form the teeth will take. Intelligent systems first distinguish denture picture edges and separate gums from teeth. After early processing teeth were extracted. and use morphological methods performed to remove the hump, and The Savitzky-Golay filter then softens the corners. Images were tested to determine their type. Fuzzy logic determines the filter's mask size by finding the most matching teeth. we were cropped 50%, 66%, and 75% of the teeth and compared the rest lower parts of the teeth. Then, each type of tooth is matched using Pearson's correlation coefficient and LORIN-certified dental molds. When evaluating pictures of lateral incisor teeth, researchers found 36.1% accuracy when using the entire tooth, and 66.1% accuracy when cropping 75% of the tooth. The best match and discrimination of the lateral incisor were at cropping 50% and 66%, his accuracy was 86.1%. This study's results were compared to previous research on this subject, demonstrating their reliability and precision.

Digital Forensic Tools: A Literature Review

Karam Mohammed Mahdi Salih; Najla Badi Ibrahim Dabagh

Journal of Education and Science, 2023, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 109-124
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.137420.1304

Digital forensics is a process of collection, identification, extraction, and documentation of electronic evidence which is used in a court of law. There are a large number of tools that help us to make this process easy and simple. In this paper, four tools have been chosen to explore and study. The best digital forensic tools have been chosen according to different parameters in each type of digital forensics. The (Stellar) basis tool and (Forensic Tool Kit) have been explored for computer forensic tools while (Network Map) has been chosen for network forensic tools and (OSFmount) has been studied as a live forensic tool. This paper also covers other types of forensic tools like Database forensic tools, O.S. forensic tools, and Mail forensic tools. The role of Artificial intelligence in Digital Forensic tools has been discussed in this paper by using both Decision Stump and Bayes net machine learning techniques. After making an investigation of the IoT device traffic dataset using these two techniques, Decision Stump gives us less accurate results compared with Bayes net.

Effect the Annealing on The Growth Length Rate of Alpha Particles Tracks in CR-39 Nuclear Track Detector

Rasha Mahmood wael; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2023.138444.1335

The aime of this paper is to investigate the impact of annealing on track growth  rate (dL/dt), which is calculated using the track length measurement method. A 600 micro meter-thick CR-39 detector, divided into four samples (1 x 1 cm2), was  vertically irradiated by alpha particles with 2.6 MeV from a 241Am source which have max energy 5.48 MeV . The three samples were annealed at 100–140oC  by type 20o C  using oven Memmert U4079142. All samples were etched in a 6.25 N NaOH solution at 70±1 oC in a Memmert W200 water bath, the periodic etching time was 0.5 hours to 6  hours. The etched image was captured using a camera (MADC_5A) attached to a microscope (XSZ-H Series Biological Microscope). The bulk etch rate and diameters increase with increasing annealing temperatures. The new method used in this paper to calculate the experimental track length is based on the relation between track length and track diameter obtained from track-test software.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

Assessment of NORM from oil refineries and fields northwest of Mosul

mustafa abdullah alsharook; Rasheed Mahmood Yousuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130357.1164

The uranium concentration and radioactivity of radon gas were measured in Al-Kasik refinery and Ain Zala field using the CR-39 detector. Soil and water samples associated with the production stages of oil, Sludge and crude oil were collected. The levels of uranium concentration in soil ranged from 0.703 to 1.480 ppm, in water samples from 0.681 to 0.716 ppm, in Sludge samples from 0.849 to 1.014 ppm, and in crude oil from 0.785 to 0.933 ppm. As for the radioactivity of radon gas, when comparing the radon rate in the samples we obtained with the global values, it was found that it falls within the internationally permissible limit, where the radon rate in the soil was 12.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) which has a value of 32 Bq/kg, and in the produced water it was 8.66 Bq/kg compared to (UNSCEAR)which has a value of 50 Bq/kg. In Sludge samples 11.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) whose value is(8-5×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg, and in crude oil samples 10.56 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Federation of Oil and Gas Producer (IOGP) whose value is (800-4×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg. As for the alpha ray hazard index, the results showed that it is within the permissible limits internationally, where the results were less than 1 and therefore does not pose a threat to the health of workers and environment.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

The hybrid Morse code

Ammar Siddiq Mahmoud; Rawia Ibrahim Bakr

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 294-311
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161056

In this research, Morse code was introduced in a new type, which we called the hybrid to be appropriate between the code itself and the theory of fragmentation, which could later be used as a type of encryption in messages between two or more parties.

Isolation And Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Some Clinical And Environmental Samples And Study It,s Activity for The Production of Pyocyanin And Protease

Nazar Mohammed Hassan Al-mamari; Adeba Younes Sharif Al-Numa,an

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 93-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163328

      The study includes isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different sources as (90) samples were collected during a period from November (2017) to February (2018), including (wounds, suckers, urine, drinking water), Twinty five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified depending on morphological and biochemical tests at a rate of (27.77%) from total samples including (13) isolates from suckers used for sucking solutions from respiratory tract, (7) isolates from wounds, (3) isolates from urine and (2) isolates from drinking water. The isolates from sucker formed the highest rate reached (14.44%) of total samples and (52%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, whereas the lowest rate was from drinking water (2.22%) of total samples and (8%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The results showed that (92%) of total isolates were pyocyanin producer on King A agar medium, It was also found that all isolates of this bacteria have the ability to produce protease.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

Journal of Education and Science, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdulazeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

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