About Journal

Journal of Education and Science has been published quarterly by the College of Education for Pure Science, University of Mosul, Iraq, since January 1979. The JES is an open-access journal that publishes original articles, review papers, and case reports in all fields of Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Computer, and Mathematics sciences. A double-blind peer reviewing process is used to assure the quality of the reviewing and publication of submitted manuscripts. JES has a regional impact and is well-known in Iraqi colleges and universities. JES has an archiving plan for electronic...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  edusj.mosuljournals@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Asmaa Abdul Azeez Ali

Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Preparation and study of some physical properties of silver nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquids technique

Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; Noor Atallah Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132843.1212

In this paper, the pulsed laser method was used to obtain silver nanoparticles, and one of the first signs indicating the production or generation of nanoparticles using the pulsed laser is the change in the color of the solution. In our study, deionized distilled water with a volume of 5 mL was used to prepare the samples with energy (300, 500)mj With pulsed (50, 100, 150, 200) pulse. We observed change in color of solution to a dark yellowish color that means obtained silver nanoparticles. In another side study the obsorbancy and transmission by using U-Visible spectroscopy, the peaks of all samples were at 400 nm this confirms that nanoparticles have been obtained. The mean energy gab calculated for direct transition allowed of the samples are 2.94 eV.

Assessment of Tolerance Levels to Air Pollution for Some Species of Trees and Shrubs Growing on Roadsides in Western Mosul City

Ragda Read Al-Healy; Ibrahim Anwer Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 10-28
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132140.1198


This study was conducted in the western part of Mosul city from 20/9/2020 to the end of spring 2021 to assess the tolerance of some trees and shrubs against air pollution based on the air pollution tolerance index APTI. The sites were tested according to the different traffic density and human activities, and included areas Residential, main and secondary roads, samples of healthy leaves were collected for 19 species of trees and shrubs in the season of summer, winter, spring and autumn, and included some evergreen species such as orientalis Biota, , Nerium oleander , Cupressus sempervirens var pyramidalis , Cupressus sempervirens var.horizantalis, Casuarina equistifolia , Olea europaea , Eucalyptus camaldulenses , Pinus brutia , Dypsis lutesens , Washingtonia filifera , Tamarix articulate , Callistemon viminalis , Leucaena leucephala, And falling leaves Melia azedarach , Morus alba , Ziziphus spina-christi , Ficus carica , Albizia lebbeek ,Populus euphratica. . Some biochemical characteristics were used to evaluate the ability of these species to resist pollutants and the possibility of using them for planting on the roadsides. Analysis of variance and LSD test were used to find out the statistical differences between the different species. The results of this study indicated that there was a significant difference between the different species, as a result, the highest value of the relative moisture content of the callistemon viminalis trees in the Al tayaran area was (87.461%) among all other plant species, the Leucaena leucephala trees contained a high percentage of chlorophyll,

Gauss-Hermite Cubature Method to estimate parameters of a multivariate GLMM

Adnan Mostafa Al-Sinjary; Auday Taha Raheem

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133041.1216

In this paper, the multivariate generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was studied when there are three response variables, distributed as Normal, Bernoulli, and Poisson. And because there is a multiple integration in the likelihood function for the model under study, it is necessary to use mathematical methods to solve this integration, and because it is not possible to obtain the result of this integration by the well-known methods of integration, numerical methods have been used, the Gauss-Hermite Cubature (GHC) algorithm, which is one of the most common numerical integration methods. Then the estimates were obtained by maximizing the resulting likelihood function with respect to the parameters, and thus, estimates were obtained for the parameters. On the practical side, we have used real data representing the effect of potassium as a fixed effect, and referring patients were considered as a random effect on three response variables: calcium, creatinine, and urea as they follow Normal, Bernoulli, and Poisson distributions taken from the records of the Vajin Hospital in Dohuk city. The regression coefficients showed that the effect of potassium is positive on both calcium and urea because the values of the coefficients are positive, while its effect is negative on the creatinine because the value of the coefficient is negative. Based on the results, the researchers recommended several recommendations, including estimating the standard error of the estimates in their light, in order to construct hypotheses for a significance test about regression coefficients.

The New Approach Optimization Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series using Particle Swarm Algorithm

Sugiyarto Surono; Nauval Satriani Siregar

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 42-54
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133052.1217

Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series is a forecasting method that applies fuzzy logic to form linguistic variables from existing data. The formation of linguistic variables makes it possible for the forecasting process to be more accurate by considering the uncertainty aspect in decision-making. Its formation is started by grouping the data into a certain number of clusters. The next step is fuzzification, transition matrix formation, and defuzzification for forecasting. In the process of grouping, the existing data will be grouped into several clusters so that it results in the interval length of each cluster. One of the problems of this grouping is the absence of a base standard in the clustering process so it is prone to have a different value in forecasting accuracy. The difference in the number of the class or interval length will result in different accuracy even though the clustering method that is used is the same. In this study, the author proposes the idea of using Particle Swarm Optimization to improve the interval length. The initial interval that is already obtained through the K-means clustering algorithm will be evaluated using the Particle Swarm Optimization method so that it will have a new interval that later will be used in the fuzzification process and forecasting. The accuracy of forecasting can be calculated by using Mean Absolute Percentage Error from Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series conventional method and Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series method with Particle Swarm Optimization. The result of this study gives an improvement in error value from 8.03% to 5.88%.

Detecting A Medical Mask During The COVID-19 Pandemic Using Machine Learning: A Review Study

Mohammed Abdullsattar Abdullghani mzeri; Laheeb M. Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 55-68
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133181.1221

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been government instructions to citizens to wear a medical mask in crowded places and institutions to prevent or reduce the spread of the pandemic, as the most common method of transmission of COVID-19 is (coughing or sneezing), the spread of infection of this disease can be reduced by wearing a mask Medical, and to ensure that everyone wears a mask is not easy.
In this paper, we try to study research in the field of identifying the medical mask and the machine learning algorithms used to build a system capable of detecting the medical mask in faces through images and video in real time. We also explain in this research an overview of the importance of machine learning and deep learning methods, especially Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and the basic steps for creating the system We reveal the medical mask, and we highlight the methods and stages of building the model with its accuracy and get acquainted with the datasets used in building the model and the size of the data set (number of images) used in the training and testing phase of the model and the mechanism by which The researcher worked out to build his own system.

A Review Of Clustering Methods Based on Artificial Intelligent Techniques

Baydaa ibraheem Khaleel

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 69-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133092.1218

Due to the development in various areas of life, the development of the Internet, and the presence of many dataset, and in order to obtain useful information from the rapidly increasing volumes of digital data, there must be theories and computational tools to help humans extract the useful information they need from this data. Large data is collected from many different services and resources. Clustering is one of the most basic and well-known methods of data mining and extraction and obtaining useful information. The technique of recognizing natural groups or clusters within several datasets based on some measure of similarity is known as data clustering. Many researchers have introduced and developed many clustering algorithms based on the different methods of artificial intelligence techniques. Finding the right algorithms greatly helps in organizing information and extracting the correct answer from different database queries. This paper provides an overview of the different clustering methods using artificial intelligence and finding the appropriate clustering algorithm to process different data sets. We highlight the best-performing clustering algorithm that gives effective and correct clustering for each data set.

Measurement of Low-Pressure Plasma Parameters by the Floating Double Probe Method for Dry Air and Helium Gas in a Capillary Glow Discharge

Ashraf Khalid; Muayad Abdullah Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133290.1223

The electrical continuous glow discharge is in the capillary tubes. It has gained great interest especially in the applications of liquid crystals as well as display plasmas and soft x-ray lasers. In the present work, an electrical discharge system was designed consisting of a capillary tube and two electrodes. The cathode takes on a hollow geometric shape from nickel material to obtain a high current density. The anode electrode is a tungsten material. The inter-electrodes distance was taken as 12 cm. The floating Langmuir double probe was used as a diagnostic Tool to measure the plasma parameters at different ranges of gas pressure for dry air and helium as working gases. The current-voltage characteristics of the double probe were measured at gas pressure 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 torr. All measurements are conducted at a constant power of 0.6 watt. Electron temperature and ion saturation current were extracted from the I-V characteristics curves. The electron density, Debye length, and plasma frequency were calculated. It was observed that the electron temperature decreases with increasing working gas pressure. The influence of pressure on electron density and ion saturation current gave a clear similarity to the variation in them with pressure in both gases used. Comparisons of the effect of pressure on plasma parameters in working gases were illustrated. The results were in reasonable agreement with previous research.

Improving Security Using Cryptography Based on Smartphone User Locations

anfal mahmood; Ahmed S Nori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 94-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133190.1222

Smartphones have become widely employed in a range of fields as a result of substantial developments in communication technology, distribution, and the development of numerous types of smart mobile devices. The goal of this research is to secure information sent over mobile phone networks. In this paper, we propose using cryptography to create a more secure application for transmitting confidential information, using encryption to improve security, and depending on the location of the mobile phone user's coordinates, obtained via GPS, to increase security. The XOR process was used between coordinates, the idea was new, the application was implemented, and good results were obtained. The process of converting text into unreadable text is known as ciphering, and in order to achieve it in this paper the Twofish algorithm was used to encrypt confidential information. When sending the coordinates, the RSA algorithm was used to encrypt them as for the Twofish algorithm, the coordinates serve as a key. We conclude that the proposed system used in this study achieved a high level of security.

Preparation and study of some physical properties of copper nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquids technique

Noor Atallah Al-Jubbori; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 105-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133494.1229

In this paper, the pulsed ablation laser in liquids (PLAL)method was used to obtain copper nanoparticles from material copper, One of the first signs of nanoparticle production or generation using the pulsed laser is a change in the color of the sample's solution as the concentration of nanoparticles increases. In our study, deionized distilled water with a volume of 5 mL was used to prepare the samples with energy (300, 500)mj. With number of pulsed (50, 100, 150, 200) pulse respectively. We noticed a change in the color of the solution to a dark white color, indicating the presence of silver nanoparticles. In another side study the obsorbancy and transmission by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, the peaks of all samples were at wave length at (250-260) nm. This confirms that nanoparticles have been obtained from silver material. The determined mean energy gab for direct transition allowed of the samples is 2.74 eV.

Performance Analysis of n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction Diode as Function of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Thickness

Hala Nazar Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 114-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133482.1227

The n-type Zinc oxide (n-ZnO) nanostructured thin films (TFs) with different thicknesses (211, 325, 433 and 552 nm) were grown onto glass substrates employing the CVD technique at atmospheric pressure. Deposited films were characterized by EDX spectroscopy attached with FE-SEM and XRD techniques to determine the influence of thickness on elemental compositions and crystalline structure of ZnO films, respectively. Also, ZnO TFs were deposited on the p-Si(111) substrates to form different structures of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diodes and then I-V characteristics were studied in the dark. The electrical parameters of the diodes such as rectification ratio (RR), reverse saturation current (Is), ideality factor (), barrier height (b) and series resistance (Rs) were calculated from the I-V measurements. EDX spectra showed that these films were only made from Zn and O elements. XRD patterns presented that the ZnO films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along [002] direction. I-V characteristics of the heterojunction diodes revealed rectification behavior and depend on ZnO TFs thickness. Also, electrical parameters of diodes were affected by the prepared film's thickness. It was found that the crystalline structure of the films and electrical properties of diodes were improved with increasing the thickness of ZnO films. It is noted that the best heterojunction diodes were that prepared with thickness (552 nm), where possess lowest value of ideality factor (3.38) and a series resistance (0.84 k) with a highest rectification ratio (1517), compared with other structures. This study offers a simple model for fabricating diodes from semiconductor films.

Comparison of the Inhibitory Antibacterial Activity of Dry Body Extract of Periplaneta americana and Polistes watti

Ali Ali Hameed; Atallah Fahad Mekhlif

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 128-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133550.1233

Insects have been considered the main source of very useful chemical compounds. Today, the insect's innate immunity is a subject of antibiotic alternatives by experimenting with their body extracts. After application of the "Sequential solvent polarity" method. The dry body extract of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana was exhibited had variable growth inhibition between the tasted pathogenic bacteria, the methanol cold extract was more effective than with other (Hexane, Diethyl ether, Ethyl acetate, Methanol) solvents by inhibition zone diameters; (29.0, 22.0,24.0, 22.3) mm for (Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) respectively. In comparison between the antibacterial of the methanol extracts of the cockroach and the paper wasp Polistes watti, extract of the P. americana in more active in the inhibition of all four tested bacteria as follows: (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) for (7.7, 18.3, 8.7, 6.0) mm respectively. Extract of P. americana have antibacterial activity do to it living in an ecological niche which characterized by organic and bacterial pollution so, the growth of human pathogenic bacteria in more inhibited than the social entomophagous  P. watti wasp. The present study had given promise alternative of the personal antibiotics, by as more effective than the standers drugs (Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin) after separation and identification of the active molecules and used as a template for the future manufacturing industry.

Antimicrobial Activity of Local Rhizobial Isolates Against Some fungi

Omar Hammad Jumaah; Raad H. Sultan; Mahde Saleh Assafi

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 141-149
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133511.1230

In this study, three isolates of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii were isolated from root nodules of Vigna unguiculata L. (Cowpea) which collected from different cultural areas in Nineveh Governorate/Iraq. The rhizobial colonies were purified and their agronomic and biochemical characteristics were studied. Microscopic examination results showed rod negative Gram stain bacteria, whereas the three isolates showed ability to grow on rhizobial minimal medium (RMM), motility on TY semi-solid medium, gelatin liquefaction, citrate utilization as a sole carbon source, as well as the isolates showed a positive result for Triple Sugar Iron (TSI). Antimicrobial activity study of local rhizobial isolates against fungi showed a clear effect on studied fungi. The filtrate culture of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii ORM1 showed inhibition zone effect with average 12.6, 10.3 and 12.0 mm against Aspergillus niger MR1, Fusarium solani MR2 and Penicillium spp. MR3, respectively, whereas the filtrate culture of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii ORM13 showed inhibition zone effect with average 10.0, 13.3 and 13.0 mm against Aspergillus niger MR1, Fusarium solani MR2 and Penicillium spp. MR3, respectively. A filtrate culture of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii ORM23 showed less effect against each of Aspergillus niger MR1 and Penicillium spp. MR3 which inhibition zone average 8.6 mm, whereas there is no inhibition effect were recorded for culture filtrate against Fusarium solani MR2.

Morphological characters the pollen grains of Apricot plant Prunus armeniaca L. and Plum Prunus domestica L. cultivated in northern Iraq

amina ahmed dalalbashi; Amer Al-Mathidy

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 150-160
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133027.1215

The Present study aims to study the morphological characters of the pollen grains for six Apricot cultivars Prunus armeniaca L. and six cultivars of Plum P. domestica L. planted in northern Iraq.Using the Light Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was found that the pollen grains in all the cultivars were, isopolar tricorporate, and with one-, two-, and four-holes models were found, and their shape in the polar view was either tetra angular, spherical- triangular, or triangular, While in the equatorial view, the pollen shapes were ovoid, spherical or semi-spherical .The surface ornamentation was in several forms, including reticulate, granular, thin longitudinal striped, short transverse striped, granular and striped grains and striped.The quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics of pollen grains showed a high taxonomic value in separating and isolating the cultivars of the two studied species.

The Assessment of the Bone Quality with Low Back Pain

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133543.1232

The aim of this study was to measure osteoporosis in the right heel bone. A total of 123 Iraqi men and women with low back pain (LBP) participated in the study (18 males and 105 females). Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) was used to assess osteoporosis, speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and calcaneus bone quality index (BQI). A dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine tissue thickness, fracture risk factor, and abdominal fat percentage. The results indicate that SOS was 1495.43±18.780 m/sec. Participants had a Z-score of -1.10±1.56. The fracture risk factor for participants was 1.622± 1.90 when DXA measurements were taken. Low back pain measurements revealed that the age group between 51-60 years had the highest prevalence. The correlation between the T-score and the calcaneal SOS is a linear relationship with a P-value of 0.0001. When we examine the relationship between the Z-score and the calcaneal BUA, we see that it is linear and statistically significant (P-value less than 0.0001). The correlations between calcaneal BQI and BMI, as well as between calcaneal BUA and tissue thickness, were found to be statistically insignificant (P-value = 0.8 and 0.8, respectively). The correlation between calcaneal SOS and abdominal fat percent appears to be statistically significant (P-value=0.05) (linear correlation is weak).

Measurement of Osteoporosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Technique

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133542.1231

The aim of study is to measure osteoporosis in the right foot at the heel (calcaneus) by using the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique. It was measured (SOS, BUA, BQI, T-score and Z-score). While the usage of the DXA technique is measure the tissue thickness. Osteoporosis represents low bone mineral density (BMD). The heel of the foot (calcaneus) uses in QUS measurements because it contains a high ratio of trabecular bone. T-score is the predominant the diagnosis of osteoporosis used for adults, men and women over 50 years. From T-score can be to know the ratio of BMD, according to the WHO a T-score can be classified (Normal, Osteopenia and Osteoporosis). Age group 31-40 years was T-score for both sex (-0.667) is meaning (Normal bone). In the age group, 51-60 years was T-score (-1.60) for both sex represents (osteopenia). While age group 71-80 years T-score for females (-2.56) and males (-3.30), means that both males and females have (osteoporosis). P-value<0.0001 for a linear relationship between Z-score and calcaneal SOS, the value of correlation coefficient (R=0.916) and correlation coefficient square (Rsq=0.838). For correlation parameters of the relationship between calcaneal BUA and BMI includes both (P-value=0.8, R=0.020, Rsq=0.0004). The relationship between calcaneal BQI and tissue thickness is the P-value=0.7, the value correlation coefficient and the correlation coefficient square (R=-0.029, R=0.0008).

The Comparison of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content between Both Urban and Rural Women Groups in Mosul Governorate

Jihan Fathi Yosef; Khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133493.1228

In this study, the bone state of women in an urban group was measured and compared to a rural group. The assessments revealed the measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). A cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center assessment. They were split into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Study participants provided detailed anthropometric data. A DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France was used to measure the T- and Z-scores. All sample groups were classified according to age from 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results show that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison with the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.

Spectrofluorimetric determination of adrenaline and dopamine .

Mohamed Y. Dhamra; Theiaa Al-Sabha; mohammed Al-Enizzi

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133845.1238

A sensitive fluorometric method, with few steps and suitable for the daily routine, was made for examining adrenaline hydrochloride and dopamine hydrochloride. The reliance in this paper was on the nucleophilic substitution interaction of the mentioned drugs with 1,2-naphthoquinone sulfonate (NQS) in an aqueous pH 6 to give a fluorescent product with a maximum emission wave at ʎem 471 nm after being excited at a maximum excitation wave at ʎ ex 300 nm. The plots have complied within the range of 0.01- 4.0, 0.01-2 µg/ml, and The detection limits (0.0062, 0.0027) and quantitation limits were (0.0207, 0.0091) µg/ml, for adrenaline and dopamine respectively. The accuracy (% recovery) was between (99.21% - 100.72%) and the relative standard deviation (RSD%) is better than 0.95%. It was also found that the formed product was in a ratio of 1:2 reagent to the drug. The estimation of adrenaline and dopamine has been successfully tested on the injection, and it is in good agreement with its approved value and with that of the British Pharmacopoeia method.

Implementation of OCR using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN): A Survey

Ahmed Abdulrahman Alkaddo; Dujan Albaqal

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133711.1236

Recently, character recognition and deep learning have caught the attention of many researchers. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) usually takes an image of the character as input and generates the identical character as output. The important role that OCR does is to transform printed materials into digital text files. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is an influential model that is generous with bright results in optical character recognition (OCR). The state-of-the-art performance which exists in deep neural networks is usually used to handle frequently recognition and classification problems. Many applications are using it, for instance, robotics, traffic monitoring, articles digitization, etc. CNN is designed to adaptively and automatically learn features by using many kinds of layers (convolution layers, pooling layers, and fully connected layers). In this paper we will go through the advantages and recent usage of CNN in OCR and why it’s important to use it in handwritten and printed text recognition and what subjects we can use this technique for. Researchers are progressively using CNN for the machine-printed characters and recognition of handwritten, that is because CNN architectures are suitable for recognition tasks by inputting some images

Measuring the density and bone mineral content of women in Mosul city

Jihan Fathi Yosef; khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134128.1247

In this work, condition bone of women in an urban group has been measured and compared to a rural group. Based on the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), T-score and Z-score, in this study. From September 5, 2021 to February 28, 2022, a cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. Since 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center’s assessment. They were divided into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Studying the participants provided detailed anthropometric data. T-, Z-score, BMD and BMC were evaluated using a DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France. All sample groups are classified according to age ranged between 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results showed that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison to the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.

Utility of 2,2׳- Bipyridyl Reagent in Spectrophotometric Assay of Acetylcysteine in Pure Form and in Its Pharmaceutical Preparations

Shahad Luqmqn Hasan; Saad hasani Sultan

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134059.1246

This study includes development of a sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of acetylcysteine in aqueous solution. The method is based on the oxidation of acetylcysteine with a ferric ion, followed by reacting of produced ferrous ion with 2,2׳-bipyridyl to form a pink complex , which is stable and water-soluble and has the highest absorption at a wavelength of 524 nm. The limits of Beer's law were in the concentration range of (5-180) µg of acetylcysteine in a final volume of 20 milliliters (0.25-9.0 µg.ml-1) and the molar absorptivity of 8633.28 L. mol-1 .cm-1 , Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0189 µg.cm-2. The relative error of -4.28% – 4.98 % and relative standard deviation of ± 0.56% - ± 3.75% depending on the concentration level. The limit of detection limit(LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated and equal to 0.01837 and 0.06124 µg/ml respectively, no inference was observed in the common pharmaceutical excipients. The results obtain by proposed method were in good agreement with those obtain from official British pharmacopoeia using t-test (at 95% confidence limit) which indicates that there is no significant differences between them. The method was successfully applied to determine acetylcysteine in its pharmaceutical preparations.

Pollution by crude oil and used engine oil and their impact on growth and concentration of some nutrients elements of flax and safflower plants.

Mostafa Thaier Ismail; Hussein Saber Saber Mohammed ali

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133858.1239

This study aim to show the effect of soil  contamination with crude oil and its derivatives on the dry weight and Nutrient minerals on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). This experiment was carried out in plastic pots and under Plastic house conditions, the treatment was carried out with crude oil, used car's engine oil and used generator's engine oil at three concentrations 1-2-3% for each treatment ,in addition to the comparison treatment. The results showed a significant decrease in the dry weight of the shoot systems of flax and safflower when treated with crude oil at a concentration of 3% amounted to 0.043-0.124 g, respectively, and the dry weight of the root systems amounted to 0.022-0.015 g, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in the concentration of calcium in the shoot system of flax and safflower plants when treated with crude oil and used generator oil at a concentration of 3% amounted to (1,900-1.950) mg\g, respectively. The calcium concentration has also decreased in the root system of flax and safflower plants when treated with used generator and car oil at the concentration 3% amounted to 1.500-1.600 mg\g, respectively. Potassium concentration decreased in the shoot and root systems of flax and safflower plants when treated with generator engine oil and crude oil at a concentration of 3% and reached 6.900-10.45 and 4.150-8.800 mg\g, respectively, compared to the control treatment and other treatments

Classification of Software Systems attributes based on quality factors using linguistic knowledge and machine learning: A review.

Abdulrhman Ali; Nada Nimat Saleem

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134024.1245

Both The functionality and the non-functionality for what the system does as well as doesn't of software systems requirements are documented in a Software Requirements Specification (SRS).
Moreover in requirements engineering, system requirements classify into several categories such as functional, quality and constraint classes.
Therefore, we evaluate several machine learning approaches as well as methodologies that mentioned in previous literature in term of automatic requirements extraction, then the classification based on methodically reviewing for many previous works on software requirements classification to assist software engineers in selecting the best requirement classification technique. Therefore, the study aim to get answer for several questions that related to: What machine learning algorithms were used for the classification process of the requirements, How these algorithms work and how they're evaluated, What methods were used for extracting features from a text, What evaluation criteria were used in comparing results and What machine learning techniques and methods were provided the highest accuracy.

hα-Open Sets in Topological Spaces

Baedaa S. Abdullah; Sabih W. Askandar; Ruqayah N. Balo

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134241.1251

In our work we introduced a new type of open sets is defined as follows: If for each set that is not empty M in X, M≠X and M ∈τ^∝such that A ⊆ int(A∪M). then A in (X,τ) is named h∝-open set. We also go through the relationship between h∝- open sets and a variety of other open set types as h-open sets, open sets, semi-open sets and ∝-open sets. We proved that each h-open and open set is h∝-open and there is no relationship between∝-open sets and semi-open sets with h∝-open sets. Furthermore, we begin by introducing the concepts of h∝-continuous mappings, h∝-open mappings, h∝-irresolute mappings, and h∝-totally continuous mappings, We proved that each h-continuous mapping in any topological space is h∝-continuous mapping, each continuous mapping in any topological space is h∝-continuous mapping and there is no relationship between∝-continuous mappings and semi-continuous mappings with h∝-continuous mappings as well as some of its features. Finally, we look at some of the new class's separation axioms.

Proposing a Model for Detecting Intrusion Network Attacks Using Machine Learning Techniques

Teba Ali Jasem Ali; Muna Jawhar

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133867.1240

At the present time, the reliance on computers is increasing in all aspects of life, so it is necessary to protect computer networks and computing resources from complex attacks against the network. This is done by building tools, applications, and systems that detect attacks or anomalies adapting to ever-changing architectures and dynamically changing threats. Providing network security is one of the most important things in network communications, more networks grow and the more devices are added to the network, need more requirement to provide network security, a network security system is necessary to protect devices and data of network users, helps protect information shared on the network, protection of people's personal information and helps prevent users from falling victim to pirates
The goal of this paper is to build a Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) based on deep learning techniques such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), which demonstrated its efficiency in predicting, classifying, and extracting high-level features in network traffic.

Medical Images Classification Using Artificial Intelligence

Tasneem Mustafa; Jamal Salahaldeen Alneamy

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133358.1224

In recent years, the use of computing has increased along with medical skills, and this had impressive results in terms of classification and treatment, in addition to facilitating the matter of medical personnel. This was evident during the Corona pandemic, which infected millions around the world, which. There is an urgent need for software tools to help classify the disease without the need to resort to doctors. The matter is not limited to the classification of corona disease, but it also extends to the expansion of the discovery of other diseases such as malaria, skin cancer and other diseases that afflict large numbers of people. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, and according to some statistics, the total number of infections in 2019 reached about 228 million cases around the world. As for skin cancer, it is considered one of the serious diseases that affect humans because the skin plays a key role in protecting muscles and bones, and therefore cancer will affect all body functions.
CNN have made great strides in many intractable problems in image processing and classification, but their performance depends on their hyperparameters which is a tedious task if done manually. Therefore, experts in the field of deep learning aspire to improve its performance sometimes by integrating it with other algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization, Gray Wolf Optimization, Genetic Algorithm or firefly. All of these algorithms gave different results than the others, that is, they gave different levels of performance.

Combination of Fuzzy Logic and Kriging Technique Under Uncertainty for Spatial Data Prediction

Safa Zuhair Ibrahim; Ghanim Mahmood Dhaher

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134166.1249

This paper deals with the spatial prediction in Geostatistics. This paper depend on interpellation methods of spatial statistic (ordinary kriging technique) to combination with fuzzy logic under uncertainty for spatial data prediction. This work includes the best linear unbiased estimator prediction by using formals of linear prediction and variance kriging to find prediction by Appling on real spatial data. The data adopted from real spatial data represented the depth of real underground water wells with real location from Mosul city/Iraq. We took (100) real data with locations in study area. We applied empiricism variogram function to get the properties of variogram function. We combination between kriging technique with fuzzy logic (Mamdani Fuzzy Model). To get the best Mathematical model under uncertainty. We getting the results between kriging and fuzzy logic using Matlab language.This study is a continuation of the research conducted in this context Which is very important to highlight.

Study of the Physico-chemical properties of groundwater for some villages north of Mosul city

Ahmed Shihab Ahmed Hussain Al-Hamdani

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134274.1252

The study included the selection of groundwater from three villages north of the city of Mosul, namely the villages of (Hassan Jallad, Ghazil and al-Khrab), with two wells from each village for six months, with one sample from each well per month to study its physical and chemical characteristics and determining the extent to which it can be used for drinking and various household uses. By studying the characteristics (groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen in water, pH, water hardness, as well as positive and negative dissolved ions in water). The results of the study indicated that the temperature of the groundwater is stable and had little variation throughout the study period, while the value of the electrical conductivity reached (1738) µS/cm in the well (5) in Alkharab village, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased to an average of (1.3) mg / liter in the well (1) in Hasan jalaad village.Meanwhile the hardness values ​​ranged between (842-312) mg / liter, However the results indicated that the values ​​of calcium ions ranged between (268-72) mg / liter, while the values ​​of magnesium ions ranged between (69-27) mg / liter On the other hand The values ​​of sodium and potassium ions reached to the limits of (22) mg/L and (3.90) mg/L, respectively. As for the studied negative ions (bicarbonate, chlorides and sulfates), they reached (460) mg/L, (68) mg/L and (510) ) mg/L, respectively

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

UTM coordinates correction between WGS84 and Clarke 1880 ellipsiod in Mosul by using GPS

Sabah H.Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 142-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.83061

Most GPS receivers calculate their locations by a geodetic coordinate referenced to the WGS84 ellipsoid, whereas the local reference applied in IRAQ (referred as ClarkelSSO ellipsoid) have different geodetic coordinates.
This paper presents the results of particulars conversion between geographical and UTM grid coordinates system from WGS84 reference ellipsoid system to ClarkelSSO reference ellipsoid system for a selective locations in Mosul (Zone 38N). Conversion formulae and parameters are also given to facilitate users to convert the coordinates of any point in the study area between the two systems by using GPS.receiver and ArcGIS software.
The result shows that the geographical and UTM grid systems of the two systems are slightly different, but additive constants are sufficient to attain the general accuracy.

The effect of diazepam in some fertility and testosterone levels in healthy adult male rats

Hadeel Mohammed Hamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2011, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 66-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.51462

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg B.W.) orally daily for 6 weeks on sperm concentration, the level of live sperm, dead and abnormal sperm and the relative weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicles and epidydimus (head, body, tail). Furthermore measurement of testosterone hormone level in time interval (0,3,6 weeks) in adult albino male rats with age between 2.5-3 months and average body weight (222±16.79gram). The results showed that diazepam at doses (2.5-5 mg/kg) body weight caused a significant decreas in sperms count and the percentage of live sperms with a significant increased in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms.
Furthermore a significant decreas in serum testosterone, average weight of testis, prostate glands and tail of epididymis associated with significant increased in average body weight during period 2,4,5,6, weeks in rats treated with diazepam at two doses 2.5,5 mg/kg of body weight compared with control group. It is concluded from the present study is that diazepam has adverse effect on sexual efficiency in adult male.

Assessment of NORM from oil refineries and fields northwest of Mosul

mustafa abdullah alsharook; Rasheed Mahmood Yousuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130357.1164

The uranium concentration and radioactivity of radon gas were measured in Al-Kasik refinery and Ain Zala field using the CR-39 detector. Soil and water samples associated with the production stages of oil, Sludge and crude oil were collected. The levels of uranium concentration in soil ranged from 0.703 to 1.480 ppm, in water samples from 0.681 to 0.716 ppm, in Sludge samples from 0.849 to 1.014 ppm, and in crude oil from 0.785 to 0.933 ppm. As for the radioactivity of radon gas, when comparing the radon rate in the samples we obtained with the global values, it was found that it falls within the internationally permissible limit, where the radon rate in the soil was 12.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) which has a value of 32 Bq/kg, and in the produced water it was 8.66 Bq/kg compared to (UNSCEAR)which has a value of 50 Bq/kg. In Sludge samples 11.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) whose value is(8-5×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg, and in crude oil samples 10.56 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Federation of Oil and Gas Producer (IOGP) whose value is (800-4×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg. As for the alpha ray hazard index, the results showed that it is within the permissible limits internationally, where the results were less than 1 and therefore does not pose a threat to the health of workers and environment.

Protective Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Hydroxyurea Treated Mice

R.S. Ayoub; T.A. Al-Sandok; S.W. Yousif

Journal of Education and Science, 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 66-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81313

Bone marrow depression is the mo:.it serious dose limiting toxicity of hydroxy urea . Natural apple cider vinegar in supposed to have both chemo-proteotive and myelo -stimulatory effects .
In this study , hydroxy urea at a dose of 80mg/kg/day orally produced significant depression of red blood cell, adecrease in white
blood cells and platelets in mice . 20mg/kg/day of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea was administered produced no improvement in red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets counts.
The administration of apple cider vinegar with hydroxy urea produced significant (P<0.05) increase in red blood cells and white blood cells while platelets not recovered to normal .
The effect of hydroxy urea in mice on protein was observed as depressant effect significantly (P<0,05) on total protein adecrease in albumin and globulin .
The administration of apple cider vinegar seven days after hydroxy urea produced no significant effect on globulin and albumin , yet the total protein increased but not significantly .
The administration of apple cider vinegar at the same time with hydroxy urea significantly increase total protein and globulin , while no change on albumin level .
The results in this study indicate that apple cider vinegar has a protective effect on bone marrow from depressive effect of cyto toxic drug hydroxyurea .

The hybrid Morse code

Ammar Siddiq Mahmoud; Rawia Ibrahim Bakr

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 294-311
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161056

In this research, Morse code was introduced in a new type, which we called the hybrid to be appropriate between the code itself and the theory of fragmentation, which could later be used as a type of encryption in messages between two or more parties.

Comparative study between artificial neural networks ( recognition of printed English numbers)

manahil Abdul Karim Yusuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2010, Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 73-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2010.58252

This study is aimed to make a comparison between three artificial neural networks, these networks differ from each other in architecture and the method of adaptive the weights. In this research four ANN are used to recognized English number, these ANN are Adaline, Backpropagation, Hopfield, and Kohen ANN. By doing the comparison, we found that, the ability of a network differentiation does not depend on the complexity of the network architecture, the training algorithm or the number of layers, but it depends on the learning rule and increase in the number of the patterns that are used to train the network.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039


The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Isolation And Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Some Clinical And Environmental Samples And Study It,s Activity for The Production of Pyocyanin And Protease

Nazar Mohammed Hassan Al-mamari; Adeba Younes Sharif Al-Numa,an

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 93-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163328

      The study includes isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different sources as (90) samples were collected during a period from November (2017) to February (2018), including (wounds, suckers, urine, drinking water), Twinty five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified depending on morphological and biochemical tests at a rate of (27.77%) from total samples including (13) isolates from suckers used for sucking solutions from respiratory tract, (7) isolates from wounds, (3) isolates from urine and (2) isolates from drinking water. The isolates from sucker formed the highest rate reached (14.44%) of total samples and (52%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, whereas the lowest rate was from drinking water (2.22%) of total samples and (8%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The results showed that (92%) of total isolates were pyocyanin producer on King A agar medium, It was also found that all isolates of this bacteria have the ability to produce protease.

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

Journal of Education and Science, 2012, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

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