Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Main Subjects : Physics


The Assessment of the Bone Quality with Low Back Pain

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133543.1232

The aim of this study was to measure osteoporosis in the right heel bone. A total of 123 Iraqi men and women with low back pain (LBP) participated in the study (18 males and 105 females). Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) was used to assess osteoporosis, speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and calcaneus bone quality index (BQI). A dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine tissue thickness, fracture risk factor, and abdominal fat percentage. The results indicate that SOS was 1495.43±18.780 m/sec. Participants had a Z-score of -1.10±1.56. The fracture risk factor for participants was 1.622± 1.90 when DXA measurements were taken. Low back pain measurements revealed that the age group between 51-60 years had the highest prevalence. The correlation between the T-score and the calcaneal SOS is a linear relationship with a P-value of 0.0001. When we examine the relationship between the Z-score and the calcaneal BUA, we see that it is linear and statistically significant (P-value less than 0.0001). The correlations between calcaneal BQI and BMI, as well as between calcaneal BUA and tissue thickness, were found to be statistically insignificant (P-value = 0.8 and 0.8, respectively). The correlation between calcaneal SOS and abdominal fat percent appears to be statistically significant (P-value=0.05) (linear correlation is weak).

The Comparison of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content between Both Urban and Rural Women Groups in Mosul Governorate

Jihan Fathi Yosef; Khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133493.1228

In this study, the bone state of women in an urban group was measured and compared to a rural group. The assessments revealed the measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). A cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center assessment. They were split into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Study participants provided detailed anthropometric data. A DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France was used to measure the T- and Z-scores. All sample groups were classified according to age from 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results show that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison with the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.

Measurement of Osteoporosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Technique

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133542.1231

The aim of study is to measure osteoporosis in the right foot at the heel (calcaneus) by using the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique. It was measured (SOS, BUA, BQI, T-score and Z-score). While the usage of the DXA technique is measure the tissue thickness. Osteoporosis represents low bone mineral density (BMD). The heel of the foot (calcaneus) uses in QUS measurements because it contains a high ratio of trabecular bone. T-score is the predominant the diagnosis of osteoporosis used for adults, men and women over 50 years. From T-score can be to know the ratio of BMD, according to the WHO a T-score can be classified (Normal, Osteopenia and Osteoporosis). Age group 31-40 years was T-score for both sex (-0.667) is meaning (Normal bone). In the age group, 51-60 years was T-score (-1.60) for both sex represents (osteopenia). While age group 71-80 years T-score for females (-2.56) and males (-3.30), means that both males and females have (osteoporosis). P-value<0.0001 for a linear relationship between Z-score and calcaneal SOS, the value of correlation coefficient (R=0.916) and correlation coefficient square (Rsq=0.838). For correlation parameters of the relationship between calcaneal BUA and BMI includes both (P-value=0.8, R=0.020, Rsq=0.0004). The relationship between calcaneal BQI and tissue thickness is the P-value=0.7, the value correlation coefficient and the correlation coefficient square (R=-0.029, R=0.0008).

Measuring the density and bone mineral content of women in Mosul city

Jihan Fathi Yosef; khalid Ghanim Majeed; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134128.1247

In this work, condition bone of women in an urban group has been measured and compared to a rural group. Based on the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), T-score and Z-score, in this study. From September 5, 2021 to February 28, 2022, a cross-sectional study was done at the DXA laboratory, Physiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ninevah, Mosul, Iraq. Since 139 healthy females were enrolled through a college medical academic center’s assessment. They were divided into two groups: rural (53 participants) and urban (86 participants). Studying the participants provided detailed anthropometric data. T-, Z-score, BMD and BMC were evaluated using a DXA bone densitometer scanner type (STRATOS) from the (DMS) group in France. All sample groups are classified according to age ranged between 30-79 years and divided into subgroups for every 10 years. The results showed that BMC and BMD values were higher in the rural group in comparison to the urban group for all age categories with a highly significant p = 0.0001.

Preparation and study of some physical properties of copper nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquids technique

Noor Atallah Al-Jubbori; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 105-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133494.1229

In this paper, the pulsed ablation laser in liquids (PLAL)method was used to obtain copper nanoparticles from material copper, One of the first signs of nanoparticle production or generation using the pulsed laser is a change in the color of the sample's solution as the concentration of nanoparticles increases. In our study, deionized distilled water with a volume of 5 mL was used to prepare the samples with energy (300, 500)mj. With number of pulsed (50, 100, 150, 200) pulse respectively. We noticed a change in the color of the solution to a dark white color, indicating the presence of silver nanoparticles. In another side study the obsorbancy and transmission by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, the peaks of all samples were at wave length at (250-260) nm. This confirms that nanoparticles have been obtained from silver material. The determined mean energy gab for direct transition allowed of the samples is 2.74 eV.

Measurement of Low-Pressure Plasma Parameters by the Floating Double Probe Method for Dry Air and Helium Gas in a Capillary Glow Discharge

Ashraf Khalid; Muayad Abdullah Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133290.1223

The electrical continuous glow discharge is in the capillary tubes. It has gained great interest especially in the applications of liquid crystals as well as display plasmas and soft x-ray lasers. In the present work, an electrical discharge system was designed consisting of a capillary tube and two electrodes. The cathode takes on a hollow geometric shape from nickel material to obtain a high current density. The anode electrode is a tungsten material. The inter-electrodes distance was taken as 12 cm. The floating Langmuir double probe was used as a diagnostic Tool to measure the plasma parameters at different ranges of gas pressure for dry air and helium as working gases. The current-voltage characteristics of the double probe were measured at gas pressure 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 torr. All measurements are conducted at a constant power of 0.6 watt. Electron temperature and ion saturation current were extracted from the I-V characteristics curves. The electron density, Debye length, and plasma frequency were calculated. It was observed that the electron temperature decreases with increasing working gas pressure. The influence of pressure on electron density and ion saturation current gave a clear similarity to the variation in them with pressure in both gases used. Comparisons of the effect of pressure on plasma parameters in working gases were illustrated. The results were in reasonable agreement with previous research.

Preparation and study of some physical properties of silver nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquids technique

Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; Noor Atallah Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132843.1212

In this paper, the pulsed laser method was used to obtain silver nanoparticles, and one of the first signs indicating the production or generation of nanoparticles using the pulsed laser is the change in the color of the solution. In our study, deionized distilled water with a volume of 5 mL was used to prepare the samples with energy (300, 500)mj With pulsed (50, 100, 150, 200) pulse. We observed change in color of solution to a dark yellowish color that means obtained silver nanoparticles. In another side study the obsorbancy and transmission by using U-Visible spectroscopy, the peaks of all samples were at 400 nm this confirms that nanoparticles have been obtained. The mean energy gab calculated for direct transition allowed of the samples are 2.94 eV.

Performance Analysis of n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction Diode as Function of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Thickness

Hala Nazar Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 114-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133482.1227

The n-type Zinc oxide (n-ZnO) nanostructured thin films (TFs) with different thicknesses (211, 325, 433 and 552 nm) were grown onto glass substrates employing the CVD technique at atmospheric pressure. Deposited films were characterized by EDX spectroscopy attached with FE-SEM and XRD techniques to determine the influence of thickness on elemental compositions and crystalline structure of ZnO films, respectively. Also, ZnO TFs were deposited on the p-Si(111) substrates to form different structures of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diodes and then I-V characteristics were studied in the dark. The electrical parameters of the diodes such as rectification ratio (RR), reverse saturation current (Is), ideality factor (), barrier height (b) and series resistance (Rs) were calculated from the I-V measurements. EDX spectra showed that these films were only made from Zn and O elements. XRD patterns presented that the ZnO films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along [002] direction. I-V characteristics of the heterojunction diodes revealed rectification behavior and depend on ZnO TFs thickness. Also, electrical parameters of diodes were affected by the prepared film's thickness. It was found that the crystalline structure of the films and electrical properties of diodes were improved with increasing the thickness of ZnO films. It is noted that the best heterojunction diodes were that prepared with thickness (552 nm), where possess lowest value of ideality factor (3.38) and a series resistance (0.84 k) with a highest rectification ratio (1517), compared with other structures. This study offers a simple model for fabricating diodes from semiconductor films.

Enhancement Efficiency of Calculation of the Phonon Images for GaP Piezoelectric Crystal

Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien; abeer bader

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 137-146
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.131963.1195

ABSTRACT
In this paper an improved phonon imaging for GaP has been calculated, this crystal is one of III-V group. In the presence of piezoelectric properties, the computation treatment is based on increasing the number of points in the reduced Brillouin zone and increasing the size of the phonon image matrix. The phonon images can be calculated by large number of points in the reduced Brillouin zone which represent the wave vectors and these vectors can be transformed to group velocity vectors using Christoffel equation, these set of group velocity vectors can be projected in a certain direction to form the phonon image. A program was prepared in MATLAB language to calculate these images by determining the number of points in the reduced zone and determining the size of the matrix that represents the phonon images in addition to the direction of the projections. To calculate the phonon images in the presence of the effect of the piezoelectric properties, it is through the presence of the k44 factor, which indicated of the influence of the piezoelectric properties on the phonon images. The results showed that the size of the image matrix is more effective factor than the number of points in the reduced Brillouin zone especially when the number of points is greater than 8×〖10〗^5 points, and when the number of points less than 〖10〗^4 points all the obtained phonon images is not clear.

The use of gamma rays in studying the homogeneity of the alloy (AL-Co-Ni) reinforced with chromium oxide

raad ahmed rasool; Laith Rabih; Ali Khatab Huseen

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129868.1156

This research deals with the preparation number of composite materials by casting the base alloy (Al-Co-Ni) by adding chromium oxide (Cr2O3) as reinforcement material, by weight ratios of (5, 10, 15 wt%) for the base alloy, with heat treatment of the prepared alloys. The basic alloys and composite materials were prepared by using solution casting method and manual mixing method to disperse reinforcement grains in the base alloy floor and with pressure of 5 ton in purpose of forming. The materials were melted and poured into molds and suddenly cooled in cold water, after the molten samples were frozen. The attenuation factor of gamma rays was founded the prepared alloys and their homogeneity was examined by shining a narrow beam of single energy gamma rays emitted from the radiating source (137Cs) with different energies (511, 662, 1173, 1284, 1333) keV respectively, gamma ray system (UCS-20) was being used which bounded to NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The homogeneity of base alloy and composite material was determined by studying the contrast of gamma ray intensity, the linear attenuation coefficient at seven different locations at any samples and the percentage standard deviation. The results showed that the highest value of the linear attenuation coefficient was 0.252 mm-1 for sample [5%Cr2O3+Al+Co+Ni] with the energy (511 keV) and that the lowest value for the ratio of linear attenuation coefficient was 0.062 mm-1 at the energy of sample [15%Cr2O3+Al+Co+Ni] with the energy (1333 keV) indicating that the homogeneity of the sample [15%Cr2O3+Al+Co+Ni] at energy (1333 KeV).

Influence of mode confinement factor on the modulation properties of the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting VCSEL laser

Afrah Meshal Kareem; Younis Thanoon Qurot

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 77-85
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130566.1169

Vertical cavity surface emitting laser VCSEL is currently the main solution for many technological aspects, ultrafast optical interconnecting, Gigabit Ethernet, etc. In this paper we present the simulation results by using Optiwave™ software version 7, of the effects of optical mode confinement factor on the modulation properties)which inspected by eye diagram of the received signals)of the vertical cavity surface emitting laser VCSEL, with the range (8-20)Gbps of pseudo random bit sequence PRBS. The quality of the VCSEL modulation have been inspected by time domain signals, spectrums and eye diagram. Simulation results appeared an improvement in the characteristics of received bit sequences of (8, 10, 12.5, 16 and 20)Gbps bit rates, represented by the rising the value of quality factor QF (1.77 to 4.81) versus increasing the value of optical mode confinement factor Γ(0.2 to 0.5) respectively, and a decreasing in jitter time of superimposed traces of eye pattern and well opining eye pattern. And in the corresponding, the bit error rates BERs of the received signals have been decreased, with rising the value of mode confinement factor Γ of the laser at constant modulation index and constant temperature of the laser. Also, the VCSEL’s modulation response differences with different bitrates, causes different values of QF and BER for individual value of mode confinement factor Γ.

Assessment of NORM from oil refineries and fields northwest of Mosul

mustafa abdullah alsharook; Rasheed Mahmood Yousuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130357.1164

The uranium concentration and radioactivity of radon gas were measured in Al-Kasik refinery and Ain Zala field using the CR-39 detector. Soil and water samples associated with the production stages of oil, Sludge and crude oil were collected. The levels of uranium concentration in soil ranged from 0.703 to 1.480 ppm, in water samples from 0.681 to 0.716 ppm, in Sludge samples from 0.849 to 1.014 ppm, and in crude oil from 0.785 to 0.933 ppm. As for the radioactivity of radon gas, when comparing the radon rate in the samples we obtained with the global values, it was found that it falls within the internationally permissible limit, where the radon rate in the soil was 12.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) which has a value of 32 Bq/kg, and in the produced water it was 8.66 Bq/kg compared to (UNSCEAR)which has a value of 50 Bq/kg. In Sludge samples 11.81 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) whose value is(8-5×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg, and in crude oil samples 10.56 Bq/kg and when compared with the International Federation of Oil and Gas Producer (IOGP) whose value is (800-4×〖10〗^5) Bq/kg. As for the alpha ray hazard index, the results showed that it is within the permissible limits internationally, where the results were less than 1 and therefore does not pose a threat to the health of workers and environment.

study of nuclear structure of even-even Dy isotopes

Aziz Mohammad Ali; Yaser Qasim; Mutasim Mahmood Yousuf

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 94-105
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129809.1151

(〖E(8〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)),(〖E(6〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) , ( 〖E(4〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) and the ratios of In this study, the energy of the first exited 21+
for 152-156DY even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between E/ I as a function of I ( E-GOS), the ratio 〖E(J〗_1^+)/〖E(2〗_1^+) and the ratio r (I+2/I) as a function of spin (I) are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they the isotopes 152-154DY possess vibration U(5) properties and isotope 156DY possess gamma-soft O(6) properties.
The interacting boson model IBM-1,BM and IVBM has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 10 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained

Study of Electrical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon

Mohammed ابراهیم alsaalihiu; Ghazwan Ghazi Al Nuaimi

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129664.1147

In this paper, porous silicon has been prepared and studied by photochemical etching method using a n-type silicon wafer with electrical resistivity (0.01-0.02 Ω.cm), orientation (100), hydrofluoric acid of 20% HF, current density of 15 mA / cm2 and etching time at (5 min). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been deposited using laser ablation by drop casting with different laser energy of 400,600 and 800m J. The electrical properties (I-V measurements) of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon have studied in both light and dark conditions. It can be seen the samples behave a rectifier and the current density increases with increase laser energy due to increase in concentration of silver nanoparticles, which lead to a decrease in the values of resistivity as the laser energy increases, this is attributed to the pores are filled with silver nanoparticles and lead to interference between silver and the porous silicon layer. The silver nanoparticles play an important role in forming a homogeneous layer and enhancing the crystal stability of the porous silicon layer.

Study of optical and structural properties of prepared gold nanoparticles by pulse laser ablation method

Noor Mohammed Ali Fadhil; Fathi Mohammed Jasim

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 69-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129702.1148

In this paper, the ablation of pure gold target in distilled water (DW) using Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm and different laser energies (480, 680, 880) mj, with repetition frequency of 6Hz and number of pulses 300 pulse were studied. The optical properties were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, and the spectra showed the appearance of sharp peaks as a result of the plasmonic absorption surface at (529, 531, 532) nm corresponding to the above mentioned energies. The results of the atomic force microscope (AFM) test also showed that the average size of gold nanoparticles decreases with the increase of the energy of the pulsed laser, that gold nanoparticles possess a cube crystalline phase (FCC) according to x-ray diffraction (XRD) test whereas the results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles have an almost spherical shape.

Laser skimming of solids in liquid has opened up unique prospects for the manufacture of nanostructures and as a result there has been rapid growth of studies in the composition of nanostructures by this new technology in recent years. The resulting nanoparticles are somewhat crystallized, and can be obtained in an easy and one-step way without any subsequent heat treatment. Due to the high potency of the cut-off parts, pure colloidal solutions of nanoparticles can form a product that accumulates in the colloidal solution obtained in a very easy way. Colloidal gold is very attractive to many applications in biotechnology and biomedicine because of its unique physical and chemical properties

Calculation of The Electronic Energy Band Structure of GaAs Crystal Using The Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Th. T. Yahya; Mumtaz Mohammad Salih Hussien

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129475.1140

Abstract
In this paper, the semi-empirical tight binding method for the nearest neighbors in the first Brillouin zone has been used to calculate the energy band structure of GaAs crystal which have zinc blend ZB structure, the band structure has been calculated by using sp^3 model which have 9 parameters and sp^3 s^* which have 13 parameters, both these models are used to calculate the main characteristic of both valence and conduction bands. The matrix elements were determined using the method followed by Cohen and Vogl, by identifying points in the wave vector space within the reduced Brillouin zone between the points of high symmetry and calculating the eigenvalues of all these points by building a computer program in MATLAB to form the energy band structure. The effective mass m^* along the direction [111] for the lowest conduction bands has been calculated. A comparison between the sp^3 model used by Cohen and the sp^3 s^* model used by Vogl has been made. The energies of the band structure at points the high symmetry Γ and X obtained from the study were compared with the results of the published research. The results showed that there is a difference in the energy gap between sp^3 and sp^3 s^* models and there is good agreement between the band energies at high symmetry points between these two models and the published results.

Study the effect of annealing on the some physical properties of ZnO and NiO nanostructures

abubakir AL-duory; Mutaz AL-juboori

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 37-58
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129592.1144

            The annealing process was carried out for the Nano composed oxides (zinc and nickel) at different temperatures (200 ° C, 500 ° C, 700 ° C) and for a specific time of one hour for each temperature change in order to get rid of the internal pressures and the change in their physical and chemical properties and study the structural properties. The optical and surface diffraction results of the nanocrystalline oxides after each temperature change, as the results of the X-ray diffraction of zinc oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure and of the hexagonal type and the X-ray diffraction  of nickel oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure of the cubic type. After the annealing process using Brake law and calculating the average Crystallite size by Debye Shearer method, it was observed that there was an increase in the average crystal size after each temperature change and the results of FTIR showed the emergence of the chemical Zn-O band of zinc oxide, as most Studies indicate the emergence of a (Zn-O) band within the (cm-1) spectral range (400-700) and the emergence of a (Ni-O) chemical bond of nickel oxide, where the peak intensity of this bond decreases due to the hot change. Get up in temperatures. The results of (FESEM) images showed that it is within the nanoscale and that the grain size increases after each temperature change process..

Calculations of Energy Band Structure of GaAs, GaSb and GaP Crystals as a Function of Temperature Using the Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Th. T. Yahya; Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 201-219
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130682.1170

Abstract
In this paper, the band structure of gallium group of III-V semiconductor has been calculated with temperature, the semi-empirical tight binding method was used to calculate the band structure and the matrix elements were calculated for both models sp^3 and sp^3 s^*. A computer program in MATLAB was designed to calculate the energy eigenvalues for the wave vector points in the first Brillouin zone between high symmetry points to form energy bands. The effect of temperature on the energy band of these group of crystals has been studied by changing the values of the lattice constant under the influence of temperature according to the Pierron relation and thus calculating the change in the length of the bond with temperature, which in turn affects the change in the values of the elements of the Hamiltonian matrix. The energy gap and refractive index were calculated at points of high symmetry as a function of temperature. The results showed a decrease in the energy gap values of GaAs, GaSb and GaP crystals with increasing temperature. Then the experimental Varshni relation was used to calculate the change in the energy gap values of these crystals and the results obtained from current study were compared with the results of Panish and Bellani, where the results showed that a model sp^3 s^* gives better results than the model sp^3.As well as the calculations of the refractive index of these crystals using the Moss formula showed that the refractive index will gradually increase with increasing temperatures.

An Overview of the Evolution of the Porous Silicon material: A review

Ghazwan Ghazi Ali; Marwan Hafeedh Younus; Ivan Karomi

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128341.1111

Recently, the properties and applications of the porous became the main subject of several books and the vast numbers of review articles. Porous silicon has demonstrated significant versatility and promise for a wide range of optoelectronic applications thanks to its large surface area and intense photoluminescence at room temperature. In this review, we describe the fabrication techniques and experimental improvements made towards porous silicon (PSi) and we provide a full picture of realization and characterization of this material. We also highlight its important properties, such as chemical, structure and surface properties. We summarize the techniques that have been used, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, atomic force microscope images (AFM) and a scanning probe microscope (SEM). Additionally, the effect of the current density and etching time are also documented in this review. In summary, porous silicon has undergone vast improvement in both fabrication and characterization methods, which makes it an attractive modern material.

Theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on graphene nanostructures functionalized with nickel for solid state hydrogen storage

ameer albyatei; Issa Zainalabddeen assaflly

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128376.1112

Hydrogen adsorption and storage on nickel- activated, pure graphene and boron-doped graphene was study using density functional theory simulations based on generalized gradient approximation methods (DFT-GGA). It was found that the nickel atoms tend to clustering on the surface of pure graphene due to the high cohesive energy of nickel compared to the energy of nickel binding to the surface of pure graphene, which decrease the storage capacity of hydrogen. It was also found that the storage capacity of seven hydrogen molecules on pure and activated graphene with a nickel atom is equal to (10.2 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.27 eV), and the storage capacity for the same number of hydrogen molecules is (11.3 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.22 eV), This indicates that the adsorption process will take place at ambient conditions. The process of inoculating graphene-doped boron and nickel activating is an effective strategy for improving the average binding energies and the storage capacity of hydrogen molecules in the graphene nanostructures.

Study of nuclear track parameters of normal incident alpha particles on CR-39 detector

Sabreen Malo; Yaser Qasim; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 138-147
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129461.1139

In this paper, Solid State Nuclear Detector (SSNTD) CR-39 was broken into many fragments with areas of (1x1) cm2. The samples were irradiated using 241Am source. The measurements were taken at normal incident angle of the alpha particles for energies (3.17, 3.59 and 4.13) MeV respectively. The samples were etched using sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH 6N, 70±1 oC) for time interval of 0.25 h. The optical microscope provided with digital camera was used to preview the track profile formed in CR-39. This allowed measurement of the track length and in turn the track length as a function of the etching time . The track growth rate, track etch rate and track rate ratio were also investigated as a function of many parameters such as etching time, track depth and residual range. The study showed a good consistency among the investigated parameters . The curves of the track etch rate and track etch ratio manifested a consistency with Brack curve who interested in studying the linear energy loss in materials where the maximum energy loss occurs at the end of the alpha particle range.

Numerical modeling negative corona under the influence of applied voltage variation

Hala Alnaemi; Qais Thanon Algwari

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 79-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128762.1120

In high-voltage gaseous insulation systems, the corona discharge is important because it can lead to drop of the insulating qualities of the gas in addition to the production of harm by-products. The influence of the applied voltage variation on the negative corona characteristics in a coaxial electrode geometry has been investigated based on one-dimensional dynamic model of corona discharge includes one-dimensional continuity equations and Poisson equation. The one-dimensional fluid model of corona discharge is solved by finite difference flux correction method (FD-FCT). The calculations were performed on oxygen gas under the atmospheric pressure using COMSOL multiphysics software. The corona discharge parameters are simulated under different voltage of 4kV, 6kV, 8kV and 10kV, respectively. The effect of the applied voltage on the spatial distribution of main charged species and electron as well as the ozone was considered. The results show that as the negative applied voltage on the cathode increased the total current density also increase while the electron density decrease. The ozone density do not much affected by the increasing the applied voltage.

Study the effect of gamma ray on silver nanoparticles prepared by pulse laser ablation in liquid technique (PLAL)

Mohammed Al-Maher; Najwa Al-Barhawi; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 128-137
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129320.1136

Silver nanoparticles in this study were prepared using the method of laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) at two energies (540 and 700) mJ and the count of pulses were (100,200,300 and 400) pulse . The prepared samples were divided into three groups: the first group of the samples were kept as they are without any irradiation but the second and third group were irradiated by Co-60 source with two amount of doses (7.5 and 11) KGy respectively . A series of measurements and studies were done, and from the pictures of Transmitted Electron Microscope (TEM) , it was observed that the prepared nanoparticles at laser energy (540) mJ with pulses count (400) pulse were spherical but the prepared nanoparticles at laser (700) mJ with pulses cont (400) pulse were nano rods shape. The gamma irradiation effect was studied through its effect on the optical properties of the nanoparticles at different preparation conditions , represented by a change in the pulses and the energy of the laser used. The results showed that there was an increase the absorbance peaks when increasing the irradiated dose. The (TEM) image showed we get spherical nanoparticles in shape and nano composition. The average diameter of the prepared silver nanoparticles at (540) mJ laser energy in the range of (30-40) nm.

Application of tight-binding method to calculate the band structure and the effect of pressure in crystal ZnSe

Hussein Ali Hussein Sultan; Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 165-174
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129479.1141

Abstract
In this research tight-binding method has been applied to calculate the band structure in ZnSe crystal, the matrix elements of have been calculated using the method used by Vogl and Cohen. A computer program has been designed in MATLAB language to calculate the band structure in the ZnSe crystal, a sample of points has been formed in the first Brillouin zone (reduced zone) between the high symmetry points (L →Γ,Γ→X→(U,K) →Γ) . The energy eigen values is calculated along the high symmetry paths, the obtained results have been compared with previous works of Vogl and Cohen which shows a good agreements. A comparison between the ZnSe band structure based on sp3 and sp3s* models has been done and the energy gap between the conduction and valence bands at the high symmetry points is calculated for the sp3s*. The effect of pressure on the ZnSe band structure is calculated in the range (10-40) Gpa by calculating the matrix element under different pressure, the results show broadening in band gap due to applied pressure, the conduction band is shifted toward the high energy while the valence band is shifted toward the lower energy. The band gap is calculated values for high symmetric points were determined with pressure change and compared with theoretical calculations.

Test of SU(3) limit of interactive boson model to study 158-170DY even-even isotopes

Murad Najem; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 175-185
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129616.1145

(〖E(8〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)),(〖E(6〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) , ( 〖E(4〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) and the ratios of In this study, the energy of the first exited 21+
for 158-170DY even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between E/ I as a function of I ( E-GOS) and the ratio 〖E(J〗_1^+)/〖E(2〗_1^+) as a function of spin (I) once and with neutron number again are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they the isotopes 158-170DY possess rotational properties .
The interacting boson model IBM-1 has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 10 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

Investigation of The Numerical Solution for One Dimensional Drift-Diffusion Model in Silicon in Steady State

Rozana Noori; Mumtaz Hussien

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127055.1067

Abstract
The drift-diffusion model is considered as one of the most important models which is used to describe the characteristics of semiconductor devices and can be applied to wide range of applications started from micro up to nano scale devices after applying the suitable correction on it. The Poisson, continuity, and current equations are considered as the basic equations for semiconductor devices, these equations are partial differential equations, used in the drift diffusion model. These equations described the semiclassical electron and hole transport in semiconductor in the presence of uniformly applied electric field. In this paper a numerical method (finite difference method) has been used to find the solution of these equations depending on Gummel method and Scharfetter-Gummel scheme, the drift diffusion model is applied after many approximation and suitable boundary condition which has been considered for the pn diode in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium cases at room temperature, from this simulation model a MATLAB program has been prepared to obtained diode parameters as a function of distance at the junction region, these parameters are (conduction band, carrier concentration, electric field and charge density) two diode model has been tested with different doping concentration the first with N_A=N_D and the second with N_A>N_D also the diode characteristic in the forward biased is obtained.

A Study of Optical Properties of Tetraborate Glasses Containing CaO, MgO & BaO

Aynur Bahaaldeen Baha. kamal; Manaf A.Hassan al-azzawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 10-23
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127127.1076

Glasses with compositions (100-x) % Na2B4O7–x % MO (X=10,20,30,40) where (M) is Ba, Mg and Ca, are prepared using conventional melt quenching method. X-rays diffractions are performed. The result of (XRD) confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The measured density increases with increasing content of BaO, MgO & CaO in glass network. The position and shifting rate of absorption edge, optical band energy (Eopt) and band tails energy (Eo) were investigated. The Eopt and Eo values of all glasses studied in this work were found to be comparable with the values corresponding to some semiconductors. The structure of the glasses was investigated by means of IR spectroscopy. It found from the experimental results of IR spectra that the groups (BO3)- and (B2O7)- are dominant the structure of these glasses. Also It is found that the shifting in band position is small with increasing of (Ba, Mg, Ca) oxide in the glass network.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama mumtaz aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

Investigating the Numerical solution of the BoltzmannTransport Equation in silicon in Momentum Space Using Computational Systems of Different Dimensions

Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien; Mahmood Majed Mahmood

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 108-123
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126828.1057

Abstract
The Boltzmann transport equation is the basic equation for solving the transport of charge carrier (electrons, holes) problems in semiconductor devices. The distribution function has been obtained from the solution of this equation. The distribution function is important in calculating semiconductor properties, which can be used to calculate the average electron energy, the charge carrier concentration, and other properties. In this work the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation in silicon was solved using analytical / numerical methods in steady state case in momentum space. The analytical solution is requires expressing the distribution function using Legendre polynomials expansion the first two terms of the expansion, by taking into account the effect of both acoustic elastic scattering and nonelastic scattering in addition to the effect of non-parabolic energy band structure. In order to obtain the numerical solution of Boltzmann transport equation the finite difference method is used. The differential equation is transformed to linear difference equation which can represented by matrices. Numerical systems with different dimensions are designed to calculate the distribution function with the least possible time to maintain the accuracy of the solution for different applied electric field which represent the low and high field regions at temperatures T= (77, 300) K. The obtained results showed good agreement with published data that used other calculation methods such as the Monte Carlo simulation method for all the system used in this work.

Investigate Oblique Incident Alpha Particle Tracks on CR-39 Detector

Yasser Taha Khlile; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 196-210
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127268.1081

In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and Track-Test data for track profile.
In this paper, the nuclear track detector CR-39 with a thickness of 200 µm is divided to several pieces. The area of one piece is 1 x 1 cm2. This study has involved two parts. Fist part is without irradiated by alpha particles. The second is irradiated by alpha particles with energy E = 1.2 MeV using the 241Am radioactivity source and incident angles (0, 10, 30, 50)o. All samples etching with sodium hydroxide solution at a concentration of 6.25 N and a temperature of (70 ± 1) oC. The study included calculating track parameters and comparing them with the results of the first equation from the Track-Test program. This comparison showed that there is a good agreement between experimental results and

Time decay of pulse current in capillary glow discharge

Muayad Abdullah Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 227-236
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126339.1032

A high voltage pulse generator was development and implemented. It generates a sequence spike pulses with a varying pulse height from 0 to 5 kV; and changes the pulse width in ms range. This generator tested and used to study the pulse glow discharge in argon by using the capillary tube under pressure 0.3 to 0.5 torr. This study was to establish the nature of discharge relaxation (plasma relaxation) when a high voltage pulse causes a breakdown in the gas (coverts to conducting case). It is of great importance to answer the following question. The current can decay when the voltage pulse is switched off was obtained. The electronic switching is a successful tool which can be used for generating high voltage pulses with flexibility adjustable peak height voltage pulse, pulse duration and pulse width is presented Interesting results concerning because plasma is a function of time, linearity of time decay vs. plasma. This linearity is to seem independent on gas pressure or pulse width. The slope the current decay line is very much dependent upon the initial high voltage pulse. The condition for transition from pulse to continue like DC glow discharge condition is satisfied.

Effect of Deposition Temperature on the Physical Performance of n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction

Yasir Hussein Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 118-132
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.126043.1017

Comparative study of the physical characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode has been done as a function of deposition temperature in the range of 300-600 °C. Transparent conducting (TC) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) technique on the p-Si(100) and glass substrates. Also, the influences of different deposition temperature on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO films were studied. Both the average surface roughness (from 62.8 to 18.8 nm) and the root mean square (from 78.2 to 24 nm) of ZnO films were decreased with the increase in the deposition temperature. Optical transmittance measurement results exhibited good transparency within the visible wavelength range for the films prepared at a temperature above 400 C. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction diodes exhibited rectification behavior and depend on the deposition temperature. The electrical parameters of the n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions were also affected by the deposition temperature. The diodes prepared at a temperature above 400 C were possessed lower reverse saturation current and high rectification ratio compared to those fabricated at a relatively lower temperature such as 300 C or 400 °C. Such low a temperature grown n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diodes with lower reverse saturation current could be suitable for photo-detection applications.

Studying the Parameter Gradient Energy Coefficient of Polyethylene Glycol as a Function of Molecular Weight in conjunction with Freed Contribution

Malak Jaafar Ali; Saygin Muhamed Nuri; Shany Muhamed Rajab

Journal of Education and Science, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 201-215
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.126025.1016

This work studies the gradient energy coefficient ( ) which has the main function in extracting the properties of the polymer, starting from the Simha-Somcynsky theory (SS) that describes the thermodynamic properties of both low and high molecular weights in terms of occupied site fraction (y). Cahn-Hilliard (CH) theory which clarifies the free energy profile of polymer surfaces or interfaces has been also adopted in this study. To gain accurate results, these two theories have been combined with that of Freed Bawendi, which gives the architecture structure for the polymers. Ultimately, the conjunction of these theories produces important properties of polymers such as; the molecular weight, surface tension, the gradient energy coefficient. This study has been performed in the temperature range (313 -473) K and up to about (150) Mpa of pressure according to the international condition of LaGrange for polymers. The success of our study can be clearly seen in the minimum and maximum deviations in (0.036) and (0.128) respectively, while the exact value of gradient energy coefficient has been proved in the high molecular weight polymers as in (PEG 18500). The gradient energy coefficient and the reduced surface tension are directly proportional to molecular weight, while the gradient energy coefficient is inversely proportional to both hole fraction and temperature. The study has been accurately proved by the obtained results and data given in the graphs.