Volume 28, Issue 3, Summer 2019

Preparation of Activated Carbon from seeds residues of (Urtica dioica) plants

Osamah Taha; Khalid Tawfiq; Subhi Jarullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162970

Activated Carbon characterized by special importance for it’s large use in industry field and pollution struggle it has been prepared from different sources and ways.                                               
In this study activated carbon was prepared from seed residues of (Urtica dioica) plants after extractions of vegetable to preparation the biodiesel.                        
The process of activated carbon preparation include the following steps:
1)      Primary carbonization of theseed residues at (300º±50ºc).                     
2)      Secondary carbonization of product results from the primary carbonization with exiss amount of sodium hydroxide {(1:2) (seeds residues:NaOH)} at (500±25ºc) for 3 hrs. The product washed with: distillated water treated with 10% HCl, washed with distillated water and ther dried at 110ºc for 24 hrs.
Number of tests concerning the activated carbon were parformed including all types of activated carbon prepared in steps 1and 2, these tests including:                                                                       
Physiochemical tests such as humidity, density, ash content and mechanical  resistance and measurements of iodine number and methylene blue.
The studying results show that carbonization seed residueswith sodium hydroxide in (2)  give the best results of the prepared activated carbon than in (1).                                                                                           

Study of the Characterization of Partial Purified Polyamine Oxidase from Sheep's Brain Tissue

Wathba Ali; Sarah Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 6-16
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162978

The study included partially purified of polyamine oxidase (PAO) from sheep's brain tissue by dialysis and ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose techniques. Tow isoenzymes (I،II) were obtained with specific activities 3.876 and 2.856 units/ mg of protein and purification folds 11, 8 times respectively compared with crude enzyme.
The specific activity of PAO I was better than PAO II, thus we considered it for following studying. The optimal condition showed 100 μL volume of enzyme, pH=9, 40ͦ C, at incubation time 10 min. Some of properties of partially purified PAO enzyme were studied and the specificity was found to be superior to the base material, where it was given the highest activity when using spermidine. Using lineweaver_ Burk plot, the values of maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were found to be 0.145 Unit/ ml and 43.4 mM respectively, and potassium ion was the most activator ion to the enzyme arrived to 233.8%. The compounds (ammonium chloride, sodium fluoride, phenyl hydrazine, sodium azide and EDTA) showed a significant inhibitory effect on the activity of the enzyme (56.1%, 49.9%, 49.9%, 37.3% and 25%) respectively.

Finding the Relationship Between the Biological Dagradtion Rate Constants and Some of the Calculated Physical Properties of a Number of Carcinogenic poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Rayan Mahmood; Zaheda Najim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 17-29
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162976

This study involves the theoretical calculation of binding energy (the free energy ΔG°) of eleven of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds with catechol 1,2-dioxygenase enzyme from the gram-positive Rhodococcus opacus (3HGI) enzyme that is used for degrading these types of compounds and also identifies the values of binding energy that compactable with constant values of biological degradation rate. It is noted that binding energy inversely proportional with rate constants and binding energy (R=0.951), as the binding energy with enzyme are increased, the degradation rate are decreased.
The study observes that binding energy values were ranging between ([-5.051] - [-7.12] Kcal/mol) whereas values of root mean squared deviation (RMSD) were ranging between (1.12-1.71A°) by which accurate results have been confirmed depending on previous studies. The study also determines the amino acids that surround the compounds which are usually blinded by the hydrogen bond or hydrophobic interactions types π-π.
Finally, the study obtains a three – dimensional shape of compound's binding with enzyme of its more stable shape. Also obtains the shapes of distribution of the electronic cloud on the compound and amino acids that are surrounding them in which getting locations around the studied compound's molecule depending on their features of an amino acid (acidity – basic – hydrophobic). MOE (Molecular Operating Environment) is used for this step of calculation.

Preparation and Identification of Cr(III), Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II) and Hg(II) Complexe with 4-[N-(Salicyladehyde) imino] Antipyrinyl Semicarbazide Ligand (L1)

Hala Haydar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 30-39
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162969

Complexes of the new ligand 4[N-(Salicylaldehyde) imino] antipyrinyl semicarbazide ligand (L1) with the metal ions Cr (III), Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II) and Hg(II) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of physiochemical investigations included infrared and electronic spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurement, molar conductance and elemental analysis .The above studies Infrared spectral data suggest that the ligand L1 behaves as tetradentate ligand and was coordinated through (N, N, O, O) donor atoms sequence towards the metal ions, and it gives an octahedral complexes in molar ratio 1:1 Metal: Ligand. While it behaves as bidentale towards the metal ions in molar ratio 1:2 (M:L) resulting in four coordinated complexes. On the basis of the above physicochemical data, an octahedral and four coordinated geometries were assigned for the complexes.

Effect of Fasting in Ramadan on the level of Chemical Parameters and Percentage of Fatty Acids in the Serum

Raghad Al Hialy; Mohammed Jasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 40-51
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162966

This study included (50) samples of fasting healthy people in Ramadan males and females with ages between (80-19) years and (50) samples of healthy people who are not infected with any apparent disease without fasting males and females were considered a control group of the same categories Age above. In this study, blood samples were collected for healthy people in the case of fasting and control group after fasting period for fasting group (10-15) days and then follow the same people after (20) days and then the serum was separated, where the serum divided into two parts .The biochemical parameters in part one glucose (Glu), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), triglyceride(TG) and phospholipids was measured by using kits obtained from regional and international suppliers. The measurement of percentage of fatty acids in the three parts (CE, TG, PL) was performed by Capillary Gas Chromatography (CGC). The results showed that there was a significant increase in the percentage and level of saturated fatty acids (SFA), a significant decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and a significant decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the cholesterol ester (CE) part of serum lipids for the fasting group compared with the control group.Also, the results of this study showed that there was a significant increase in (SFA), a significant decrease in (MUFA), and a significant increase in (PUFA) in triglyceride (TG) part in serum of the fasting group compared to the control group.The results showed that there was a significant increase in (SFA), a significant decrease in (MUFA) and a significant decrease in (PUFA) in phospholipids (PL) part in the serum for the fasting group compared with the control group.

Isolation of Prolidase from Amniotic Fluid and Study of its Kinetic and Affinity Properties Towards Pharmacological Compounds

Luay Al-Helaly

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 52-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162958

The research included the isolation of prolidase from human amniotic fluid using different biochemical techniques, One proteinous peak had been isolated by gel filtration using sephadex )G-50) and from sephadex (G-100) that produced by ammonium sulphate precipitation (60%) after dialysis. The approximately molecular weight of the enzyme using gel filtration chromatography (G-100) was (52269.7) Dalton and specific activity of 13516.6 unit/mg protein with 75 fold of purification. The results showed that the optimum conditions of purified enzyme from amniotic fluid were at (50 µg/ml) of protein as a source of the enzyme using (60 mM/L) Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH (8.0) act for (32) minutes at (39°C). Using Line Weaver-Burk plot, the values of maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were found to be (3448.2 U/L) and (10 mM/L) respectively using Gly-Pro as a substrate. 
Finally, also, involved the study of the effect pharmacological chemicals compounds on the enzyme activity, the results showed that the drug chemical compounds for type ceramide, metoclopramide, pseudoephedrine, diphenhydramine-HCl, chloramphnicol, paracetamol and allopurinol give the inhibition type competitive, with increased in Km value to 66.6, 71.42, 52.63, 55.55, 83.33, 90.9 and100.0 mM/L respectively for inhibitors above, while the others pharmacological compounds for theophlline anhydrous, caffeine anhydrous, metronidazole and chlorpheniramine maleate, give the inhibition  type of non-competitive with decreased in Vmax values to 2173.9, 2439.0, 2000.0 and 2325.58 U/L respectively, but dexathamazone was an activator to the prolidase approximately 27.18 U/L.

Iron Homstatin as a Marker on the Oxidative Stress in Patients for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Saada Ali Younis Al-Hamadany; Rukzan Dawood Al-Saffar; Layla Mustafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 73-85
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162954

The study included measurement of the level of glucose, iron, ferritin, transferrin‚ Total iron binding capacity, Ceruloplasmin Ferroxidase activity, peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation in the serum of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study included (90) blood samples and divided into three groups (I‚ II‚ III) each of them (30) samples‚ (I) control group, (II, III) Type 2 diabetes patients with complications and without of complications, respectively. The results showed a significant increase in the level of glucose, iron, ferritin and lipid peroxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without complications respectively compare with control group. While a decrease was observed efficacy of peroxidase and ferroxidase in patients Compare with control group as well as decreased transferrin and total iron binding capacity. 

Spectrophotometric Determination of Cinnarizine and Domperidone Maleate in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Ion Pair Complex Formation with Rose Bengal Dye

Abdussamed Saeed; Elham Salih

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 86-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162955

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of cinnarizine (CIN) and domperidone maleate (DOM) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the studied drugs and rose Bengal dye in buffer solution (pH5). The complexes give maximum absorbance at 571 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the range of 0.5-34 and 0.5-36 µg ml-1 with molar absorptivity of 2.55×104 and 2.42×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 for CIN and DOM respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of studied drugs on pharmaceutical dosages with no interferences. The results have been compared with official method and standard procedure with a good agreement.

Determination of Critical Micelle Concentration of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate in Magnrtic Water Medium by Electrical Conductivity

Marwa Al – Sayegh; Amer AL Hatem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 105-121
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162967

Anionic surfactant was investigated in magnetic water medium using conductometric technique. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was determined both in absence and presence of different concentration percentages of short alcohol chains in a temperature range (293.15–308.15K). The thermodynamic parameters (∆Gᵒm, ∆Hm, ∆Sᵒm) were calculated and discussed.

Electrical conductivity measurements of association phenomena for arginine complexes with some transition metals in mono and disaccharide _ water mixture at 310.16K

Hala Chilmeran; Yasir Al-Allaf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 122-141
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162975

In the present study we have measured the electrical conductivity of Mn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) complexes with Arginine in aqueous solutions of mono and di saccharide at (310.16 K), The data were analyzed using Lee-Wheaton(LW) conductivity equation for asymmetrical electrolytes. The conductivity parameter: ionic conductivity (λ) association constant (KA) and the average distance parameter between the ions (R) at the best fit values of the standard deviation (
) have been calculated, The results are discussed depends on the basis of solvent effect on the conductivity parameter of these complexes. Walden products have also been calculated for each solvent composition.

Making ice cream for low-energy structures by reducing fat in buffalo milk and replacing sucrose with a mixture of sugar substitutes

Anas Hatem; Nizar Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 142-154
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162973

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reducing the proportion of fat in buffalo milk to 2.5% and partially replacing sucrose with a mixture of sugar substitutes (consisting of: xylitol, poly dextrose and saccharin) in ice cream low power structure manufacturing, Where height the acidity of the product, the viscosity of the mixtures, the Freezing point and the percentage of ash were observed, and decreased the percentage of total solids, total sugars, pH, specific gravity, precipitation, melting ratio and shrinkage ratio. No significant differences were observed in the percentage of protein and fat. A reduction in the energy of the product was observed and a slight decrease in the degree of sensory evaluation in the substitutes where sucrose was substituted.

Production of antibiotic of Microlides group from a local isolate of the bacterium Streptomyces rimosus

Mohammed Ismael; Safaa Al-Obaiede; Khalid Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 155-165
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162959

Three local isolates of the genus Streptomyces were obtained from ten soil samples collected from different places of Niniva governorate. The isolates showed bioactivity against test Gram positive and negative bacteria and two Genera of fungi. Streptomyces isolates were identified according to microscopic and morphological tests. The Streptomyces isolates were subjected to ultra violet ray for different time periods. The treated isolates showed little increase in inhibition zone and treated period of (5) minutes showed the best inhibition of the test bacteria. The Streptomyces isolates treated with N – methyl – N – nitro – N – nitroso guaniction at the concentration of (50) showed clear increase of antibiotic production. The isolate Streptomyces III showed clear inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis and the diameter inhibition zone was (20,29,20)mm respectively.

Comparative Anatomical and Histological Study of the pecten oculi in three species of birds that differ in their nutrition

Ameer Al-Hamdany; Hamid AL-arajee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 166-175
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162972

The present study dealt with the anatomical and histological structure of pecten oculi in three species of birds that differ in their nutrition, these birds were Accipiter nisus, Sturnus vulgaris and Taeniopygia guttata, by using compound light microscope and five different histological stains. The result showed that, pecten oculi was in the three species of pleated type and consisted of 17 folds in Accipiter nisus, 26 folds in Sturnus vulgaris and 19 folds in Taeniopygia guttata, these folds were vary in their thickness, as they were thicker in Accipiter nisus than the other two species. The results also showed that the pecten oculi folds of the three species contains three types of blood vessels: large size, medium size and blood capillaries. The three types of vessels were differ in their diameter and their distribution between the folds of pecten oculi with in one speceis as well as they differ in the other three species. Pecten oculi also contains pigment cells as well as peripheral cells, it ends in the three birds speceis with a structure known as the bridge which is consist of connective tissue and dense pigment cells. The bridge is rich in blood vessels of different sizes. The present study concluded that the pecten oculi differ in components and anatomical features in different speceis of birds.

Isolation, diagnosis of bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis causing bacterial canker disease on citrus and resistance using antibiotics

Zahra ِAlmashhadany

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 176-185
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162977

The study aimed at the determination of the pathogen of bacterial canker disease on citrus trees. The study showed that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was the major cause of the disease. The isolation process were carried by isolating 50 affected isolates obtained from various citrus fruit such as orange, lemon and tarring as well as some leaves and branches. For diagnosis, Morphological and biochemical tests were conducted. The sensitivity of these isolates was tested for six types of antibiotics; Azithromycin, Cefixime, Cefotaxime, Gentamycin, Streptomycin and Tetracycline. It was seen that all isolated bacteria were sensitive to all antibiotics. Cephotaxime showed the highest bacterial inhibition value 25mm, while Azithromycin showed the lowest one 11mm. The extract of 5 plants was also tested; onion, garlic, radish, grapes, and red pepper. Most of the used extracts affected the bacteria. The water extracted of the red pepper showed the highest inhibition value (10 mm) while the extracted water of grapes showed no inhibition value.

Effect of some nanoparticles on the stages biology of the southern cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae)

Adnan Mohammed; Sarah Aswd

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 186-197
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162956

Nano particle of Zinc oxide size (5nm) and (100nm) and silver nano Particle (100 nm) were used in This study at concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000) ppm to know their effect on some biological aspects of the southern cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) through treating the food of these insects (chick pea seeds) by these nanoparticles.
The study proved that the above Particles had a significant effect on the parentage of eggs hatching as it reached 49.4% compared to 86.9% of control Also, the some treatment led to high at 1000 ppm concentration mortality percentage 98%. Moreover, the treatment had an effect on the pupa stage and on the period of insect development, which was elongated significantly in the treatments of the zinc oxide size (100 nm). The maximum period was 40.60 days at the concentration of 1000 ppm Which differed significantly from its comparative coefficient. The productivity of insect decreased significantly to 16.6%in zinc oxide nano Particle size (5 nm) clearly. This study showed that the treatments effected the vitality of the first-generation females as the percentage of egg hatching decreased to 50% more than that egg retention was observed on these females which reached to 50% at treatment of zinc oxide size (5 nanometer).

Identification of Some Oat Cultivars (Avena sativa L.) By Uusing Morphological Characters of T the Spikes

A. Bashi; A. Jabar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 198-208
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162971

This study was conducted in the wired house and the laboratories of the Department of Biology, College of Education, Mosul University, in the period extended from 1/4/2009 until 1/11/2009 to study many morphological characters of all the five imported cultivates of oat plants (Possum 6, Kangaroo 4, Oat Tall, Mittika 5, Oat Short). The results of this study were statistically analyzed according to Complete Randomized Design. The statistical results were considered significant at P≤0.05. The results showed significant differences in many of the morphological characters of all the five cultivars including length and shape of rachis, peduncle length, pedicle length, Arrangement of spike, Glumes length, Hairs on the lemma, Awn length, Ligules height and shape.
In conclusion; it is possible to identify and classify these five Oats cultivars by studying the morphological characters of its spikes.

Use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Agaist Infection with Secondary Hydatid Disease in Swiss BABA/c Mice

Tasneem Torki; Asmaa Ali; Neama Ahmad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 209-227
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162974

The present study investigated the effect of probiotic bacteria lactobacillus GG (13×105 CFU/0.1ml) on the immune response of Swiss BALB/c mice (injected intraperitoneally), against experimental Infection with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (Postinfection), in comparison with the control group (mice injected with protoscoleces only) for 2-5 months. Another experimental group of mice inoculated (orally) with L.rhamnosus GG (8×107 CFU/0.1ml) preinfection with protoscoleces for 3 months. Depending on many criteria including numbers, weights, diameters of developed hydtid cysts, and the percentage of their reduction, the results revealed a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) (P ≤ 0.01) in numbers, weights and diameters of hydatid cysts in treated mice, expressed by the percentage reduction elevation of their numbers to (98%) in mice treated intraperitoneally (2-5 months) post infection, and 95% in mice treated orally 3 months pre infection, as compared with the control groups.

Study the Optical Properties of Undoped and Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Films Prepared by APCVD Technique

Qusay Alyas; Sanaa Al-Delaimy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 228-236
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162957

In the present study, antimony doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) thin films are prepared by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) technique by varying the doping concentration in very small range, 1- 1.4 wt.% at a constant substrate temperature of 480 oC. The effect of Sb-doping concentration on the optical behavior of SnO2 film deposited on glass substrates are analyzed and discussed. Optical measurements showed that the average optical transmittance decreased with increased Sb concentration, and each of absorbance, absorption coefficient and extinction factor were increased in same way and regularly with increasing the concentration of Sb. However the optical reflectance and the refractive index were irregularly increased in same way with increasing the concentration of Sb. A little decrease of energy gap from 3.96 to 4.015 eV with increasing Sb concentration is observed.

A New Conjugate Gradient Algorithm using Kafaki and Gambry Coefficient in Unconstrained Optimization

Sawsan Ismael

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 28, Issue 3, Pages 237-247
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162953

In this paper, a new conjugate gradient formula using Kafaki and Gambry is proposed. And we give the global convergence of new method.
Also we give descent and sufficient descent conditions.
Numerical results, show that this new formula is more efficient for solving unconstrained optimization problems comparing with other method (H/S),depending on the iterations and the number of functions evaluation.