Volume 31, Issue 4, Autumn 2022


Measurement of Osteoporosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Technique

Aya Azad Al-Gorani; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; khalid Ghanim Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133542.1231

The aim of study is to measure osteoporosis in the right foot at the heel (calcaneus) by using the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technique. It was measured (SOS, BUA, BQI, T-score and Z-score). While the usage of the DXA technique is measure the tissue thickness. Osteoporosis represents low bone mineral density (BMD). The heel of the foot (calcaneus) uses in QUS measurements because it contains a high ratio of trabecular bone. T-score is the predominant the diagnosis of osteoporosis used for adults, men and women over 50 years. From T-score can be to know the ratio of BMD, according to the WHO a T-score can be classified (Normal, Osteopenia and Osteoporosis). Age group 31-40 years was T-score for both sex (-0.667) is meaning (Normal bone). In the age group, 51-60 years was T-score (-1.60) for both sex represents (osteopenia). While age group 71-80 years T-score for females (-2.56) and males (-3.30), means that both males and females have (osteoporosis). P-value

Study of Optical and Structural Properties of Silver Solution Ag Nanoparticles

Muna Talal allhiby; Mutaz Salih AlJuboori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 10-16
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134548.1256

Colloidal nanoparticles attended with a pulsed Nd:YAG, Q-switch in water distilled at wavelength (1064nm) and frequency rate (1Hz) and pulse duration (10ns) and silver nanoparticles attended without the use of surface tensile as laser removal of the silver target (10ns) was attended by silver nanoparticles without the use of surface tensile as laser removal of the silver target (10ns) was attended High purity) reached purity (99.9) immersed in distilled water (deionized) where the metal target was first removed from silver placed in (5mL) from distilled water, a specific laser card (260mJ) and a number of pulse fixed laser pulses(50, 100, 150) respectively, where the size and optical characteristics of nanoparticles were distinguished by the powerful electron microscope (TEM) and visible UV spectrometry (visible-UV), respectively, and the peaks of surface plasma resonance (SPR) showed an increase at (403) and (405) Nm, which is therefore within the permitted range, showed a higher peak of 405 nm and showed sharp spectra, although the width of the spectra slightly increased and the energy gaps showed an increase in the amount of 2.54eV at pulse (50). And (2.57eV) at pulse (100) and valued (2.66eV) at pulse (150) .

Studying the effect of changing the thickness of the layers of the perovskite solar cell (ZnTe /CH3NH3PbI3 /TiO2/ZnO/FTO) using the simulation program (SCAPS 1-D)

Raddad Salem Mahmoud; raad ahmed rasool

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 17-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134981.1268

This research includes a study of the effect of the thickness of each layer of perovskite solar cell (CH3NH3PbI3) /TiO2/ZnO/FTO) and selecting the best thickness to obtain the highest efficiency of the cell, and studying the effect of adding a back surfsce layer on the efficiency of the solar cell using (SCAPS1-D). The perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) was adopted as absorption layer and its  thickness tested from (1-7µm) with an increase of (1µm) to obtain the best thickness for best efficiency of the solar cell, its best thickness was (5µm), the thickness of the buffer layer (TiO2) was tested from (0.5-1.5 µm) with an increase of (0.25µm) and its best thickness was (0.5 µm), the thickness of the transparent conduction oxide (FTO) layer was tested (0.1-1.1µm) with an increase of (0.2µm) and its best thickness was (0.1 µm) and the thickness of the window layer(ZnO) was tested (0.1-0.5 µm) with an increase of (0.1µm) and its best thickness was (0.1µm).The effect of the window layer on the thickness of the buffer layer was studied and it was found that the best thickness of the buffer layer is (0.05µm). Finally, a back surface field layer was added, which is zinc telluride (ZnTe) with a thickness of (0.1 µm) and its thickness was studied, and its best thickness was (0.05µm) .It was found that the best thickness of the absorbent layer after adding the back surface field layer is (1µm). The final outputs of the cell were as follows: Voc=1.288(V), Jsc=25mA/cm2, FF=89.55%, ƞ=28.82%

Application of two fungal strains Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans in wastewater quality improvement

Muzhda Qasim Qader; Yahya Ahmed Shekha

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 33-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134802.1261

The nutrients Phosphorous, Nitrogen and Carbon are essential for aquatic life. However, in excess they also cause serious problems. For this reason, wastewater treatment must meet nutrient effluent limits. A wastewater sample was taken near Dhahibah village from the Erbil wastewater channel in the north of Iraq. In this experiment, pure cultures of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were used to treat wastewater. Samples were measured for physicochemical parameters like EC, pH, Phosphate, Nitrate, Nitrite, and BOD5 using standard methods every third day during 21 days of experiment. The results revealed that Aspergillus niger had the maximum efficiency in removing BOD5, NH4, NO3, and EC (87.27, 89.57, 83.52, and 78.49%) respectively. On the other hand, during the experimental period, Candida albicans had the maximum efficiency in decreasing PO4, and NO2, were (91.58% and 88.89%), respectively. Statistically, there were differences (P≤0.05) between the control sample and the treated wastewater sample for both fungal stains for all parameters during the experiment.

Study of Optical and Structural Properties of Copper Metal Cu Nanoparticles

Muna Talal allhiby; Mutaz AlJuboori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 42-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134543.1255

Colloidal copper nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed (Nd:YAG,Q-switch) laser ablation in distilled water with a wavelength (1064nm) and frequency (1Hz) and the duration of the pulse was (10ns). Its purity is (99.9) immersed in distilled (deionized) water, where the metal target was first removed from copper placed in (5mL) of distilled water with a specific laser energy (260mJ) and for a number of fixed laser pulses (50, 100, 150) respectively. The size and optical properties of nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and visible-UV spectrometry, respectively. eV) at the pulse (50) and (2.77eV) at the (100) and its value was (2.69eV) at the (150) pulse. The reason for the increase is due to the amount of material removal being greater. The results of the transmission electron microscope showed colloidal nanoparticles somewhat spherical and carnivorous, as depend on the size of the noble nanoparticles have gained wide popularity with many applications and fields, and the reason for this is due to the need for precise miniaturization of electronic devices and because of their unique character that differs from those in the usual case. Metal colloids are one of the important nano-sized materials.

Studying the effect of temperature and resistances of series (Rs) and parallel (Rsh) on the performance of the solar cell (FTO/Zn2SnO4/CdS:O/CdTe/Cu2Te) using the SCAPS-1D program

Awadh Khudair Al-Luhaiby; raad ahmed rasool

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 49-66
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134830.1264

For the purpose of knowing the effect of temperature, series resistance and parallel resistance on the performance of the solar cell(FTO/ Zn2SnO4/ CdS:O/ CdTe/ Cu2Te)، Using the simulation program SCAPS-1D, the study was carried out in three stages.The first stage of this study is to study the effect of temperature on the parameters of the solar cell،It was found that the efficiency h decreases with increasing temperature. The second stage is to study the effect of series resistance (Rs) as an external factor and it was found that increasing the series resistance reduces the performance of the solar cell The third stage of the study is to study the effect of parallel resistance (Rsh) as an external factor as well on the performance of the solar cell. It was also found that increasing the parallelism resistance improves the performance of the solar cell and increases the output parameters. All phases of the study were installed by installing the default lighting spectrum on the global scale Am1.5, the temperature is 300K, the frequency is 1MHz, and the voltage is 0V. Also, the series resistance (Rs) and the parallel resistance (Rsh) were not activated in the first stage of the research, considering that the cell is an ideal cell.

Producing Interpenetrating Network from Waste Tires Rubber with commercial Unsaturated Polyester

Rasha Ali AL Jarah; Asaad Faisal Khattab

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 67-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134956.1266

Waste tires constitute environmental problems because of their three-dimensional complicated structure. The presence of different additives within their composition makes them difficult to degrade. In this research, the waste tire rubber is used as raw material after inserting effective groups, like the carboxylic group within the rubber to be used directly without the need to separate additives or recover the rubber individually. Ground tire rubber (GTR) was modified by functionalizing with different ratios of maleic anhydride. Network polyester was prepared from modified GDR and diethylene glycol. Interpenetrating networks IPNs were prepared from polyester of GTR with trade unsaturated polyester. The characterization of the IPNs was studied via infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and AFM pictures. The results indicate that there is a complete interaction between the two types of networks and the IPNs are of one phase. Also increasing the MAn ratio in the GTR gives more homogeneity to the produced IPNs, whereby the number of
crosslinking increases.

Optimal Parameters for Spatial Distribution Modeling of Global Horizontal Solar Radiation in Iraq

Mustafa Ahmed Aljaff

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 83-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135381.1269

Abstract
Solar radiation plays an essential role in all interior physical processes and the radiative budget of the earth-atmosphere system. However, information about the spatial distribution of global solar radiation or its components is limited and exclusive at some scientific centers that specialized in solar radiation physics. Based on daily data of global solar radiation from (1984) to (2004) available at (16) locations in Iraq retrieved from NASA e-archive, this study aims to determine the optimal parameters of the experimental model to estimate the amount of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface as a function of latitude only. The results showed that the suggested model which is mathematically expressed by the sum of sine of latitude is highly appropriate for estimation of global solar radiation in clear sky conditions after adjusting the parameters according to geographical location. Through comparison between modeled output and an independent measured, globally used, and satellite available data and based on overall results besides some validity metrics: MBE, RMSE, pRMSD, NSE, R2, and r; It can be concluded the proposed model is achievable with high accurate practically performance to calculate and estimate the horizontal global solar radiation (GH) in Iraq region.

Evaluation of the best Edge Filters in Image Processing Based on the Color Fabric Texture

Yahya Ismail Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 96-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.136176.1280

With the development and complexity of life, the need to improve images appeared, especially when used in the fields of life, including industry and its branches, which affect the life of the citizen, such as the manufacture of fabrics. Which requires precision in the production of these fabrics from the colors and pattern of the fabric. Edge identification is the first step in many digital image-processing applications. Edge identification greatly decreases the data quantity, undesirable filters or unimportant data and provides the important data into the image. There are some issues such as false edge identification, noise issues, low contrast and other edge issues. This paper presents a practical study to compare different edge detectors to determine which edge detector achieves better results, which in turn reflects the best pattern in the fabric. These detectors are Canny, Roberts, Laplace and Gabor. A database of thirty color JPG images collected from the Internet was arranged and a quality scale was used to compare filter detectors. The system MATLAB2020 was used to program the proposed work. The results enhancement was measured by the quality coefficient. This coefficient estimated as follows for Roberts filter (44.27-51.09). Gabor filter (43.46-44.48) and Laplace filter (44.71-5.40). Finally, the quality coefficient for Canny filter equals (44.46-52.05). Therefore, it turns out that the Gabor filter is the best of these filters in defining the edges that were used in defining the pattern.

Improved Round Robin CPU Scheduling Algorithm with Different Arrival Times Based on Dynamic Quantum

ِAbdulnasir Y. Ahmad

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 105-115
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135082.1273

Modern operating systems are based on the principle of time-sharing in executing simultaneous operations. Determining the length of the time slice, and the times when processes arrive at the ready queue are problems that affect metrics such as the average waiting time (AWT), average turnaround time (ATAT), response time (RT), and number of context switches (NCS) of the time-sharing round robin RR algorithms. The research aims to propose an algorithm that achieves a short waiting time while maintaining a reasonable response time, which is the most important characteristic of time-sharing algorithms. The Different Arrival-Dynamic Quantum Round Robin (DADQRR) algorithm bases its work on different parameters to adjust the time slice value dynamically. The algorithm has been compared to three other algorithms that are similar in terms of dealing with different arrival times, namely AN, MARR, and RR. The algorithm outperformed the three algorithms at a range from 6.155% to 31.409% in terms of AWT. It achieved an outperformance of 5.924% to 30.850%, considering the TAT. The ranges of outperformance values resulted from the difference in the ranges of arrival times, as well as in the ranges of burst times.

Effect of treating the larval stage of the large waxworm Galleria mellonella with different concentrations of zinc oxide nanomaterials ZnO, titanium dioxide TiO2 and Bacillus thuringiensis spores on some aspects of the insect's life.

Duaa basim abdulrahman Ali; Adnan Mossa Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 116-129
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.134812.1263

Abstract
The present study was conducted to determine the impact of nanoparticles (TiO2 and ZnO) at concentrations (100,500,1000,5000) ppm and Bacillus thuringiensis spores at concentration (106
and109 cells/ml of D.W on some biological aspects of greater ,108 107
wax moth(Galleria mellonella) . The results showed that these materials have a significant effect on the development stages, larva and pupa of Galleria mellonella .The nanoparticles had a clear effect on the motility of the insect as high concentrations, 5000ppm of ZnO increased the killing rate in the larva and pupa to 80.10% and 34.64 respectively. Treatment with these materials also had a significant effect in some biological aspects of the first generation. The average number of eggs was 22.667 and 10.007 in the treatment with concentration 5000ppm of both TiO2 and ZnO respectively, while the average number of egg was 9.667 in the treatment with 106 of Bacillus thuringiensis spores . Treatment with concentration 5000ppm also caused a delay in the eggs laying of the greater wax moth to reach 87.720 and 95.163% of both, TiO2 and ZnO respectively, compared with Bacillus thuringiensis spores with showed 94.233% at106 concentration

Effect of aqueous and alcoholic leaves extract of Platanus occidentalis L. in Cupressus sempervirens root rot.

muhannad hamid younis; Anwer Noori Al-khero

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 130-141
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.136098.1279

Abstract
This study was conducted in the laboratory and nursery of the Department of forest sciences, College of Agriculture and Forestry/ University of Mosul, the aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal distribution of root rot disease, which causes severe damage to cypress seedling Cupressus sempervirens L. , this study showed through a field survey conducted of some private and public nurseries in Mosul city during September and the November of 2020 and January , March, May and July of 2021, as it was found that the highest rate of infection with the disease was in May 2021, it amounted to 22%, and that the lowest rate of infection was in January of the same year,which amounted to 8%, Fusarium solani was appeared at highest rate 50% in July 2021, and the lowest rate of isolation reached 8.33% of Rhizoctonia solani in September 2020 and January 2021.
The results of study concentrations effect of Platanus occidentalis L leaves extract on fungal growth rates showed that alcoholic extract had the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani fungus, which was 100% at the fourth concentration than the first concentration of aqueous extract which showed the lowest inhibition rate 3.75%

The role of digitization in revitalizing the course system at Northern Technical University

Duha Al-Malah; Enaam Abd aljabar Sultan; Yahya Iismail Ibrahim; Ahmed El Shalawy

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 142-150
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135492.1272

Northern Technical university in Iraq relied in their education on the course system, this system was characterized by some kind of difficulties. A questionnaire was distributed to professors, technicians, administrators, and students subject to the curriculum system as a secondary source for collecting data and information. The study found that NTU as a young and modern university has an infrastructure supported by an electronic educational administrative information system, It provides an integrated digital platform for teachers to participate extensively in lectures, courses, scientific and practical workshops, create interactive lessons, create assignments, tests and assessment through a solid and efficient platform that facilitated the student to complete his homework and duties in the time available to him by notifying them and informing them by sending an email that includes educational content and information and communication technology urged the university to continue with the course system.
The study dealt with data analysis using structural equation modeling and the confirmatory factor analysis strategy as a means to measure the observational variables represented by the digitization axes, which in turn matched the measures of statistical analysis Amos.

The Effect of Azo Moiety on the Electrical Conductivity of Oxadiazole and Triazole Containing Polymers

Saja Saad Ibrahim; Asaad Faisal Khattab

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 151-168
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.136335.1285

Phenolic mercapto oxadiazole and triazole monomers were prepared and then azotized with aniline and Para-phenylene diamine. The prepared monomers have been characterized with FTIR and1HNMR. The six prepared monomers were polymerized by condensation with formaldehyde in a basic medium. The polymer was recognized by FTIR, thermal analysis, and fine elemental analysis (CHN). The results have shown that the presence of azo moiety decreases the thermal stability and the glass transition temperature of the polymers. Also, the oxadiazole polymers are more thermally stable and have higher Tg than the triazole polymers. Doping with different ratios of iodine vapor was carried out on the polymer. The electrical conductivity of the pure and doped polymers was measured by using three probe cells. The results also revealed that the azo moiety increases the conductivity of the pure polymers to some extent (from 1.45534E-11 to 4.69038E-10 ohm-1cm-1  for oxadiazole polymers and from 1.15263E-10 to 3.2680E-10 ohm-1cm-1 for triazole polymers). It was also shown that the electrical conductivity was increased by many orders of magnitude (2-3 orders).by increasing the ratio of the doping.

Air Treatment by Negative Ions

Zaid N. Yuonis; Aswan M. Ali; Emad K. Saleh; Mohamed Abdalla Mohamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 4, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.135880.1276

Abstract
 The research presents an effective and efficient mechanism for treating air and improving its specifications by designing and manufacturing a portable and small environmentally friendly device that works by an electric reactor to produce negative ions, which vibrate in the air during the discharge of negative charges to work on the association of negative ions with pollutants that carry a positive charge and fall by gravity and oxidize  It decomposes and its effect diminishes and the production of small amounts of ozone works to kill pathogens without irritating the respiratory passages and lungs or causing side effects of living organisms.