Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Current Issue
Volume 30, Issue 1

Volume 30, Issue 1, Winter 2021, Page 1-202

A Study of the chemical nature of sulfur-containing rocks and Frasch sulfur in the Al-Mishraq Sulfur field

Hala Jasim; thaer halo; Motea Al jbouri

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126714.1051

The economic evaluation of the exploration sulfur well depends mainly on the elemental sulfur content and its association other factors, so a sample of sulfur rocks extracted by a special excavator for one of the exploratory wells was studied and in the form of a bore hole rock. The elemental sulfur ratio reached 12.8% an important ratio in estimating the explored sulfur reserves and through XRD, the predominant crystalline composition is calcite mineral with hexagonal crystalline form and with a lesser percentage in orthorhombic crystal sulfur this supports one of the theories that explained the formation of sulfur.
Also, the mine Mishraq sulfur extracted by the underground melting method (known as the Frasch process) was studied chemically, and the elemental sulfur ratio reached 98.58% and the bituminous material 1.157%. Also, the SEM scanning electron microscope showed the presence of nanotubes of size (20-44 nm) belonging to the carb-sulfur compounds in the SEM, which are observed for the first time in this form.

A Study of Optical Properties of Tetraborate Glasses Containing CaO, MgO & BaO

Aynur Bahaaldeen kamal; Manaf al-azzawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 10-23
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127127.1076

Glasses with compositions (100-x) % Na2B4O7–x % MO (X=10,20,30,40) where (M) is Ba, Mg and Ca, are prepared using conventional melt quenching method. X-rays diffractions are performed. The result of (XRD) confirm the amorphous nature of the samples. The measured density increases with increasing content of BaO, MgO & CaO in glass network. The position and shifting rate of absorption edge, optical band energy (Eopt) and band tails energy (Eo) were investigated. The Eopt and Eo values of all glasses studied in this work were found to be comparable with the values corresponding to some semiconductors. The structure of the glasses was investigated by means of IR spectroscopy. It found from the experimental results of IR spectra that the groups (BO3)- and (B2O7)- are dominant the structure of these glasses. Also It is found that the shifting in band position is small with increasing of (Ba, Mg, Ca) oxide in the glass network.

Pathophysiological consequences of SARS CoV-2

Hadeel Hameed; hiyam maty; fanar isihak

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 24-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127225.1089

Coronavirus outbreak occurred in late 2019 and called (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 which firstly emerged in Wuhan city/China. This virus mostly attacks the respiratory system and therefore is more likely to destroy lung tissue and cause pneumonia; although lung is the target tissue but many organs of COVID 19 patients affect by virus invasion and showed numerous Physiological consequences. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors for the virus attachment are distributed in human's tissues including “lungs, heart, kidneys, intestines, brain and testes” that are recognized as a possible targets of COVID-19.The vital functions of these organs may impaired with different levels as a result of viral infection and replication. Patient with type A especially those formerly have been identified with cardiovascular diseases in particular increased blood pressure, are more expected to develop acute COVID-19 symptoms. Clot producing disorders with SARS CoV-2 infected patients were observed firstly by researchers in China. Thus untreated patients revealed large arterial pulmonary clots can put permanent pressure on the heart, leading to cardiac attack. Anxiety about the coronavirus outbreak is extremely common. Therefore, some individual may showed a huge concern that can disturb their regular life. Stress and fear from infection can be devastating and cause powerful excitements in children and adults. Therefore this study aims to shed light on pathophysiological consequences and stressful conditions of COVID-19 in patients including many of boby organs and ABO system.

Histopathological changes that induced by Monsodium glutamate and Sodium nitrite on the eyes of white mice Mus musculus and the protective role of Grape seeds oil

Sanabel Al-Thanoon; ali ashgar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 34-45
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127648.1091

Current study tackled potency of MSG and NaNO2 to induce histopathological changes in eye texture of Swiss-mice and protective role of grape seed-oil against toxicity these substances may cause.
In this study, 36 adult mice divided into six groups with control. One group was dosed with MSG at 9g/kg; another was injected with NaNO2 at 110mg/kg for two months, groups with interference of two substances, and two groups with interference of grape seeds-oil with each substance.
Results showed emergence of histopathological lesions. In treatment with MSG, there was wide destruction and damage to photoreceptor cells and outer, inner nuclear layer, separation corneal stroma and gliosis in optic nerve. In treatment with NaNO2, damage was extensive in components of eye; it was noted the appearance of roseat pattern in outer, inner nuclear layer, necrosis of outer plexus layer and contraction of lens fibres. When treating with an interference of MSG and NaNO2, damage was observed to the surface epithelial tissue of cornea, stroma fibres, reduction in fibroblasts, necrosis in some cells of ciliary body, and in retina extensive damage was observed in its layers.
When treating by MSG with oil, increase in the inner plexus vasa, nerve fibres, and the inner nuclear layer was observed and slight damage to the outer pieces of the photoreceptors. When treating with NaNO2, oil, infiltration of inflammatory cells appeared in the ganglion cells, increased vasa, edema and hyperplasia in the epithelium of the lens.

Investigation of The Numerical Solution for One Dimensional Drift-Diffusion Model in Silicon in Steady State

Rozana Noori; Mumtaz Hussien

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 46-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127055.1067

The drift-diffusion model is considered as one of the most important models which is used to describe the characteristics of semiconductor devices and can be applied to wide range of applications started from micro up to nano scale devices after applying the suitable correction on it. The Poisson, continuity, and current equations are considered as the basic equations for semiconductor devices, these equations are partial differential equations, used in the drift diffusion model. These equations described the semiclassical electron and hole transport in semiconductor in the presence of uniformly applied electric field. In this paper a numerical method (finite difference method) has been used to find the solution of these equations depending on Gummel method and Scharfetter-Gummel scheme, the drift diffusion model is applied after many approximation and suitable boundary condition which has been considered for the pn diode in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium cases at room temperature, from this simulation model a MATLAB program has been prepared to obtained diode parameters as a function of distance at the junction region, these parameters are (conduction band, carrier concentration, electric field and charge density) two diode model has been tested with different doping concentration the first with N_A=N_D and the second with N_A>N_D also the diode characteristic in the forward biased is obtained.

Kinetic and inhibitory study of partially purified lipoxygenase from epilepsy patients serum

Ahmed Al-Fayyad; Nashwan Al-lehebe

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 58-71
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127778.1093

This research was included partially purification of lipoxygenase (LOX) from serum of patients with epilepsy using ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and ion-exchange chromatography with specific activity (0.751 U / mg) , (0.935 U/mg) and (2.60 U/mg) respectively . Optimum conditions for enzyme activity were determined. The best enzyme activity was showed at 7 minutes of incubation time , 3 minutes of reaction time, pH = 7, temperature 40Cº and finally substrate concentration (linoleic acid) was (1.2 mmol/L) . By applying Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk Equations, Michaelis-Menten constant (km) and Vmax values were found 0.3 (mM) and (0.9 U/ml) respectively. Also this study included the effect of some antiepileptic drugs such as valproic acid , carbamazepine and acetozolamide. Acetazolamide showed the highest inhibition of lipooxygenase activity(96.2٪) , valproic acid (95.6) and Carbamazapine (95.1٪). Inhibition type was studied and the result showed noncompetitive inhibition by using Lineweaver-Burke plot for all above drugs.

Effect of Annona Muricata Extracts on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats Exposed to Induced Liver Tumor

Mohammed Al-naqshabandey; Luma abdalmunim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 72-88
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127597.1088

This research included a study of some Biochemical variables of male rats Wister with Induced liver Cancer and a study of the effect of extracts of three parts Annona Muricata, including seeds, core, and leaves to study its effects on the disease. The animals were divided into eight groups: I Control group, II treated with TAA, III treated with extract Core, IV treated with extract Seed, V treated with extract Leave, VI treated With TAA with extract Core, VII treated with TAA and extract Seed and, VIII TAA with extract Leave. In this study, the measurement kit was used to measure the Total Protein, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein. Manual Methods used to estimate Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, and Paraoxonase. The results showed a significant increase in the tumor-infected rats of Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine-transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the control group, while there was a significant decrease in rats which treated with TAA of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the control group. The results show a significant decrease in the levels in tumor-affected animals and treated with extract seed for each Malondialdehyde, Alkaline phosphatase, Total bilirubin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, and Alpha-fetoprotein compared to the group of rats affected and treated with the extract Core, and leaves, The results also showed a significant increase in the affected rats which treated with extract seeds for the level of Total protein, Glutathione, and Paraoxonase compared to the group treated with Core, leaves.

Refactoring for software maintenance: A Review of the literature

Rasha Alsarraj; atica Altaie

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 89-102
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127426.1085

One of the techniques to increase the value of the software quality is refactoring - the set of activities for code enhancement through altering inner structure and not altering outer behavior of code. It is a technique to clean-up the source code that decreasing the opportunities of code faults. Refactoring can be defined as one of the most significant practices for maintaining the advanced software systems. It has been indicated by the empirical studies that refactoring has positive effect on maintainability and understandability of the software systems. This study introduces a literature review of 22 researches that study and summarize the influence of refactoring and their effect on the attributes of software quality specially maintainability. Through the review, the study sums the following points: (1) applying refactoring activities will increase the values of some attributes of quality like Understandability and maintainability. (2)There are several factors that affect reconstruction activities, including cohesion, coupling, hiding of information and encapsulation, (3) Refactoring helps to improve the source code without changing the behavior of the program, (4) refactoring activates can be applied many times to the source code.

Preparation and Studying of Zeolite with Catalytic Properties From Local Silica and Bauxite Ores

Ragheed Ghazal; Tamarah Younus

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 103-116
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127990.1104

The research included a method for preparing zeolite by utilizing the components of clay mineral ores (silica and alumina). The two ores(Local Silicate and Bauxite) were studied through chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The results showed that they contained good quantities of these two substances, which were converted into sodium silicate and sodium aluminate, then the zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal method at (pH=11) in the presence of the structural directing agent (triethylamine) then converted to the formula (H-zeolite) to improve its acidic properties, And then a number of measurements have been done for the prepared zeolite, which is a thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) ,it showed that it contains amounts of moisture and crystallization water as well as its thermal stability at (700°C). As for the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), it showed its good crystallization rate and its possession of a crystalline cube system, and the measurement of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) showed that it had a high percentage of silicon and aluminum, this indicates a balanced and equal interaction between these two materials when preparing of zeolite. The measurement of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the high pore system and the fine particles that were around (18.17 nm), Finally the measurement of adsorption by The intention (BET) that explained the prepared zeolite have a high surface area (244.3766 m2/g).

Adopting Text Similarity Methods and Cloud Computing to Build a College Chatbot Model

Zaid Mundher; Wissam Khater; Laith Ganeem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 117-125
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127244.1079

A chatbot is a computer program which is designed to interact with users and answer questions. Nowadays, chatbots are one of the most common systems that are used in many fields and by different companies to achieve different tasks. Cloud computing is gaining increasing interest. A myriad of fields and applications have been developed based on cloud computing.
In this paper, a college chatbot was developed and implemented to assist students to interact with their college and ask questions related to faculty, activities, exams, admission, amongst other tasks. Text similarity algorithms were adopted to achieve the proposed system. More specifically, cosine similarity and jaccard similarity algorithms were used to find the closest question in the dataset. Firebase real-time database, which is one of the Google cloud services, was used as a connector channel between users and the chatbot server.
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of cosine similarity and jaccard similarity methods, and to compare the results of both. In addition, real-time database was also evaluated as a chatbot connecter channel.

preparation of palladium Catalyst from bauxite ore and using for kerosene treatment

Wafa Saeed; Qaidar Salim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 126-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127951.1103

The research was aimed to used bauxite ore that has a high aluminum minerals which available in Al-Hussainiyat near al-Anbar district as a source of alumina which it used as a catalyst support after being loaded with palladium metal , The components of both bauxite ore and prepared catalyst were studied by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the prepared catalyst , After this the catalyst was used in the treatment of kerosene which is distilled at (150-260C0) under different conditions of the (temperature , reaction time and the ratio of catalyst) to know the optimal reaction conditions that determid by measuring the (FTIR) and chemical analysis. The optimal conditions: temperature was (250C0), reaction time was (2hours) and the catalyst ratio was (2%) .The catalyst appeard the ability to dehydrogenation reaction and reforming to form olefinic and aromatic compounds. The research also included the study of n-paraffins separated from kerosene samples that were treating in different temperatures (150,200,250C0 ) using (1HNMR).The results showed the ability of the catalyst towards catalytic cracking and converting n-paraffins to iso-paraffins

Isolation and Diagnosis of Rhizobium Bacteria Isolated from The Root Nodules of Leguminous Plants and Studying Their Plasmid Content.

Wissam Alubidy; Mohammed Al-Shakarchi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 141-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127846.1098

The study included thirty-six isolates of rhizobia bacteria were isolated from the nodules located on the roots of nine types of leguminous family plants that were planted in four areas of the city of Mosul for the winter agricultural season for the year 2020-2019, where they studied the phenotypic and agricultural characteristics of the isolated bacteria in addition to a study of resistance and sensitivity to the isolates of rhizobia bacteria The study included ten antibiotics, and resistance ratios differed between isolates groups, where the highest resistance rate for residual bacteria isolates was 100% for Nystatin and Amoxicillin, and the lowest resistance was for Tetracycline and Streptomycin, as it reached 22.2%. As for the rest of the antibiotics, there is a difference between that.
As for heavy metal salts, all the isolates of rhizobia bacteria under study were resistant to both CdCl2 chloride and CoCl2 cobalt by 100%, while their resistance to nickel chloride NiCl2 was 77.7% and the lowest resistance to heavy metal was mercury chloride HgCl2, reaching 33.3%.
The plasmid DNA content was described for the studied isolates, as the results showed that there are two types of plasmid DNA bundles, the first type close to large-scale gel drilling called Mega plasmid represents symbiotic plasmids that carry the genes of contract formation and nitrogen fixation and the second type moves far from the gel drilling and they are sizes small equal representing non-symbiotic plasmids.

Synthesis of New 3-Substituted Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Compounds Via Linking of Some Five-Membered Ring Heterocyclic Moieties With Quinazolin-4(3H)-one Nucleus

Mohammed Al-iraqi; Rand Saad-Aldeen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 158-172
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127904.1101

In this research new compounds containing quinazolin-4(3H)-one nucleus linked to heterocyclic moieties were synthesized using ethyl (4'-oxoquinazolin-3'-yl) acetate (2) as a synthon. This compound was synthesized via 4-quinazolinone's (1) reaction with ethyl chloroacetate in the existence of K2CO3 as a base and acetone as a solvent. The ethyl α-(4'-oxoquinazolin-3'-yl) acetate (2) was converted to the corresponding hydrazide through its reaction with hydrazine hydrate (85 %). Compound (3) was reacted with two of acyl chlorides to synthesize the diacyl hydrazine compounds (4,5). The compound (5) was cyclized to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazole (6) in presence of phosphorous oxychloride. The formyl derivative (7) of the hydrazide (3) was synthesized via its reaction with formic acid and consequently cyclized by phosphorous oxychloride to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazole (8). The hydrazide (3) was also converted to the thiosemicarbazide derivative (9) by its reaction with ammonium thiocyanate under acidic conditions. Whereas other substituted thiosemicarbazide derivatives (10-12) were synthesized by the reaction of hydrazide (3) with organic isothiocyanate compounds. The resultant compounds (11, 12) were cyclized under basic conditions (4% sodium hydroxide solution) to give 1,3,4-triazole-2-thiole derivatives (13,14), whereas the cyclization of compounds (10-12) was performed under the acidic medium (conc. H2SO4) to give 2-substituted amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (15-17). On the other side, the hydrazide's (3) reaction with isocyanate compounds affords the semicarbazide compounds (18,19). These compounds were cyclized under the basic condition to afford 1,3,4-triazol-2-ol compounds (20,21). The structures of the synthesized compounds were corroborated depending on the physical and spectral data.

AEPRD: An Enhanced Algorithm for Predicting Results of Orthodontic Operations

Ammar Thaher Yaseen Al Abd Alazeez Al Abd Alazeez

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 173-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127785.1094

The face is the most critical component which is clear on first sight for an individual. Delicate tissue of the face alongside the fundamental dentoskeletal tissues portrays the facial attributes of a person. Social affirmation, mental well-being, and self-esteem of an individual are related to physical appearance. Strikingly, facial properties are regularly packed in profile. Orthodontic assurance and treatment orchestrating are continuously being established on profiles rather than basically on Angle's concept of molar relationship. It was seen that particular skeletal exact guidelines, proportion of constitution of the delicate tissue, and facial solid position can affect the assessment of the profile.
One of the uncommon challenges in orthodontics is the treatment orchestrating and the leading body of orthognathic careful cases. These cases require a mix of both orthodontics and orthognathic medical procedure to accomplish an even impediment, appropriate function, and agreeable facial feel. Early analyze of malocclusion is exceptionally helpful to get legitimate teeth straight. Thusly, in this paper we built up a straightforward PC supported program that could help foreseeing teeth impediment. In other word, we take an image of individual and order it into one of the three primary types Class I, Class II, and Class III and predict the after all treatments of Class II and Class III. This study gives information which can be used in treatment orchestrating by authorities, for instance, orthodontists, prosthodontists, plastic specialists, and maxillofacial experts, who have the ability to change the delicate tissue facial highlights.

Diagnosis of Local Isolates of Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Biochemical Methods

Haitham Aljader; Zena Al_gader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 191-202
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127840.1096

In this study 10 local isolates of yeast Saccharomyces were obtained from the local markets of Mosul .The Isolates were diagnosed by morphological and cultural characters in addition to biochemical tests. the results of the tests showed that they belong to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type . Local isolates were tested for resistance to 8 different types of antibiotics and 5 salts of heavy metals. all isolates were resistant to each of Chloramphenicol , Ampicillin , Tetracycline and Streptomycin at 100%. As for the Erythromycin antibiotic most of the local isolates were resistant except for the isolates (SY4 , SY5 , SY6) As well as Amoxicillin all isolates were resistant except for (SY4) . While the isolates showed sensitivity to Nystatin at 80% and for Flagyl at 90% . The isolates also showed resistance to all Zinc chloride ZnCl2 , Nickel chloride NiCl2 and Cobalt chloride CoCl2 at 100% , as for mercury chloride all isolates were resistant except for (SY2) which showed sensitivity to it . sensitivity of the isolates was clear to Cadmium chloride CdCl2 except for the isolates (SY3 , SY9 , SY10) .