Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Current Issue
Volume 30, Issue 4

Volume 30, Issue 4, Summer 2021

Calculation of The Electronic Energy Band Structure of GaAs Crystal Using The Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Yahya; Mumtaz Hussien

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129475.1140

In this paper, the semi-empirical tight binding method for the nearest neighbors in the first Brillouin zone has been used to calculate the energy band structure of GaAs crystal which have zinc blend ZB structure, the band structure has been calculated by using sp^3 model which have 9 parameters and sp^3 s^* which have 13 parameters, both these models are used to calculate the main characteristic of both valence and conduction bands. The matrix elements were determined using the method followed by Cohen and Vogl, by identifying points in the wave vector space within the reduced Brillouin zone between the points of high symmetry and calculating the eigenvalues of all these points by building a computer program in MATLAB to form the energy band structure. The effective mass m^* along the direction [111] for the lowest conduction bands has been calculated. A comparison between the sp^3 model used by Cohen and the sp^3 s^* model used by Vogl has been made. The energies of the band structure at points the high symmetry Γ and X obtained from the study were compared with the results of the published research. The results showed that there is a difference in the energy gap between sp^3 and sp^3 s^* models and there is good agreement between the band energies at high symmetry points between these two models and the published results.

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

ghada mohammad tahir kasim; Ashraf AL thanoon; Haleema Solayman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 15-27
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129161.1134

Significance of Enhancement Technique In Segmentation of Image and Signal: A Review of the literature

From the last 70 years, there is continuous development in the field of digital image processing such as geology, biology as well as in medical fields. Solving many problems in the case of numerous application image processing plays an important role. Recently, wireless communication has been a dominant medium. When a signal or image is transmitted via the wireless environment, the quality of the image or signal gets degraded. It is the biggest issue. This happens because of acquisition and color space conversion. Hence, priority is given to enhance the quality of the image or signal. Enhancement is the process responsible to enhance the quality of the signal. In this paper, we focused on various enhancement techniques for image and signal enhancement. Furthermore, this study put down the result for various enhancement techniques for improvement in the image. Theoretically, the signal enhancement was discussed shortly.

Study of Electrical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon

Mohammed alsaalihiu; Ghazwan Al Nuaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129664.1147

In this paper, porous silicon has been prepared and studied by photochemical etching method using a n-type silicon wafer with electrical resistivity (0.01-0.02 Ω.cm), orientation (100), hydrofluoric acid of 20% HF, current density of 15 mA / cm2 and etching time at (5 min). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been deposited using laser ablation by drop casting with different laser energy of 400,600 and 800m J. The electrical properties (I-V measurements) of silver nanoparticles on porous silicon have studied in both light and dark conditions. It can be seen the samples behave a rectifier and the current density increases with increase laser energy due to increase in concentration of silver nanoparticles, which lead to a decrease in the values of resistivity as the laser energy increases, this is attributed to the pores are filled with silver nanoparticles and lead to interference between silver and the porous silicon layer. The silver nanoparticles play an important role in forming a homogeneous layer and enhancing the crystal stability of the porous silicon layer.

Study the effect of annealing on the some physical properties of ZnO and NiO nanostructures

abubakir AL-duory; Mutaz AL-juboori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 37-58
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129592.1144

            The annealing process was carried out for the Nano composed oxides (zinc and nickel) at different temperatures (200 ° C, 500 ° C, 700 ° C) and for a specific time of one hour for each temperature change in order to get rid of the internal pressures and the change in their physical and chemical properties and study the structural properties. The optical and surface diffraction results of the nanocrystalline oxides after each temperature change, as the results of the X-ray diffraction of zinc oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure and of the hexagonal type and the X-ray diffraction  of nickel oxide showed that it has a polycrystalline structure of the cubic type. After the annealing process using Brake law and calculating the average Crystallite size by Debye Shearer method, it was observed that there was an increase in the average crystal size after each temperature change and the results of FTIR showed the emergence of the chemical Zn-O band of zinc oxide, as most Studies indicate the emergence of a (Zn-O) band within the (cm-1) spectral range (400-700) and the emergence of a (Ni-O) chemical bond of nickel oxide, where the peak intensity of this bond decreases due to the hot change. Get up in temperatures. The results of (FESEM) images showed that it is within the nanoscale and that the grain size increases after each temperature change process..

Speaker Recognition: Progression and challenges

Yusra Al-Irahyim; Qasim Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129802.1150

Speaker recognition is one of the field topics widely used in the field of speech technology, many research works has been conducted and little progress has been made in the past five to six years, and due to the advancement of deep learning techniques in most areas of machine learning, it has been replaced previous research methods in speaking recognition and verification. The topic of deep learning is now the most advanced solution to verifying and identifying a speaker's identity. The algorithms used are (x-vectors) and (i-vectors) which are considered the baseline in modern work. The aim of this study is to review deep learning methods applied in identifying speakers and tasks for validating older solutions (Gaussian mixture model, Gaussian mixture super vector model and i-vector model) to new solutions using deep neural networks (deep belief network, deep corrective learning network). ) As well as the types of metrics to verify the speaker (cosine distance, probabilistic linear discrimination analysis) as well as the databases used for neural network training (TIMIT, VCTK, VoxCeleb2, LibriSpeech).

Study of optical and structural properties of prepared gold nanoparticles by pulse laser ablation method

Noor Fadhil; Fathi Jasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 69-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129702.1148

In this paper, the ablation of pure gold target in distilled water (DW) using Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm and different laser energies (480, 680, 880) mj, with repetition frequency of 6Hz and number of pulses 300 pulse were studied. The optical properties were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, and the spectra showed the appearance of sharp peaks as a result of the plasmonic absorption surface at (529, 531, 532) nm corresponding to the above mentioned energies. The results of the atomic force microscope (AFM) test also showed that the average size of gold nanoparticles decreases with the increase of the energy of the pulsed laser, that gold nanoparticles possess a cube crystalline phase (FCC) according to x-ray diffraction (XRD) test whereas the results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles have an almost spherical shape.

Laser skimming of solids in liquid has opened up unique prospects for the manufacture of nanostructures and as a result there has been rapid growth of studies in the composition of nanostructures by this new technology in recent years. The resulting nanoparticles are somewhat crystallized, and can be obtained in an easy and one-step way without any subsequent heat treatment. Due to the high potency of the cut-off parts, pure colloidal solutions of nanoparticles can form a product that accumulates in the colloidal solution obtained in a very easy way. Colloidal gold is very attractive to many applications in biotechnology and biomedicine because of its unique physical and chemical properties


Abdalrahman Al-Hyali; Ghanem Hassan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129793.1149

This study was conducted for the purpose of making milk ice cream free from lactose and to demonstrate the effect of replacing cows' milk with coconut milk on the general characteristics of the product, as it was observed in samples made from coconut milk a high percentage of total solids, a slight increase in the percentage of fat and a decrease in the percentage of total sugars. While the percentage of protein and ash increased, so did the pH value of the mixture, and the percentage of the restorative acidity of the product decreased, and The specific weight of the mixture and the product decreased, the relative viscosity increased, the percentage of rent increased, the percentage of shrinkage increased, the product's resistance to melting increased, the caloric content of the product increased, and the degrees of sensory evaluation increased with the increase in the substitution ratios with coconut milk, and the total number of bacteria, coliform and Staph bacteria increased. aureus in coconut milk samples.

study of nuclear structure of even-even Dy isotopes

Aziz Ali; Yaser Qasim; Mutasim Yousuf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 94-105
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129809.1151

(〖E(8〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)),(〖E(6〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) , ( 〖E(4〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) and the ratios of In this study, the energy of the first exited 21+
for 152-156DY even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between E/ I as a function of I ( E-GOS), the ratio 〖E(J〗_1^+)/〖E(2〗_1^+) and the ratio r (I+2/I) as a function of spin (I) are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they the isotopes 152-154DY possess vibration U(5) properties and isotope 156DY possess gamma-soft O(6) properties.
The interacting boson model IBM-1,BM and IVBM has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 10 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained

Design and Implementation of an Electronic System of Salaries: (Nineveh Investment Commission as a Model)

Mohamed Alchalabi; Mafaz Alanezi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 106-124
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129618.1146

Electronic systems are considered one of the most important pillars in the development of the work of any institution, especially the systems related to the administrative and financial aspects.
In this research, an electronic system for salaries for the Nineveh Investment Commission (NIC) was designed and implemented model using the language (C#), A central database was built using a Database Management System (SQL), This system was based on a local wireless network to share work by adopting (Client/Server) model to connect the computers, the proposed system includes very important features such as the open system data that enables the user to add and amend the percentages of the basic and secondary salary components, automatic calculation of the salary by specifying the employee service specifications and the certificate obtained, fixed and variable allocations and deductions, calculating all leave, Determining annual bonuses and promotions and organizing them to makes it easy for the user to know who is eligible, update and calculate them, in this system several levels of system users were built. A report was added for the employee's last salary certificate with detailed reports on salaries and the system was strengthened with the feature of backing up to prevent the database from Damage and referred to at any time.
The system was tested on real data to issuing salary reports for three months. As the system met with great desire and reliability in its use by conducting a questionnaire to measure the usability of the system on the specialists.

Study of The Effect of Adding a Blend of Engineering Polymers on the Rheological Modifications of Sulfurated Asphalt

Mahmoud Abass; Ammar amdoon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 125-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129947.1157

In this study, a mixture of two polymers consisting of commercial adhesive [ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)] and melamine (M) Which were used in this study.
Different weights of both polymers were used with total weights equal for (1 g). The asphalt was treated with the above mixture in the presence of 1% by weight of sulfur at (180 ° C) for one hour.
The rheological properties of the modified samples and original one were measured, which included measuring the ductility , penetration, and softining point as well as calculating the penetration index and percentage of the separated asphaltens .
After that, the best samples obtained from the above modification process were taken, and several interactions were performed on it in order to determine each of :
The optimum conditions for the conversion process have been established and include the percentage of added sulfur and the temperature the best time, the best weights of the mixture, and the best addition sequence.
After that, the best sample obtained from this study was taken and the marshals test with chemical immersion was performed, as well as the effect of aging on this sample was studied.
The study gave good results in the field of asphalt resistance to the deformation processes which were carried out on it.

Text dependent speaker identification system based on deep learning

Qasim Mahmood; Yusra Al-Irahyim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 141-160
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130144.1161

Speaker identification techniques are one of those most advanced modern technologies and there are many different systems had been developed, from methods that used to extract characteristics and classification. The applications of Speech identification are quite difficult and requires modern technologies with a large number of audio samples and resources.
In this research, the system of speaker identification had been designed based on a text (the word or sentences are pre-defined) which give the system the capability to identify the speaker in the least time, number of training samples and resources. The system consists four main parts, the first one is to create audio databases. In the study, two audio databases were relied upon, the first being a database (QS- Dataset) and the second database (audioMNIST_meta). The databases were processed and configured in a way that was explained in the body of the research later. The second part of the research is to extract the characteristics through the pitch coefficients algorithm, while the third part is the use of the neural network as a classifier. And the last part of the research is to verify the work and results of the system.
The test results showed the ability of the MNN network to deal with the smallest number of data, as it achieved a percentage of 100%. As for large data, it ranged from 80% to 81%. Unlike CNN network, the results were not good for the few data, from 60% to 76%, and with large data it was The results are excellent, from 91% to 96%.

Determination of the Residues of the Insecticide Lambda-cyhalothrin After Heat Treatment Using HPLC and Biological Evaluation

Laith Al-Ramadany; Nabeel Al-Mallah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 161-176
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130469.1166

The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of using three temperatures of 30, 40, and 50 °C and five exposure periods of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours/degree of temperature in reducing the residues of Lambda-cyhalothrin in water under laboratory conditions and measuring these residues using HPLC as well as Biological evaluation of these residues before and after thermal treatments. The HPLC readings of the residues of this pesticide showed that the highest general average of the degradation rate was at the concentration of 30 ppm / active substance (93.47%) and at the temperature at 30 °C (94.79%), while it was only for the exposure period. 48 hours significant effect (89.80%), and the percentage of deterioration in the effectiveness of the pesticide against adults of the insect T.confusum ranged between 96.72 and 99.22%, and the highest of these percentages was at a concentration of 10 ppm (99.22%) and at a temperature of 40 °C (98.33%). for the exposure periods 24 and 48 hours (98.29%). This may indicate the sensitivity of this pesticide to the temperatures used, which seemed to be high in its initial limit, while the highest rate of degradation was 89.08% at the 48-hour period, which differed significantly from The rest of the other averages, which reached 82.2, 85.26, 89.35 and 86.95% for exposure periods of 6, 12, 24 and 96 hours, respectively.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Amoxicillin Trihydrate by Coupling with Diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline

Hisham Al-Herki; subhi jarullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 177-192
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130393.1165

A simple , accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX) as pure and in pharmaceutical preparations (capsule) . This method based on the coupling reaction of drug with diazotized 2,4- dinitroaniline reagent in an alkaline medium at 20 ºC to produce an intense red, water-soluble dye that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 555 nm . Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range 3-16 µg/ml with molar absorptivity of 1.1 x104 The limit of detection(LOD) is 0.1448 µg/ml while the limit of quantitation(LOQ) is 0.4825 µg/ml. The method shows high accuracy (average recovery 100.43%) and precision(relative standard division (RSD) is less than 1.4%).The stoichiometry of the resulting azo dye has been also worked out and it is found to be 1:1 AMOX:Diazotized 2,4-Dinitroaniline.Standard addition method refers to the suggested method is free from interferences from common excipients. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of studied drug in capsules comparable with the certified content value. .

Real-Time Monitoring System Based on Li-Fi Network Technology in Healthcare

Yasser Nozad; Ayad Mohammedtawfiq

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 193-200
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130106.1159

Patients at healthcare facilities require a long-term continuous healthcare monitoring system to keep track of their vital signs. Because it deals with human life, this system must be safe, trustworthy, and ensure that it does not interfere with available radio frequencies or sensitive electronic devices such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). This paper introduces a patient monitoring system in intensive care that used Li-Fi technology, designed to help enhance patient care and boost doctor’s clinical results. This robust approach timely collects patient data and integrates securely within the hospital IT framework feeding information to physicians, allowing them to make informed clinical decisions. The system used real-time software which displays the data from different locations for assessment. It was successfully tested in the laboratory. Some measurements are discussed, which compare the received pulses to the modules line of sight (LOS) output channel to correlate the transmitted channels. In this work, experimental analysis and measurements are performed to check the efficiency of the proposed concept.

Calculations of Energy Band Structure of GaAs, GaSb and GaP Crystals as a Function of Temperature Using the Semiempirical Tight Binding Method

Ismail Yahya; Mumtaz Hussien

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 201-219
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130682.1170

In this paper, the band structure of gallium group of III-V semiconductor has been calculated with temperature, the semi-empirical tight binding method was used to calculate the band structure and the matrix elements were calculated for both models sp^3 and sp^3 s^*. A computer program in MATLAB was designed to calculate the energy eigenvalues for the wave vector points in the first Brillouin zone between high symmetry points to form energy bands. The effect of temperature on the energy band of these group of crystals has been studied by changing the values of the lattice constant under the influence of temperature according to the Pierron relation and thus calculating the change in the length of the bond with temperature, which in turn affects the change in the values of the elements of the Hamiltonian matrix. The energy gap and refractive index were calculated at points of high symmetry as a function of temperature. The results showed a decrease in the energy gap values of GaAs, GaSb and GaP crystals with increasing temperature. Then the experimental Varshni relation was used to calculate the change in the energy gap values of these crystals and the results obtained from current study were compared with the results of Panish and Bellani, where the results showed that a model sp^3 s^* gives better results than the model sp^3.As well as the calculations of the refractive index of these crystals using the Moss formula showed that the refractive index will gradually increase with increasing temperatures.

Synthesis of Some Imine, From Pyrazole -1- Carbaldehyde Compound


JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 4, Pages 220-229
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168951

In this paper the synthesis of  N[(1E)-1- ( 3,5.- disubstituted phenyl -4,5-dihydro-1H- pyrazol-1- yl) ethylidene or methylidene] substituted aniline [13-15] [17-19] and 1,1-{benzene- 1,4- or -1,3- diylbis [nitrilo (E) methylylidene]} bis( 4,5- dihydro -1H- pyrazole -3,5- disubstituted phenyl) [16,20] is reported. Substituted acetophenone was treated with substituted benzaldehyde to give chalcones ((2E)-1,3- disubstituted phenyl prop-2-ene-1- one) [1-4], the chalcones was treated with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of formic or acetic acid ethanol to give 1-(3,5.-disubstituted phenyl-4,5- dihydro-1H- pyrazol-1- yl) methanol or ethanone [5-12], then this products changed to imines through reaction with substituted aromatic aniline and sodium hydroxide in ethanol to give the substituted pyrazoles.
Also the substituted compounds [5-12] were converted to 1-{(1E)-1-[2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazinylidene] methyl or ethyl} – 4,5- dihydro -1H- pyrazole-3,5-disubstituted phenyl [21-28] by reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine in ethanol.
The synthetic compound's structure. confirmed by IR., UV. Spectra and. physical method.