Volume 29, Issue 4, Autumn 2020, Page 1-178


The rheological modification of the Daura asphalt in polycarbonate using the microwave technique

Salam Karash; Khalid AL-Memary

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126779.1054

This study has included a modulation of the rheological properties of asphalt by a catalyst chemical treatment with polycarbonate, and the microwave technique was used at a power of (360) watt at time intervals. Furthermore, the modulation and treatment were done in the presence of sulfur and polycarbonate. The formed rheological properties of the new asphalt samples were studied which include (permeability, softening point, ductility and penetration index). Those asphalt samples of the new rheological properties could be used in paving field and some other samples could be used as anti-moisture materials.
The best asphalt samples with new rheological properties and those conformable with the properties of roads authority and Iraqi bridges were tested as a tiled asphalt since they were studied in terms of conducting Marshall tests and comparing them with the original sample in order to show the possibility of using the modified samples in the tiling and the obtained results were excellent in terms of stable creeping values. In addition the aging test was applied on the samples that contain good rheological properties.
Moreover, the modified asphalt has shown higher dissociation values in comparison with the original asphalt, so the modified asphalt has more resistant to high temperature and acid rains and shows an important characteristic of the quality of the asphalt that enables the modified asphalt to stick more closely to the aggregate, which gives higher resistance and greater operating age life to the streets.

The use of lignin in the rheological modification of Dura asphalt

saad alzbaidy; Ammar Al-Khazraji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 22-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126782.1055

This study was included treatment of the Dura asphalt with lignin as a natural polymeric additive and air blowing with three paths.
The first path: the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified by adding the lignin to the asphalt and in various proportions in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride as a catalyst for this process at the optimum conditions for the catalytic oxidation process that was identified which is 150 centigrade and a time of 60 min.
The second path : the rheological properties of the asphalt were modified using the use of lignin as an additive and with the presence of 1% sulfur(by weight)at a time of 60 minutes and a temperature of 180 ° C which is the optimal conditions for the non-catalytic air blowing process that was identified.
As for the third track, the lignin was treated with asphalt without the use of anhydrous aluminum chloride under optimal conditions for the non-catalytic process.
The study showed asphalt with completely different rheological properties compared to the original asphalt, which represents the primary goal behind the continuous quest for altering the rheological specifications of the original asphalt in a way that is compatible with the nature of use in different and specific fields, some samples can be using in paving as in samples(,AS19,AS20 ,AS50).As well as a moisture inhibitor and flattening as in samples(AS22,AS40,AS41 ,AS51, AS52).The use of asphalt in various fields is determined depending on the measurements made, ductility ,softening point,penetration,asphaltenes percentage,penetration index,aging test,marshall test .

Synthesis and Identification of Some Complexes of 4-[N-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene ) imino] Antipyrinyl with Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2) Ligands and Evaluation of Their Bacteria Activities

abdallah fathi; amira alshaheen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 42-61
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126837.1058

This work involves,the preparation, new ligands 4-[N- (2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene) imino] antipyrinyl Serine (L1) or with Theronine (L2),. from these ligands ,ten Complexes have been synthesized with metal ions Co(II) ,Ni(II) Cu(II) Zn (II) and Cd(II) in molar ratio (1:1) Metal: Ligand and these complexes have been characterized on the basis of physiochemical,investigations(1HNMR),(IR) electronicspectroscopy(U.V-Vis), molar,conductance, magnetic moment measurement, Thermal analysis (TGA), ,elemental analysis, Powder X-ray diffraction and spectral studies. Infrared data suggest that the ligands( L1) and( L2) behave as tetradentate ligands and coordinated through (N, N, O, O) as adonor,atoms sequence towards the metal ions, and they give an square planer and tetrahedral complexes, finally some of these,prepared complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activities against two classes of human pathogenic; bacteria Gram positive eg: Staphylococcus.aureus, and Gram negativebacteria including,Pseudomonas,aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoni and.Escherichiacoli, The performance results explain that the metal complexes have greater action more essential than the free ligand

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiamine hydrochloride Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction Using 4-Aminoantipyrine

Reem Al-Luhaiby; Mohammed Alenizzi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 62-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126895.1062

A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride by oxidative coupling reaction of thiamine with the reagent 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) in the presence of copper sulphate as oxidizing agent in alkaine medium forming a reddish brown colour. The product show maximum absorption at 335 nm. The molar absorptivitiy is 26410.59 l/mol.cm for concentrations obeyed Beer’s law in the range 0.2-18 μg.ml-1. The recovery was 100.93 % with relative standard deviation < 2.0 % for thiamine hydrochloride.Thiamine and reagent 4-AAP product was formed in the ratio of 1:1. The stability constant of the product was 3.39×106 l.mol-1 for thiamine hydrochloride indicating the good stability of this product. The optimum conditions for full colour development are described and the proposed method was applied successfully for determination of thiamine in the pharmaceutical preparation (Neurorubine). The common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical do not interfere in the proposed method.

Calculation Values of potential Stickiness (S*) and Apparent Activation Energy (AAE) from Adsorption of Some Aromatic Carboxylic Acids on the Surface of a New Adsorbent Substance

Khaleel Alniemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 76-89
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126168.1021

Abstract:
This study includes calculation of the potential stickiness (S*) and apparent activation energy (AAE) by the adsorption process of some aromatic carboxylic acids using sand (clay) as a new adsorbent material. This clay was collected from dust storms coming to the city of Mosul. The obtained results showed that physical adsorption which is achieved by applying the modified Arrhenius equation through the values of (S *) and (AAE) which have low values and bear a negative charge is preferable Adsorption process occurs in two-step mechanism. The effect of the concentration of the acidic solution, temperature and the substituted groups SO3, NO2, OH, NH2 on the aromatic ring) was studied to clarify the nature of the association between organic carboxylic acid anions and inorganic metal oxides to form a complex surface model. The study concluded that the values of (S *) for all acids were less than one and they were more than the value of zero. Also, the values of (AAE) gave an indication that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The presence of water molecules and (H+) ions in solution is very important to change the nature of the clay surface.

Comparative Morphological Study of Pollen Grains and Seeds of Cultivars from the Species Pyrus malus L. and Pyrus communis L. Cultivated in Northern of Iraq

Muna Shehab; Amer Al-Maathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 90-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127063.1069

The present research includes a comparative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds of (8) cultivars belonging the species Pyrus malus L. namely ("EarlyGold", "GrannySmith", "Royal Cala", "Red Delicious", "Golden Delicious", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh", Cox") and (6) Cultivars belonge to the species Pyrus communis L. namely ("Coneference", Decana", "Bonica", "Alkhatuni","Alothmani", "William) which cultivated in northern of Iraq. Were examined by light and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of pollen grains showed that pattern tricolporate and the shape in polar view triangular or spherical -triangular or tetrangular but in equatorial view spherical or ovate and surface configuration was striate in all cultivars of the species. The morphological characters of seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension of width and Length, Number of seeds in fruit), in addition to indumentum were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the two species. In addition to its surface configuration, it was Striate in "EarlyGold", "RoyalCala", "Honey Crisp", "Mcintosh" and "Cox" and Striate papillae in GrannySmith, while the "Coneference", "Decana" and "Bonica, Alkhatuni, and Alothmani had a surface configuration pitted, and Irregular Reticular in Red Delicious and Reticulate papillae in cultivar William, while Golden Deliciou was unique as having an alveolate surface, The quantitative and qualitative morphological characters of pollen grains and seeds were found to be diagnostic value for separation cultivars from the species.

Investigating the Numerical solution of the BoltzmannTransport Equation in silicon in Momentum Space Using Computational Systems of Different Dimensions

Mumtaz Hussien; Mahmood Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 108-123
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126828.1057

Abstract
The Boltzmann transport equation is the basic equation for solving the transport of charge carrier (electrons, holes) problems in semiconductor devices. The distribution function has been obtained from the solution of this equation. The distribution function is important in calculating semiconductor properties, which can be used to calculate the average electron energy, the charge carrier concentration, and other properties. In this work the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation in silicon was solved using analytical / numerical methods in steady state case in momentum space. The analytical solution is requires expressing the distribution function using Legendre polynomials expansion the first two terms of the expansion, by taking into account the effect of both acoustic elastic scattering and nonelastic scattering in addition to the effect of non-parabolic energy band structure. In order to obtain the numerical solution of Boltzmann transport equation the finite difference method is used. The differential equation is transformed to linear difference equation which can represented by matrices. Numerical systems with different dimensions are designed to calculate the distribution function with the least possible time to maintain the accuracy of the solution for different applied electric field which represent the low and high field regions at temperatures T= (77, 300) K. The obtained results showed good agreement with published data that used other calculation methods such as the Monte Carlo simulation method for all the system used in this work.

The influence of relative refractive index and core diameter on properties of single-mode optical fiber.

sama aldabagh; Manaf Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 124-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126908.1063

A study of the influence of the parameters design, such as the refractive index of the core, the cladding and the radius of the core on propagation constant (β) of single-mode optical fiber in optical communication region (1.2-1.6) m have been investigated. Material, waveguide, and profile dispersions are analyzed and investigated. Three models of optical fibers with different relative refractive indices () (0.004, 0.007, 0.01) at a wavelength equal 1.55 m, and three models of core radius (3,4,5) m is taken in the count. Numerical simulations and modeling are arranged depending on weakly guiding approximation for solving homogeneous wave equation derived from Maxwell’s equations. Our modeling solved by the aid of MATLAB software. Material and profile dispersion have no significant change for various relative refractive index, while waveguide dispersion is affected by the change of relative refractive index. the waveguide dispersion increased by increasing core diameter and the profile dispersion decreased as the core diameter increased. There is no effect on martial dispersion by increasing the core diameter.

Preparation of Some Benzothiazole Polymers and Study Their Electrical Conductivity Properties

Asaad Khattab; Haitham Ayoob; Laith Altaan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 140-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126945.1066

As the conjugated polymers are doped with some electron donor or acceptor dopants, their electrical conductivity increased thoroughly to about 10-6 Ω-1.cm-1. The doping of the polymers may give an n or p semiconductor characteristic according to the types of the dopants that are used. Within the frame of this work, four types of conjugated polymers with benzothiazole as a major moiety in their backbone have been prepared. The prepared monomers and polymers have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Elemental analysis of the polymers (CHN) demonstrates their chemical structure while the DSC thermal analysis illustrates its Tg. The polymers were doped with two types of dopants, iodine and sodium iodide. The electrical conductivity of the doped polymers was measured with three probe cell. The results show increasing in the electrical conductivity with dopant concentration to some levels. The activation energy of the electrical conductivity process was also studied by measuring the electrical conductivity in different temperature. According to the magnitude of the activation energy, we can conclude that the chain flexibility is the dominate factor that influenced on electrical conductivity. Hall Effect and hot probe measurements reveal that the polymer can be considered as n or p type according to the type of the doping. It was concluded that the doping with iodine produced an n-type while the doping with sodium iodide produced the p- type.

A Comparative Morphological Study of the Genus Juniperus L. ( Cupressaceae) in North of Iraq

Dr.Haees Al Jowary; Aseel Al-Sharefy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 154-176
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127106.1073

Abstract
A new species of juniper is Juniperus macrocarpa, permissions not previously registered in Flora of Iraq that were composed ( Guest researchers and Ali al-Rawi,1966) so only two species of Juniperus oxycedrus and Juniperus polycarpos were registered at the time. The research included a classification of the species Juniperus which belong to the Cupressaceae family that grown a wild plants in north of Iraq, using the morphological characteristics of (3) species of veins mentioned in (7) sites distributed in provinces of ( FNI,MAM and MSU )Nineveh, Dohuk and Sulaymaniyah.
The study includes the characteristics of stems, branches, bark, needle leaves, male and female cones, seeds and flower buds, as well as examining the overcoming of appearance between species and individuals of the same species in the studied sites, and sometimes the species have clear variations among them and the individuals of the same species did not show marked changes, and it became clear that the studied morphological characteristics have taxonomic. Significant in the diagnosis and isolation of species from each other, and the study was reinforced with photographs, shapes and illustrations, as well as the study showed that sexual characteristics (male and female cones and flower buds) are more proven compared to the rest of the characters, and It has a significant and taxonomic role in diagnosing the studied species into groups, so the needle leaves showed clear variations, which makes them the task of classifying them either in their quantitative or qualitative characteristics.

A Taxonomic Study of Macro-and Micro Morphological Features of Fruits and Seeds Cultivars of the Species Belonging to the Genus Morus L. (Moraceae) Cultivated in the North of Iraq

Raad Al-Badrany; Aamer Al-Mathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 177-192
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127107.1074

The present work deal with the morphological characters of the fruits and seed of the cultivars belonging to the species Morus alba L. Namely ("Beautiful Day", "Big White", "Rease", "Greece", "Pearl", "Border Sweet", "Pendula"); Morus latifolia Poir ("Kokuse Korean"); Morus rubra L. ("Amarah"); Morus nigra ("Shami"); Morus macroura Miq ("King White"); "Dwarf" and Morus hybrid ("Tice", "Wellington") Which cultirated in North of Iraq.
The study includes the characters of the fruits (Shape, Color, Dimension, Size, Number of the fruitlet in the fruit) and the characters of the seeds (Shape, Color, Dimension, Number of the seeds in the fruit, and surface ornamentation).
The results of some morphological characteristic of the fruits and seeds examined by light microscope (L.M), in addition to the surface ornamentation of the seeds examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Showed five type of the surface ornamentation (Reticulate, Muricate, Foreate undulate, Polygonal, and Ruminate) for cultivars species studied, showed that importance value in the separation between the cultivars of the species studied belonging to the genus Morus L.

Synthesis of Some Heterocyclic Compounds Derived From 2-Amino Benzothiazole

Zainab Mahmood; Ahmad Ahmad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 193-205
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127562.1087

In this thesis, Anmber of heterocylic compound with five and six memberd, Such as substituted imidazole, triazin and thiazolidine.
The N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-2-chloro acetamide compound(1) was prepared from the reaction of the compound (2-amino benzothiazole) with chloroacetyl chloride. The product(1) was reacted with thiourea and urea to prepare both (imidazole -2-thione (2) and imidazole -2-one(3)) , respectively. As did compound(1) with thiosemicarbazide and semicarbazide to prepared the two compounds (1,2,4-triazine -3-thione (4) and 1,2,4-triazine -3-one (5)) ,respectively. Also compound(1) with ammonium thiocyanate to prepare the compound thiazolidin -4-one (6). From the reaction of compound(1) with phenyl thiourea attended imidazole -2-thione(7).
Also from the reaction of (2-amino benzothiazole) with phthalic anhydride or malic anhydride attended compounds (8) and (9) ,respectively. And by reaction compound(8) or (9) with o-phenylene diamine attended compounds (10) and (11) ,respectively. The synthesized compounds are identified by physical (melting points, colour change) and spectral methods such as (IR, proton-NMR).

The Effect of Some Antioxidants Compounds on Enzymatic and Nonenzymic Browning of Quince Juice During Thermal Treatment

Aya Rashan; Omar Al-abbasy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 206-221
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127190.1078

Abstract: Enzymatic browning by tyrosinase and nonenzymatic browning (Maillard reaction) are responsible for producing new compounds which contributes considerably to the undesirable of aroma, taste and colour in food. In this study, tyrosinase activity and browning intensity in quince juice were inhibited by treating them with antioxidant compounds vanillin, glutathione and melatonin as compared to the control. The maximum inhibition percentages of Tyrosinase were 83, 68.8 and 90.3 % and the maximum inhibitory effects of browning intensity were 13.9, 9.7 and 29.8% respectively.
For untreated quince juice which heated to 5 hours at 100 oC, the results showed increasing in A294, Browning intensity (A420) and reducing power, as well as decreasing in reducing sugar, free amino group, phenolic compounds contents and inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation. The decreasing of A294, browning intensity and increasing in reducing power were showed after treating with (10mM) vanillin and (8mM) glutathione compared to control. Conversely to glutathione, the addition of vanillin to quince juice revealed increasing in inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation, reducing sugar and phenolic contents and decreasing in free amino acid content compared to control. Inhibition Mode of tyrosinase by melatonin is non-competitive. The Km value remains constant (1.96mM), while Vmax reduced from 228.13 to 114.06 U.ml-1.min-1. Inhibition constant Ki value was 6.9 mM.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Salbutamol Sulphate and Mefenamic Acid Using Azur-A Dye in Presence of Oxidizing Agent N-bromosuccinimide

subhi jarullah; Asmaa Abbas Al-Hashemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 222-244
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127113.1072

A simple, accurate and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of salbutamol sulphate and mefenamic acid in pure forms and in pharmaceutical preparations (capsule, syrup, tablet). This method based on the bromination of the drug with N-bromosuccinimide in acidic medium and the unreacted oxidizing agent react with constant amount of Azur-A dye solution due to bleach their colour and measured the absorbance of the residual colour dye at 606.5 nm.The molar absorptivity for salbutamol sulphate and mefenamic acid are 2.3 × 104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and 8.1× 103 L.mol-1.cm-1 respectively. Beer's Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 1.6 -12.8 µg/ml for salbutamol sulphate and1.6 -13.6 µg/ml for mefenamic acid. The limit of detection (LOD) were 0.0367µg/ml and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.1226 µg/ml for both drugs. In addition, the recovery levels of the drugs were in the range 100.56% and 100.74%. The method was created to be simple, cost-effective and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs.

Employing Cloud Technologies in E-Learning Systems: University Students and Teachers’ Ability in Storing Information in “Cloud”: A “Google Classroom” Study

luqman qader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 245-258
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.127247.1080

E-learning today has a significant impact on learning, due to its ease of accessibility and the fact that it does not take into account geography, politics, or narrow economic interests. This significance gains a special status, especially when having doubts regarding the possibility of a final settlement of the pandemic Coved-19 in a short period. Education using digital technologies allows students to expand their access to knowledge resources and to special skills which support the curriculum, as well as carrying using important features such as continuous assessments that enable them to advance in the field of research and to develop their ideas, and perhaps provide more opportunities to extend their knowledge and stimulate critical thinking that is formed by allowing students to gain knowledge and reach conclusions by themselves. With the spread of this huge number of smartphones, also of the availability of internet service at any time and place allows digital services to go beyond many boundaries to share information. “Cloud” computing technology provides optimal solutions for setting an effective infrastructure that allows researchers, teachers, and students to access services from anywhere and by using any kind of digital devices connected to the Internet to get valuable resources and services and to take advantage of the capabilities and functions provided by these modern environments. This contributes to providing the tools for supporting learning, teaching, and cooperative work. “Cloud” computing gives students and teachers a more convenient and effective learning experience.

Study The Responsory And Quantum Efficiency of Silicon P-N Junction by Using Pulse Plasma

Salah A. Sheet; Mohammad N. Abdulwahab

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 259-278
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.167287

In this work we have used plasma pulsed injector to prepare a P-N junction. Antimony was deposited on P-type silicon wafer and Indium was deposited on N-type silicon wafer. They were considered as thin film which was bombarded with accelerated hydrogen-ions from the pulsed plasma injector.
            Optical tests were conducted for the both junctions to evaluate their performance as optical detectors. These include the spectral response quantum efficiency and detectivity. They showed high response and efficiency for the long wavelength in the near IR region. It showed a relatively higher detectivity which increased with the number of discharges.
            For antimony and indium implanted samples we have noticed an increase in the response time of the detector with the number of discharges. These findings allow the possibility to use them in the near IR-detector and semiconductor lasers in the wavelength range 850-950nm as well as in the applications of optical communication systems.
            This work also revealed the possibility of using the pulsed plasma injection to modify the material surfaces as well as the ultering the semiconductor surfaces.