Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 17, Issue 3

Volume 17, Issue 3, Spring 2005, Page 1-155


Indirect spetopotometric Assay of Paracetamol in Pharamaceutical Preparations Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 1-Naphthol and Metaperiodate

Intisar K.Mohamad; Elham S. Salih; Thabit Al-Ghabsha

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82408

Development of indirect Spectrophotometric method for the determination of paracetamol in pure form as well as dosage form is described. The method is based on the acid hydrolysis of paracetamol to p-aminophenol followed by oxidative coupling reaction with 1-naphthol in the presence of sodium metaperiodate in alkaline medium to form a blue indophenol dye which absorbs at 600nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentrations range of 1.2-24 j.ig/ml with a molar absorptivity of 9.65 x 103 1. mol'1. cm"1., accuracy (average recovery) is 100.91% and precision (RSD) is less than 2.5%. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceuticals do not interfere in the proposed method. The method is successfully employed for the determination of paracetamol in

New Complexes of Cobalt(II) Containing Mixed Ligands {Acetylacetone Bis(semi-carbazone and Substituted Phenols}

Zuhoor F.Dawood; Akram A.Mohammad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 11-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82514

The synthesis and structural studies of some cobalt (II) complexes with mixed ligands including acetylacetone bis(semicarbazone) - ASCH2 and substituted phenols (2-aminophenol (LJH2) , 2-carboxyphenol (L2H2), 2-nitrophenol (L3H)} have been described and characterized using differen different physico-chemical methods . They have been found to have the general formulas [Co(LH2)(ASCH2)]X2 and [Co(L3)(ASCH)] or [Co(LH)(ASCH)] in neutral and basic medium , respectively (where X = NO/ or cr ; LH2 - L1H2 or L2H2 or L3H ; LH = L1 or L2) . The results supports that the complexes have high spin octahedral geometries .

Some Aspects of Radiation Induced Damage to Enzymes Using α- amylase As A Model

Azhar A.A.L-AL Obaydy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 22-47
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82505

a-amylase enzyme was isolated and purified from wheat flour (abena zero). Different aqueous enzyme solutions were exposed to gamma radiation in order to investigate the behavior of this enzyme toward ionization radiation under various experimental conditions.
Radiolysis of aqueous oxygenated a-amylase solutions led to a significant increase in activity to many folds as a function of dose.
Addition of Cu(D ),Ni(D ),Zn(D ) complexes and MgCl2 to a-amylase un-irradiated solutions also increase enzyme activity. This phenomenon indicates clearly a conformation change in enzyme structure. Or on other word, partial unfold regions in enzyme molecule, could be created by radiation attack or/and by interactions of metal complexes or MgCl2 with enzyme molecules, as a result of disruption of weak bonds such as H-banding or hydrophobic bonds.
Radiolysis of enzyme solutions containing Cu(D ),Ni(D ) and Zn(D ) complexes and MgCl2 has been investigated. Radiolysis of N2 -saturated enzyme solutions did not show any increase in activity, but a gradual decrease was observed on proceeding irradiation, This clears up the role of oxygen in enzyme radiosensitization.
Lysine and Tyrosine amino acids were selected as model for amino acids with aliphatic and aromatic residues respectively. The effect of metal complexes on the rate of decay of organic peroxides formed on these amino acids, by irradiation was studied.
Addition of irradiated Lysine solutions in presence of Cu (alanine)2 complex lo un-irradiated a -amylase solution caused enzyme deactivation .
Kinetic study was applied on the decay of organic peroxides.
In brief, these studies provide information that the activity of native enzyme contributes to only small part of the whole capacity of enzyme activity. This reflects a fact that most sites involved in catalytic activity of the enzyme are not involved, at least, directly in enzyme activity.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Benzocaine by Azo-Dye Formation Reaction with N - (1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine as Coupling Agent

W. A. Bashir; N. S. Othman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 48-60
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.162863

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of benzocaine in aqueous solution is developed. The method based on the coupling of diazotized benzocaine with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine(N-NED) in acidic
rnedium. The purplish - violet azo dye formed is water soluble, stable, and shows tnaximum absorption at 547.5 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the range 10 - 100 ptg I 25 ml, i.e, 0.4 - 4 ppm with a molar absorptivity of 5.56 x 104l.mol-r.cm-' and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0029 pg.cm-2, arelative error of - 0.660 to * 0.002% and a relative standard deviations of*0.110to+ 0.550% depending on the concentration. The method has been applied to
determine benzocaine in two synthetic pharmaceutical preparations.

New Complexes of Silicon

Manal A.M.Al-Shamma

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 61-67
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82513

Schiff-base ligands (L), prepared from substituted and non-substituted salicylaldehyde and 2-aminopyridine or 2-amino-3-methyl pyridine, and pyrrol-2-carboxylic acid (PGA or X), have been reacted with tetrachlorosilicon in 1:2:1 molar ratio respectively to give complexes of the general formula [Si(L~H)(X~H)2]Cl in neutral medium and [SiEJyCLj in basic medium. The complexes obtained were characterized physicochemically and spectroscopically.
The Schiff-base seems to coordinate with silicon atom in a bidentate fashion via the most reactive bonding sites; the central imine (azomethine)-nitrogen and phenolic oxygen atom. (PCA) coordinate with silicon also as a bidentate ligand via pyrrol nitrogen atom and carboxylic oxygen atoms to give complexes with silicon of hexa-coordination number. All the complexes produced showed conductive species, in ethanol indicating the ionic structure [SiLXaJCU in neutral medium and [SiLX2]Cl in basic medium.

Spermatogenesis in Mice exposed to Hydroxyurea: Protecitve effect of ntural apple cider vinegar

Aticka A. El-Nouri; Rafah S. Ayoub

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 68-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82503

The effect of hydroxyurea at a close of 80mg/kg/day orally for (7) days on Spermatogenesis and the protective role of NACV (Natural apple cider vinegar) has been studied in mature male mice. Hydroxyurea caused a reduction in the number of spermatogonia and a significant decrease in primary spermatocytes and spermatids. Administration .of natural apple cider vinegar (20mg/kg/day) for (7) days after hydroxyurea caused a significant decrease in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids. The administration of natural apple cider vinegar with hydroxyurea produced a significant increase in the diameter of seminiferous tubules and spermatocyte count and an increase in spermatogonia count, while spermatid count did not return to normal. The present data indicate that hydroxyurea exerts inhibitory action on spermatogenesis, and natural apple cider vinegar has a protective effect against the damaging effect of hydroxyurea .

Transmission of X-rays Fluorescence through Vanadium,Chromium and Managanese

S.H. Al-Shamma

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 73-80
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82517

In this paper , the measurements of x-ray fluorescence emitted from different metallic surfaces which have been excited by two distinguished lines Cu-kal and Cu-kpi . are reported . The transmission has been studied by three filters (Vanadium , Chromium and Manganese ) . The transmission curves reveal a kink near the center .
This kink is explained as due to the absorption edge of the cobalt

Electrical Conductivity Variation With Temperature of Irradiated Standard Malaysian Rubber(SMR)

Sanaa M Al-Delaimy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 88-97
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.162952

Electrical conductivity variation with temperature in the
range (303-368)K during heating and cooling has been studied for
irradiated SMR material using Alpha and Beta - particles and Gammarays
. It was found that the values of conductivity during cooling are
higher than that during heating for all samples before and after
irradiation. Also it appears that the molecules suffer from crosslinking
during irradiation with Alpha-particles , while they suffer fi·om
degradation and cross-linking during irradiating with Beta-particles and
Gamma-rays, depending on the irradiating time.

Salinity Effect on the Microwave Backscattering of The Calm Water Surface

Muhammad Y.Al-Allaf; Sabah H.Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 98-108
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82508

The present paper illustrates the experimental results of the salinity affecting the backscattering signal from the calm water surface at an actual temperature of (19.7c°).
The measurements were performed as a function of incident angle and antenna polarization by utilizing a specially designed and constructed laboratory measuring set-up operating at frequency of (lOGHz/CW-mode).
The experimental results shows that the effect of water salinity on the backscattered signal from calm water surface (i.e., no roughness surface) was insignificant at microwave frequency of (lOGHz), and the vertical polarization has been found to be relatively better as compared to the horizontal polarization.
Theoretical calculations of skin depth of the adopted saline water were also carried out depending on the complex dielectric constant of water.

Indirect spectrophotometric determination of Cephalexin and paracetamol by Cu-NTA complex in aqueous solution

Thabit Al-Ghabsha; Theiaa Al-Sabha; Amal Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82404

A spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of cephalexin and paracetamol by their reaction with Cu-NTA complex in aqueous solution leading to increase the complex absorbance at Xmax=832 nra from which the excess absorbance is measured. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.05-3.20 ppt for cephalexin and 0.20-2.75 mg/ml for paracetamol. The average recoveries are 97.13% and 98.03% for the above drugs respectively, and precision (RSD) is found to be better than 4% for both drugs. The method has been applied successfully for determination of the above drugs in some of their pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained are in agreement with their certified values and also with standard addition procedure.

PKA preperation of some diimines acids derived from benzil

Khaleel Al-Nuami; Mahmood Saeed; Adel Azooz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 16-28
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81502

The study is concerned with the preparation of four acids having diimines in a forms of Schiff bases as well as oxime in the same molecule. The acids prepared are identified by using UV, IR, NMR and melting points.
The main object of the study is the determination of pKa of organic diimine acids under investigation, using a potentiometric method. It is confirmed in this study, that the1'potentiometric method is simple, fast, with an accuracy of ± 0.001 pKa unit and can be applied to more than one titrable proton in the molecule.
The study shows that acidities of oxime benzilnylidenes having phenolic groups in o,m and p-positions is depend on donor-acceptor properties of oxime group. Also the acidity of oxime benzilnylidene-2-amino aniline is greater than the aliphatic amine.

الخلاصة

Determination of ionization constants for some oxymes derived from benzyl compounds and heterocyclic aromatics

Adel S. Azzoz; Mahmoud S. Saeed; Khalil E. Al-nuaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 29-43
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.162864

This research is concerned with the preparation of four aliphatic or aromatic oximes, prepared from benzil and heterocyclic aldehydes and the determination of their pKa by potentiometric method. It is proved in this study that oximes under investigation have hydrogen bonds, as identified earlier by different physical method. A comparison ofpKa between these oximes are performed at constant temperature and solvent composition. The potentiornetric method was founded to be fast, simple and precise with accLlracy in the rang +0.001 pKa unit.
The study comes to conclusion that the type of isomer (alpha or beta) in oximes, have a noticeable influence on pKa value of isomer.

Manufacturing of speed reducer bars (break discs and bumzes) for vehicles and tractors using local raw materials

Mohammed Al Ajili; Jamal Abbas

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 44-50
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82406

Phenol-formaldehyde , Asbestos and Rubber blend was prepared and used as speed reducer bars ( brake-discs and bunzes) alternative to the imported one. we also succeed to prepare an asbestos and novolac blend and used as car brake bunzes. The asbestos used was obtained from consumed brake discs and bunzes. The optimum conditions for the desired puipose was achieved using the above blend The reaction conditions including rubber types ,vulcanizi,ng agent quantities of asbestos and novolac added, as well as physical properties are well discussed.

Preparation of some Thiadiazol compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 derived from Coumarin compounds

Ahmed Ahmed; Ali Abeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 51-68
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82515

Substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazol are well know to have biological activity agent, and to have important uses in the medical, agriculture and industrial application, Several compounds of this group were synthesized from coumarin derivatives, the structure of the new compounds were established on bases of the elemental analysis , physical and spectral data.

Anatomical study of PrunusL species wood in Iraq

Amer Mahmood; Ali Al-Mosawi; waleed Qaseer

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 69-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82400

The genus Primus L. belongs to the Rosaceae family; there are therteen species of prunus which are grown wildly and cultivated in Iraq namly: (P. cerasijea , P. xdomestica , P. armeniaca , P. persica , P. amygdctlus , P. Arabica , P. orientalis , P. kotschyi , P. cardiichomm , P. microcarpa , P. brachypetala , P. mahaleb, P. cerasus],
This study was designed to investigate some of the anatomical features of wood. The species under investigation showed that the secondary wood of all species studied is sem-ring porous wood and the porous aqre not uniformly distributed through out the annual growth ring. The pores are mostly solitary or arranged in a radical chains consisted of (2-5) pores. The vessels thay have a simple perforation plate with spiral and Scalifonn thickness; the cells of axial parenchyma are apotracheal diffuse type.
Generally, the main dimension of vessels. Tracheids, rays and fibers in P. xdomestica and P. cerasus was shown tobe higher than in others species.

The role of Pentadienoic growth regulator acid by number of growth regulators in the initiation, growth and differentiation of Nigella sativa Callus

Hanna Abdallah; Rehab Albaker

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 80-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81501

The effect of Pentadienoic acid (PDA) as a synthetic growth regulator, on the induction, growth and differentiation of callus from stem segments of seedlings of black seed Nigella sativa L. was carried out. PDA was used at the concentrations 10"4, 10 and 10"8 molar alone, or with the optimal concentration of Benzyl Adenine (BA) which is 10"3 molar,and that for Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1 0 molar. The results showed that the addition of PDA alone to the nutritional medium disencourage the induction of callus , However when PDA was added along with the optimal concentrations of the standard growth regulators, the best growth of callus obtained on the medium supplied wHh(10" ) molar of each of 2,4-D and PDA.Thu; fresh weight of callus reached (25.6) gm at 100 days age .it was found also that the addition of BA with PDA encourages growth of shoots since the first stage of the growth, with the stimulation of the callus growth also ,but the presence of 2,4-D with PDA does not encourage any differentiation except the induction and growth of the callus.

Over dose effect of Oxytetracycline in some biochemical and hematological parameters in rats

Nashat Mustafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 91-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82401

Oxytetracycline is the most important used antibiotic in the field of treatment of infectious animal diseases, therefore we perform this research to study the effects of this important antibiotic on some biochemical and hematological parameters , Twenty eight adult male albino rats were used, which divided into four groups (7 rats for each group) : control group: was injected with distilled water , group 2 was given normal dose (lOOmg/kg of B.W) group 3 was given high dose (500mg/kg of B.W) group 4 was given very high dose (lOOOmg/kg of B.W), Oxytetracycline was injected daily for three days, and in the fourth day hemoglobin concentration and PCV% were estimated , Serum was separated and S.Glucose , S. Cholesterol , and S. Urea were determined using Kits (Randox Co. England made) . Results show insignificant effects of normal dose except a decrease in S,Cholesterol . The high dose produce a significant increase in S.Glucose and decrease in S. Cholesterol without any effect on other parameters .Injection of very high dose of Oxytetracycline cause a decrease in S. Cholesterol, Hb and PCV , with an increase in S. Glucose and S. Urea levels , we conclude that Oxytetracycline has obvious effect on both biochemical and hematological values, and this effect is more clear by increasing the dose of Oxytetracycline .
الخلاصة

Microwave attenuation (10GHz) of the Oxidized polymer membranes surfaces

Yahya Al-Jammal; Theyaa Al-Taee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 99-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82405

In this research , microwave ray absorbing coating materials had been prepared which work within ( X - band ) frequency i.e 3 cm wavelength . The coating materials were prepared from a mixture of pigmented materials such as metals oxides , carbon black and binding materials such as epoxy or unsaturated polyester .
The absorbitivity value for the prepared sample of mixing ratio 4% and by using epoxy as binding for the oxides , MgO , A12O3 , ZnO , FeO and carbon black ( C ) were 26.9% , 23.4%, 15.9%, 15.5% and 22.6% respectively.
Moreover, it was found the absorbitivity values of the same ratio for the prepared sample mixture of ( MgO + A12O3 + C )and( MgO + Si02 + C ) and their thickness ( 0.95mm ) were by using epoxy as binding , 28.1 % and 29.6% . However , we have found these values , did not change a lot as changing the binding polymer material (i,e epoxy or the unsaturated polyester) .
We have interpreted the variance changing in absorbitivity value for all samples under study to the electronegativity for 'oxides , so whenever its value was for one oxide or the difference between any two oxides is big , so the absorbitivity values would be big also .
It had been taken into consideration in the sample prepared from (MgO + SiO2 + C ) because of great difference in electronegativity. So we noticed that the absorbitivity values increases as both of the mixture weight . The thickness increases at 4% mixing ratio , So when the mixture weight per unit area was(0.14 gm/cm2) and thickness of ( 1 ,0mm) , the absorbitivity was( 29.6%) with when the mixture weight per unit area was( 0.21 gm/cm2 )
and thickness of ( 1.5mm) ,The absorbitivity was ( 61.24% ) , but at weight per unit area was ( 0.28 gm/cm2 )with thickness of ( 0.21mm) the absorbitivity value became ( 73.1%) ,

Use of polymer for measurement of GAMMA radiation dose

Ahmed Mhymeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 114-126
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82402

The work aims at, study the gamma-ray effects on the optical absorption of Taiwan made polymer of (1) mm thickness, which is used as a protector container for CD-discs. The photo-absorption of the polymer is studied within the wavelengths range (300-900) nm and gamma-ray doses (1.656-5.433) Mrad, The effect of annealing treatment on the photo-absorption of the polymer within the temperature range of (75-150) C have also been studied. Finally, a calibration curve of gamma-irradiation
doses measurement using the polymer was determined

External optical feedback influance on the pulse analysis of the laser including direct plusing involvement

Ragheed Ibraheem; Qudama Hamed; Muzahem Azzawi; Abd Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 127-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.81550

The experimental investigation of the influence of optical feedback on the pulse analysis of GaAlAs laser diode is represented, with an experimental setup designed for this purpose. Optical feedback was constructed with a plane mirror facing the facet of the laser diode at a distance of ( 16 cm ). Phase control and feedback rate were varied according to the external cavity length with the respect of laser diode cavity.
Many benefits can be obtained from this research , to improve laser light output with increasing the external differential quantum efficiency by ( 0.7 %), arid threshold reduction by ( 0,5 mA ) with Optical feedback furthermore the experimental result indict that there was a peak shift of the pulse distribution of the laser output towards high frequency by feedback rale was increased. Laser wavelength tuning can be interpreted from there experimental results in additional to the improvement of spectral characteristics with the reduction of FWHM and increase in the intensity of laser output.

Use intelligent optimization methods in path assessment

Sura Shareef

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 140-155
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2005.82399

Finding the path has a great importance in planning robot track with a certain environment ,finding the most suitable track between two cities in a city map and finally finding the suitable ways for the police and emergency board.
The suitable track between two sites has been evaluated by using the traditional algorithm which were used for such a purpose as one of the intelligence techniques with the technology of solving problems which include the ideal method to find the most suitable research . As a result, it appeared that the intelligence technique seemed to the best method as, it makes a balance between the shortest space and the weight of the obstacle'.Further ,it is adequate for finding a solution , the most suitable solution -Unique optional solution . C++ was also used as a language in the research.