Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 18, Issue 4

Volume 18, Issue 4, Spring 2006, Page 1-167


Spectrophotometric Determination of frusemide in Some Pharmaceutical via Oxidative Coupling Reaction

Fawaz. K. Ibrahim; Neif R. Ahmad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77247

A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of frusemide in pharmaceutical preparation. The method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of frusemide with promethazine in aqueous acidic solution in the presence of hypochlorite ion and the absorbance of the blue product was measured at 625 nm against a reagent blank. The blue color formed immediately and stable for at least 24h. Calibration graph was rectinlinear for 2-20 ppm. The molar absorptivity is 0.625104.mol-1.cm-1, relative standard .

Synthesis of Some Substituted Benz/Acetamidines

H.S. Aziz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77369

In the present work the synthesis of subtituted acetamidines was achieved. Phthalic anhydride was treated with p-aminobenzoic acid or glycine to give the corresponding acid which then converted to acid chloride with thionyl chloride. The acid chloride was treated with diethyl amine or dibutyl amine to give amides. The amides then converted to final products by their reaction with aniline or its substituents and POCl3.
The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by IR, UV and physical means.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Metoclopramide in Some Pharmaceutical Preparation via Oxidative Coupling Reaction

Nief R. Ahmad; Najla M. Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 16-22
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77240

the oxidation of promethazine by sodium hypochlorite and the coupling of the resulting product with metoclopraide in acetic acid medium to form a blue product with maximum absorption at 596 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of (3-30) gml,with molar absorptivity of 1.1104 L.mol-1.A relative standard deviation of the method was less than 1.2% and accuacy was 99.6% The optimum conditions for all colour development are described and the proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of metoclopramide in pure durg and pharmaceutical formulation.The common excipients and additives did not interfere in this method.
A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of metoclopramide in a pure form and in dosage forms pharmaceutical preparations has been developed. The proposed method is based on

Some Metal Complexes of Benzoinlidene aminophenol and Benzoinlidene benzoic acid with Co (II), Ni(II) and Cu (II) Chorides Anolgous to The Active Site of Carboxypeptidas

T.H. Mahmood; O.M. Al-Ramadany; K.Sh. Al-Numa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 23-30
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77377

تم فی هذا البحث تحضیر عدد من المرکبات المعقدة وذلک بتفاعل کلوریدات الکوبلت والنیکل والنحاس مع لیکاندین من نوع قواعد شیف تم الحصول علیها من تفاعل البنزوین مع کل من اورثو-امینو حامض البنزویک والامینو – فینول وقد اتضح بان اللیکاندین یعملان بشکل ثلاثی السن . وقد حصلنا على معقدات ایونیة بنسبة 1:1 واقترحنا لها الصیغ العامة
X[ MLH2X] و [MLCl]K (حیث یمثل LH2و L اللیکاندین
aminophenol and benzioliden o-aminobenzoic acid- benzoinlidene m--
فی حالة التعادل وفی حالة الایون السالب ثنائی القاعدة على التوالی) الناتجة عن الوسطین المتعادل والقاعدی على التوالی . لقد اتضح من دراسة التحلیل الدقیق للعناصر والاشعة تحت الحمراء والاطیاف اللالیکترونیة والحساسیة المغناطیسیة ، ان المعقادات المتکونة فی الوسطین المتعادل والقاعدی رباعیة التناسق حیث یعمل اللیکاندان بشکل ثلاثی السن متعادل وثلاثی السن ثنائی القاعدة على التوالی . کما تشغل الجهة التناسقیة الرابعة بایون الکلورید.

Antibacterial Studies of Essential oil and Different Extract Fractions from the Seeds of Nigella sativa L.

Khuder D. Sulayman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 39-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77260

The antibacterial activity of the neutral, acidic, basic fractions and essential oil of Nigella sativa seeds were tested for their in vitro activity against eight species of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis , Proteus mirablis , Salamonella typhi E. coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salamonella typhimurium , Shigella flexneri were investigated and compared with standard antibiotics Gentamycin and Amoxicillin.
The result indicate that these essential oil, acidic and basic fractions have antibacterial activity against most of the tasted bacteria. We

Calculations of Track Growth 's and Profile's Plots in Cellulose Nitrate LR-115 Detector for Alpha Particles

Naseem Salim Abdel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 49-62
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77683

The aim of this research is study of tracks growth experimentally and theoretically in cellulose nitrate LR-115 detector .The detector of 12jam thickness is irradiated normally by alpha particles with incident energies from 1 to 5MeV and incident angle 90°,by using 24lAm source , The etching of the detector Pieces was implemented by using chemical etchant NaOH with concentration 10% and temperature (60±1°C) ,A
computer program ,(TRACK_TEST) also used for calculating track parameters as tracks depth and plotting track-wall profiles and contours of the track opening .The results showed that a maximum energy lost is occurred when the energy of the a-particles is about 2MeV. The tracks' tip for incident alpha energies 1 and 2MeV appeared in a spherical phase which is called rounded or over etched phase ,while a sharp phase for energies 3,4 and 5MeV was investigated . It was found that the track's depth which is calculated by computer program greater than that measured experimentally and that the percentage difference between two can be about 38% for 3MeV.

Numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation of the first kind with degenerated kernel by using Hermite polynomial

Talhat I.Hassan; Najmaddin A.Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 63-73
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77250

In this paper we used Hermite polynomial with Galerkin , collocation and least square methods for solving fredholm integral equations of the first kind (F.I.E.F.K) with degenerated kernel .The algorithms and computer applications of the algorithms are given for the methods which have tested through numerical exaples and compared the results with exact solutions as indecated in tables (1,2,3,4), (used Matlab programmong in this work).

MULTIPLICATIVE PRIMENESS OF COMPLEXIFICATION FOR REAL ALGEBRAS

Amir A. Mohammed; Baida S.Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 74-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77265

We say that an algebra a is multiplicative prime if both a and m(a) ( the multiplication algebra of a) are prime . in this paper , we study the transitivity of the property of multiplicative primeness for real normal algebra when one take the process of the complexification of such real algebra . we prove that if a is a real normal multiplication of a is also multiplicatively prime normed algebra .

Algorithms of q-Schur Algebra

Ammar Seddiq Mahmood; Ayad Hussain Abdul Qader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 102-117
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77373

In 1989, Dipper and Jamed 2 extend the notion of a Schur algebra, see Green 8, to obtain the q-Schur algebra Sq(n,r). One of the main difficulties that can not be solved is to determine a suitable mathematical formula for the product between two elements in Sq(n,r), except for the mathmatical formua introduced by Green in 8 and the
programming formula that supported this formula which is given 11 when q=1.

ON -REGULAR RINGS

SANHAN M. SALIH; ABDUL AALI J. MOHAMMAD

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 118-139
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77274

The main goal of work is to introduce and study a new type of regular rings called - regular rings. That is, a ring R is said to be - regular if for every aR there exists bR and a positive integer n≠1 such that a=abna.
We will study som basic properties of those rings including the representation of their elements.
Finally, we will study the relation between - regular rings and other rings.

On G.P.P-Rings

Manal A. Abd

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 140-144
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77251

In this work we introduce the notion of G.P.P- rings and some of it is basic properties, we prove that if R is a right G.P.P- ring , then R is P.P- ring if r(an)r(a) for every aR and a positive integer n. We also consider that a reduced G.P.P- Ring with every non –zero divisor has inverse is strongly - Regular.

Image Compression Using Wavelet Transform and Vector Quantization

Sahar Kalid Ahmed; Faten Basher Abdil Ahad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 145-156
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77384

In this paper a modified LBG vector quantization alglrithm id presented and used with wavelet transform algorithm to compress the image. The modified LBG algorithm provides good representation for training vectors carrying important information which may repesent rare vectors in the training vectors. So this algorithm overcomes the problem of the traditional LBG algorithm that provides good representation for training
vectors which occur frequently while rare vectors are not well represented. The use of the modified LBG algorithm with wavelet transform give better reconstructed image quality than the traditional LBG algorithm because the rare vectors hich carry important information are better represented. The two algorithm give the same compression ratio.

Recognition of Printed Arabic Character Using Gray- Scale Matrices

Hanaa F.M. Mohammad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 157-167
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77663

An Optical Character Recognition (OCR) approach for printed Arabic script is presented in this paper, Which is one of the most popular scripts in the world. Development of an OCR system. For Arabic script it is difficult because Arabic characters are distinct and many structurally similar characters exist in the character set.
In the proposed approach, the technique can be divided into three major steps. The first step is digitization then do some pre-processing like segmentation to detect the slant of character and correct it .Second, feature extraction , using gray-level matrices. Finally, the K-Nearest-Neighbors is used for classification. This method was tested using 45
patterns for each Arabic character with different fonts (simplified Arabic, tahoma, traditional Arabic), The sample images were divided into 20 training and 25 test images. Images in the test set did not appear in the training sets. This method performs extremely well with recognition rates .90.3%. This is a very good performance. All of this demonstrates that the new method is able to handle printed Arabic character task efficiently. It is a promising technique for recognition printed Arabic character.
1. Introduction Optical character recognition (OCR), deals with the recognition of optically processed character rather magnetically processed ones. In a typical OCR system, input characters are read and digitized by an optical scanner. Each character is then located, segmented and the resulting matrix is fed into a preprocessor. Off-line recognition can de considered the most general case: no special device is required for writing and signal interpretation is independent of signal generation, as in human recognition [6].
The recognition of Arabic character has been an area of great interest for many years, and a number of research papers and reports have already been published in this area. There are several major problems with Arabic character recognition: Arabic characters are distinct and ideographic, many structurally similar character exist in the character set Table (1). Thus, classification criteria are difficult to generate [1 J[3j[6].
The Arabic language has a rich vocabulary. More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking, and over 1 billion people use its character set, such as Persian and Urdu, Due to the cursive nature of the script, there are several characteristic that make recognition of Arabic distinct from the recognition of Latin script or Chinese
The study of Arabic character recognition has been regarded since 1980s. However, in comparison with the other languages, such as Latin, Chinese and Japanese, there is a little work has been conducted on the automatic recognition of Arabic character [4][5].

Determination of the constants of conjugation of acidity aliphatic Schiff bases derived from benzyl and some other acids

Khalil Al-Nuaimi; Mahmood Saeed; Adel Azzoz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77235

The work is concerned with the determination of acidity for four aliphatic Schiff bases, prepared by reaction of benzyl with aliphatic nitrogen bases as ethanol amine, 1,2-ethane diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and benzoyl, in addition to dibenzamide for a comparative study.
The acidities of all compounds under investigation are calculated by using the half integral potentiometric method, as founded to be simple, easy and with an accuracy of±0.00l pKa unite. The acidities of all compounds are calculated at a rang of temperatures between (293-313)k.

Histochemical study of carbohydrates in clove scolex of Khawia grypi

Sindus Al-Kallak; Zuhair Rahemo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 14-31
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77338

This projevt was undertaken to detect histovhemically the different
types of carbohydrates in a recently described species of caryophyllid, Khawia grypi sp. N. using four techniques namely, periodic – Schiff reaction (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) technique (both at Ph 205 AND 1) AND Bests carmine (BC) technique. Tegument reacted intensely with (PAS), and moderately with (AB) (both Ph 2.5, and I) and negatively reactev by using (BC) . The muscle bundles were intensely reacted when using (BC) and negatively reacteve when using (AB) (Ph 2.5).
The mesenchymal tissue was intensely to moderately reacted in the three techniques except (AB) (at Ph1). The excretory canals were just positively reacted except the reaction was negatively reacteve when using (AB) (Ph2.5).
It has been concluded from the preset study that the Carbohydrates which were detected in the body wall contribute in protection, movement, absorption, and storage of energy, and the mesenchyma is the main site for the storage and distribution and metabolism of carbohydrates.

Effect of bio-resistance Trichoderma and Gliocladium in fungi isolated from sesame seeds

Najwa Alleshi; Nadeem Ramedan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 32-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77343

The antagonistic ability of two isolates of the biological control agents Trichoderma spp.(3,11) and isolate (1,2) of Trichoderma viride as well as Gliocladium sp. Were studied against the pathogenic fungi Alternaria alternate , Pythium sp Rhizoctonia solani Stemphylium sp., isplated from sesame seeds. Two ways of incubating the dishes, normal and inversed positions were used . The results showed high antagonistie ability of all types of the biocontrol agents used ranging was between 102 and 206 in the inversed position of the petri dishes uring inebation wich were better than in the normal position .The German isolate of T.viride gave the better degrr of antagonism among the biocontrol agents used, but were not significantly different from the rest.

Phenotypic development and eye development in the embryonic and early regenerative phases of the amphibian plum Neurergus crocatus Cope

Ismaeel Hassen; Jehan Younes

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 43-66
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77667

The present study dealt with the embryological eye development, growth of its tunics and optics as well as the external morphology of the developmental embryonic stages of the urodclc amphibian Neurergiis crocatus crocalus Cope.
The gradual differentiation of eye layers progressed at late embryonic stages which extend between .35 —'39.At these stages the solera and choroids differentiate from mesenchymal cells that surround optic cup. On the other hand the differentiation of neural retina layers occurred. The first layer appeared was ganglion cells at the centrovenlra.l retina toward dorsoventral' retina of 36 stage. The lens fibers was also differentiate at this stage.At stage39distinct development of eye tunics and optics have been occurred, especially the neuralretina layers with increased thickness of the wjiole retina.. All retinal layers were conspicuous except the photoreceptor layer in which only the nuclei were distinct. The axons of ganglion cells bundled to form the optic nerve which penetrate the retina at the lower ventral margin.. The pigment epithelial which loaded with melanosomes also completed. The lens and cornea were became more distinct.
.At 40 - 47 larval stages the integration and development of eye parts have been appeared, in that the photoreceptor (cones and rods) were more conspicuous, although the outer segments of these cells were unclear, the apical processes of pigment epithelium extended toward the photoreceptor, the optic nerve path deviated toward the central region of the eye ball and penetration of that region occurred at stage 47, in this
stage the formation of ciliary body base, cornea, sclera and choraids were more conspicuous.
Histolbgical structure of the adult eye of Neurergus cfocatus , crocatusresemble those of other urodele amphibians generally, in that the
retina of duplex type. which consist of rods and cones.
The cones nuclei location were vitred while the rods nuclei were sclered.The photoreceptor layer consist of single cone. Single and double rods which have uncleared outer segments in contrast toother amphibians. At last the photoreceptor layer in the present study was not advanced as those in other amphibians.

The inhibitory effect of the extracts of GAF and its active components in germs Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from people with external ear infection

Hassen Al-Mola; Kheder Suliman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 67-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77367

This study includes the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerubinosa from Otitis Externa patients. Two hundred samples were collected, (191) samples showed a positive bacterial culture, this included (82) spccimwns of Ps.aeruginosa with percentage (41%) and (72) specimens of Staph. Aureus with percentage (63%).
After detecting the inhibitory effect of plant extracts and active components on the bacteria under study, the results showed high inhibitory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts on Staph . aureus, while querctrin and catechin showed weak effect on Staph. Aureus. Ps. Aeruginosa showed resistance against aqueous, ethanolic and Quercetrin, while it showed weak sensitivity against Catechin.
The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of aqueous extract against Staph. Aureus was (0.5) mg|cm3, while (MIC) of Catechin against Ps. AeruGinosa was (2) mg|cm3.

The existence and singularity of the solution to the special integrative equation of Volterra

Akram Mahmood; Raed Qariakos

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 83-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.75271

In this paper ,we investigate the existence and uniquence solution for homogeneous volterra integral equation of the second kind by using the method which is given by athinson ,A.F. These investigation lead us to the extending of some results of manafov ,M.D.

Distinguish of Arabic symbols printed using Cohen's neural network based on the histogram

Najlaa Isaac; Hadeya Abdullah; Khalil Al-Safe

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 96-112
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.77661

In this research histogram technique used lo extract the characteristic for. the images of Arabic characters, and evaluate their histogram values which used with Kohonen neural network as input, for recognizing the Arabic characters using intelligence methods.
The Kohonen neural network has been trained on vertical histogramvalues for a set of letters including (ث ،ح ،د،ر،س ،ض ،ط ،غ ،ق ،ن) printed with Simplified Arabic font type, size 14, and then it has been test the network on another set of character that has not been trained by the network, the results were converging very well, and also it has been test on a set of noisy letters images, where the results were achieved true 100% , and then it has been test on a set of larger size character images (size 18 point), and also the results were not different with the previous. Also, it has been trained the network by using horizontal histogram for the same group of characters, and test the network on another set of characters that has not been trained by the network, and the results had lower closeness from the results that obtained with vertical histogram, and the closeness was more decreasing when has been testing on a set of noisy letters images, and also it has been test on a set of larger size letters images (size 18 point), and the results were achieved true 66% .
So, it is discern previously that depending on vertical histogram values gives higher closeness from horizontal histogram vales. And when.
depending on the two histograms together, it was gives bad results with other neural network as well as kohonen neural network.

Solutions of a number of integral single-core Volterra equations

Mohammed Hasso; Khairuddin Mustafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 113-123
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2006.76529

In this paper we study some different method for solving volterra integral equation with singular kernel of the first kind and expanded by using a method for finding the solution using Gamma function when f(x) is an algebraic function and α known. Also we expand the result in case of f(x) is an algebraic function as a polonomial .