Volume 19, Issue 2, Winter 2007, Page 1-137

Spectrophotometric Determination of Catecholamines in Pharmaceutical Preparations Via Charge Transfer Complex Formation Using Bromanil Reagent

M. Al-Sharook

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5781

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of catecholamine drugs (dopamine, levodopa and methyldopa). The method is based on the interaction of these drugs in aqueous medium with tetrabromo-p-benzoquinone (bromanil), in the presence of borate buffer solution of
pH 9 to form n- charge-transfer complexes with maximum absorbance at 350, 366 and 368 nm for methyldopa, levodopa and dopamine respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 1-25, 0.8-30 and 1-30 g/ml with molar absorptivities 8075, 8500 and 3475 l.mol-1.cm-1 for the above drugs respectively. The accuracy (average recovery%) of method was found better than 99% and the precision (RSD) was less than 3%. The nature and stability of bromanil complexes with the above mentioned drugs were studied. The method was successfully applied for the assay of methyldopa, levodopa and dopamine in some of their pharmaceutical formulations, and the results compared favorably with British pharmacopoeia and the standard addition technique. The common excipients used additives in pharmaceutical, do not interfere with the proposed method.

Synthesis of 2-Isobutyl, 2-Isobutyl-5-aryl and 2-Isobutyl-5-thiol-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

Hadil S. Aziz; Khalid M. Daoud

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5788

In this paper the synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles from isobutyric acid was studied. The isobutyric acid was converted into the corresponding ethyl ester, which then treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give the acid hydrazide. The acid hydrazide was treated with substituted benzaldehyde to give the corresponding hydrazones. The synthesized hydrazones were then converted to 2-isobutyl-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles by their reaction with PbO2. While treatment of acid hydrazide with formic acid and then with phosphorus oxychloride gave
2-isobutyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole. 2-Isobutyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-thiol was synthesized by the reaction of acid hydrazide with carbon disulfide in potassium hydroxide solution.
The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral means.

Antibacterial Activity of Different Extracts from Rumex crispusL. Roots

Hassan Faesal Al-Mola; Firas Al-Bayati

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74129

In the present study, antibacterial properties of different extracts from Rumex crispus L. roots were screened against eight types of Gram-positive and negative bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and compared with standard antibiotics. The ethanol extract demonstrated significant inhibitory effects against most bacteria under test compared with acetone and aqueous extract, which gave clear inhibitory effect against E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, the study also revealed the resistance of Serr. marcescens, Sal. typhimurium and Kleb. pneumoniae against the different extracts used.

Effect of long term Treatment of Chlorpromazine and Diazepam on the activity of acetyl cholinesterase in the chicks’ blood

Luaay K. Yacoub

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 31-35
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5775

Administration of chlorpromazine at ( 50 mg / kg / day ) orally for a period of 21 days resulted in a significant increase in chick blood plasma and RBC acetyl cholinesterase activity by 48 % and 62% respectively , where as only a slight and non significant increase by 9% and 13% respectively was observed when diazepam was given at ( 30 mg / kg / day ) orally in comparison with control group .The result suggest that chronic treatment with chlorpromazine may stimulate blood acetyl cholinesterase activity in chicks .

Antibacterial Activity from Different Parts of Capparis spinosa L.

Firas Al-Bayati; Mohammed Al-Jarjry

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 36-45
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74130


In the present study ethanol and chloroform extracts from different parts of Capparis spinosa (flowers, fruits, leaves and roots) were screened for antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris, ethanol and chloroform extracts from C. spinosa roots showed good inhibitory effects against tested bacteria compared with standard antibiotics, meanwhile no clear activity was detected using both extracts from flowers, fruits and leaves against the test bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations MBC of root extracts were determined against the tested bacteria.

Rydberg states and Molecular Photo- Absorption Spectrum of Vinyl Chloride

Anwar Mustafa Ezzat Al-Faydhi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 46-56
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5795

In this work, a comprehensive study of the molecular spectroscopy of vinyl chloride is reported. A high resolution VUV photo absorption spectrum of vinyl chloride has been measured using a synchrotron radiation in the range (5 - 11) eV (115 > λ > 250) nm. The excited Rydberg states of vinyl chloride were calculated using a software program. The photolysis has also been investigated to give an estimate of the life time in the atmosphere.

On GP-InjectivityWith Some Types of Rings

Abdullah M. Abdul-Jabbar; Raida D. Mahmood

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 57-63
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5792

The purpose of this paper is to study GP-injective modules and give some of it is properties. Also, we proved:
(1) If every simple right R-module is GP-injective, and R is reversible ring, then R is a right weakly -regular.
(2) Let R be a right weakly regular, right quasi-duo ring, if every simple singular right R-module are GP-injective, then R is -regular.


Ayhan Khalil; Ghassan T. Marougi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 64-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5777


The basis number, b(G) ,of a graph G is defined to be the smallest positive integer k such that G has a k-fold basis for its cycle space. We investigate upper and lower bounds of the basis number of Kronecker product of a wheel with a path and a cycle. It is proved that

and ,
, , .

Fluid Flow In 2-D Single Phase Petroleum Reservoir

Thamir Abdul Hafedh

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5789

The purpose of this paper is to test the Darcy's equation and to investigate, by simulations how it's suitable for use in single-phase oil reservoir, and to be used later in history matching procedure.
The model used is a flow in a saturated reservoir and this model similar to steady state two-dimensional (2-D) saturated porous media.
Reservoir engineering is based on the understanding of fluid flow in porous media. our aim is to produce a reliable code in Matlab which is relevant for the reservoir process (as simulator), and to be used instead of traditional simulator, Black Oil Applied Simulator Tools (BOAST) which was written in fortran, and widely used in almost works concern reservoir simulation.

Modifying Runge – Kutta methods with higher order derivative approximations

Bashir M. Khlaf; Ghanim Ghanim M.S. Abdullah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 84-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.162998

In this paper, we modify some sort of Runge-Kutta methods developed by David and Olin which needless function evaluation than ordinary corresponding Runge-Kutta methods. We improve the stability region of these methods by adding a suitable term for the formulas of the methods. We have shown these improvements theoretically and practically.

Isolation and partial purification of thymidlit synthease enzyme from Calus lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa, L.)

Sajida Aboud; Qusay Al-Chalabi; Abed Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5779

ABSTRACT Callus from hypocotyl explants of lettuce (Lactuce sativa , L.) was initiated on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 1.0 mg/l of benzyladenine (BA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)as growth factors. Thymidylate synthase (EC 2 . 1 . 1 . 45) was found in lettuce callus and purified about 100 fold treatment by ethanol and chloroform , ammonium sulfate and gel filtration on sephadex G – 150. Some properties of the partial purified enzyme from callus were investigated . The molecular weight was found to be a round 30000 D. The partially purified enzyme has an optimum pH of 6.8 with 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer with incubation temperature 30C. The Michaelis - Menten constant for deoxyuridinemonophosphate (dUMP) was 1-05×10-5M and for tetrahydrofolate (THF) 3.339 × 10-3M .الخلاصةاستحدث الکالس من قطع السیقان تحت الفلقیة لبادرات نبات الخس (Lactuce sativa , L.) النامیة على وسط موراشیج وسکوک المحور والمضاف الیه 1.0 ملغم / لتر من البنزایل ادنین والنفثالین حامض الخلیک کمنشطات نمو. نقی انزیم الثایمدلیت سینثیز (TS) المعزول من کالس الخس بمقدار 100 مرة بوساطة معاملته بالایثانول والکلوروفورم. وکبریتات الامونیوم وکذلک من خلال تمریره بعمود الفصل الکروماتوغرافی الحاوی على الجیل من نوع السیفادکس G – 150 . ودرس عدد من صفات الانزیم المنقى جزئیاً من الکالس, وجد ان قیمة الوزن الجزیئی التقریبی مساویة لـ 30000 دالتون مستل من اطروحة الدکتوراه للباحث الثالثواعطى الانزیم افضل فعالیة عند الدالة الحامضیة 6.8 عند استخدام البوتاسیوم – فوسفیت بترکیز 50 ملی مولار بوصفه محلولاً منظماً ودرجة حرارة 30 مْ . وکانت قیمة ثابت میکیلس (Km) مساویة لـ 1.05 × -510 مولار للدی اوکسی یوردین احادی الفوسفیت و 3.339 × -310 مولار للتتراهیدروفولیت.

Blood contamination of workers in the fertilizer industry - Baiji heavy elements

Salih Al-Obaidi; Reyadh AbdulJabbar; Mousa Al-Hamesh

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 12-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5783

Abstract The present study is consulted to measure the concentration of Cd , Zn and Cu in Workers Blood samples of The General Company for fertilizer industry /Northen region , Baiji . Blood samples were collected from (289) workers of this company then divided to five groups according to the site of work , the workers also divided to two groups according to exposure periods: (5) and (10) years. The results showed a significant increase in the concentration of Cadmium in exposed workers through exposure periods (5) and (10) years in Ammonia factory and utility unite group, Urea factory and Packing unit group and Maintenance and workshops in comparison with control group. According to Zinc concentration , the results showed a significant increase in all groups except Administration departments group, while , the concentration of Copper were decreased through exposure periods in Ammonia factory and utility unite, Urea factory and Packing unit and Maintenance and workshops group comparing with the control groups . الخلاصةاستهدفت هذه الدراسة تقدیر تراکیز الکادمیوم و الزنک والنحاس فی دم العاملین فی الشرکة العامة لصناعة الاسمدة ، المنطقة الشمالیة . جمعت عینات الدم من (289) عاملا فی هذه الشرکة وقسمت على خمس مجموعات حسب موقع العمل .وکذلک قسمت کل مجموعه الى قسمین حسب مدد التعرض (5) و (10) سنوات.اظهرت نتائج الدراسة ارتفاعا معنویا فی تراکیز الکادمیوم لدى العاملین المتعرضین خلال مدد التعرض (5) و (10) سنوات فی مجموعة مصنع الامونیا والخدمات الصناعیة ومجموعة مصنع الیوریا والتعبئة ومجموعة الصناعة والورش مقارنة بالمجموعة الضابطة . وسجلت تراکیز الزنک ارتفاعا معنویا فی المجموعات جمیعا ماعدا مجموعة الاقسام الاداریة فی حین انعکست الحالة مع النحاس فقد انخفضت تراکیزه خلال مدد التعرض فی مجموعة الامونیا والخدمات الصناعیة ومجموعة الیوریا والتعبئة ومجموعة الصیانة والورش مقارنة بالمجموعة الضابطة .

Studying the sensitivity Serratia marcescens of an isolated germ from wounds to some antibiotics

Amerah Ahmed; Adeeba Shareef

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 22-30
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5782

Abstract The sensitivity of Serratia marcescens isolated from infected surgical wounds to 24 antibiotics were studied, they study showed that all the strains showed an absolute resistance to eleven antibiotics ; including, Ampicillin, Ampiclox, Amoxciyllin – Clavulinate, Clindamycin, Cephalexin, Cephalothin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Nitrofurantion, Rifampicin, Sulfonamides.It also showed high resistance more than (% 50) for some of them ,as it was (% 66.6) for Amoxciyllin and (%50) for piperacillin , Amikacin and Tetracycline, the resistance rate was lower for Norfloxacin , Doxycycline and Carbenicillin at arate of (% 33.3) and for Cephotaxims and Naldixic acid it was (% 16.6) . All the isolates showed (% 100) sensitivity for Cephtriacxone, Co – Trimoxazole, Ceftazidime, Chloramphenicol.الخلاصة تم دراسة حساسیة جرثومة Serratia marcescens المعزولة من اخماج الجروح لـ (24) مضادا حیویا إذ اظهرت مقاومة مطلقة وبنسبة (100 %) لـ (11) مضادا حیویا شملت:Ampicillin, Ampiclox, Amoxciyllin – Clavulinate, Clindamycin, Cephalexin, Cephalothin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Nitrofurantion, Rifampicin, Sulfonamides. کما اعطت مقاومة عالیة وبنسبة ( 50 % ) فأکثر لعدد منها إذ کانت نسبة مقاومتها (66.6 %) للـAmoxciyllin و(50 % ) لکل من الـ Piperacillin و Amikacin و Tetracycline , وکانت نسبة المقاومة أقل للمضادات Norfloxacin و Doxycycline و Carbenicillin وبنسبة (33.3%) أما لمضادی Cephotaxims و Naldixic acid فکانت (16.6 %) . وانها أعطت حساسیة مطلقة وبنسبة (100 %) للمضادات:Cephtriacxone, Co – Trimoxazole, Ceftazidime, Chloramphenicol.

Effect of Cephalothin and Ambien Clox and their respective accompaniment with dnaell in the level of glucose and cholesterol in healthy rats and experimental diabetes

Ismaeel Mohammed; Motaa Abd; Hamed Abdullah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 31-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74131

Cephalothin & ampiclox were chosen and drug used in diabetic case (daonil), to know the effect of them alone and in combination with daonil on glucose and cholesterol levels in healthy and diabetic case. Some of rats were injected with alloxan (100 mg / kg body weight) to be diabetic and others left without injection to remain as control rats. In this research cephalothin was used 50 mg / kg body weight intramuscular once daily and lasted for 5 successive days, ampiclox was used 25 mg / kg body weight intramusculary once daily & lasted for 5 successive days & daonil was used 1 mg / kg body weight.
Daonil showed reduction in the level of serum glucose in control rats, also in combination with cephalothin or ampiclox, but the combination do not increased the reduction effect of daonil, also single treatment of them did not significantly affect glucose level in these rats.
Combination between cephalothin and daonil and combination between ampiclox and daonil showed reduction in glucose level in the diabetic rats, neither all of the single treatment did not show any significant effect on glucose level of diabetic rats, which mean that combination caused this reduction effect. Single treatment of daonil, ampiclox, combination between them and combination between daonil with cephalothine showed reduction in cholesterol level in diabetic rats.
This study confirmed that the two antibiotics cephalothin and ampiclox have the ability to potentiate daonil blood glucose reduction effect in diabetic case and ampiclox alone and daonil alone both of them have reduction effect on blood cholesterol level in diabetic rats.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Serratia ficaria Bacterium and Estimation of Their Production of Multiple Outpatient Sugar

Safaa Rasheed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5780

ABSTRACT The study involved isolation and identification of the bacterium Serratia ficaria from the soil ,and The effect of incubation period , different carbon and nitrogen sources on ability of the isolate to produce extracellular polysaccharide was investigatal . The highest production of polysaccharide (2.55 g/L ) was obtained after (5) days of incubation . Maximum and lowest production of polysaccharide was achieved when glucose and sodium nitrate was ( 2.57 and 2.91 g/l) , lactose and sodium nitrite (0.72 and 0.93 g/L) as a carbon and nitrogen source respectively . الملخص تضمنت الدراسة عزل جرثومة Serratia ficaria و تشخیصها من التربة ، و دراسة تأثیر مدة الحضانة وأنواع مختلفة من المصادر الکاربونیة و النایتروجینیة فی قابلیة العزلة على أنتاج السکر المتعدد الخارج الخلوی .وتبین ان أعلى إنتاجیة للسکر المتعدد (2.55 غم / لتر ) کانت بعد( 5 أیام) من التحضین ، بینما تحققت أقصى واقل إنتاجیة للسکر المتعدد عند استخدام الکلوکوز ونترات الصودیوم ( 2.57 و 2.91 غم / لتر ) و اللاکتوز ونتریت الصودیوم (0.72 و 0.93 غم /لتر ) بوصفه مصدراً للکاربون والنایتروجین على التوالی .

Study of the effect of vinegar in the polluted germs of burns in the human body

Khader Suleiman; Manal Al - Hayek

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 53-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74132

The study concerned the inhibitory effect of vinegar towards the bacteria isolated from burn infections including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus ,Klebsiella pneumoniae,Escherichia coli,Proteus mirabilis,Klebsiella oxytoca by choosing five samples of vinegar as the Iraqi apple vinegar, Iraqi date vinegar,(both from Al-Badawi trademark),home made apple and date vinegar, Jordanian apple and grape vinegar . The Acetic acid contents was estimated in each type. The results showed that all vinegar types, has high inhibitory effect against the isolated bacterial species when compared with Floumizin ointment which was used as control supremacy in its effect against most of the isolated bacterial species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed high sensitivity towards the various types of vinegar. More over this study included also, the effect of the Iraqi apple vinegar (Al-Badawi) in treating burns in three patients and comparing it with the Floumizin ointment. The number of bacteria in (1) gm of tissues before and after the treatment with vinegar were estimated. The results showed a reduction in the number of bacteria in the area treated with vinegar which was (8.5x108) cell/gm compared with their numbers before treatment which was (11.5x1013) cell/gm in contrary to treatment with Floumizin which was (17.5x108) cell/gm. More over this study included also, the effect of vinegar in the burned tissues and showed that it had good effect in restoring of damaged tissue layers and aids to their healing.

Study the sensitivity of three types of Gram negative bacteria to a disinfectant Chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite

Anfal Al-Nuaimi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 71-81
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5778

ABSTRACTTwelve isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis were tested against chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Bacterial suspension was added to different concentrations of disinfectant, after (5,15,30,45) minutes samples were taken and cultured on nutrient agar, the effect of disinfectants were recorded at the time periods tested. The study showed that chlorhexidine is more active than sodium hypochlorite, where concentrations of (3 %, 2 %, 1.5%) of chlorhexidine showed an absolute activity (100%) on all isolates after (5) minutes of treatment, while only (3%) concentration of sodium hypochlorite showed that activity during the same time. The study found that the effect of disinfectant increases with the increase of concentration and treatment time. The study also indicated that Ps.aeruginosa isolates were more resistant to disinfectant in comparison with the other two species, while Pr.mirabilis isolates were more sensitive to them. الملخصاختبرت حساسیة (12) عـزلة من جراثیم Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteus mirabilis, لمطهریّ الکلورهکسدین وهایبوکلورات الصودیوم .أجری الاختبار من خلال إضافة المعلق الجرثومی إلى تراکیز مختلفة من المطهر، وبعد مرور (45, 30 , 15 , 5 ) دقیقة , أخذت عینات من مزیج المعاملة وزرعت على وسط الأکار المغذی ، سجل تأثیر المطهرات فی المدد الزمنیة المدروسة . تبین من الدراسة أن مطهر الکلورهکسدین أکثر فعالیة من مطهر هایبوکلورات الصودیوم إذ أعطت التراکیز (%1.5 , %2 , %3 ) من مطهر الکلورهکسدین فعالیة مطلقة (%100) على العزلات جمیعاً خلال مدة (5) دقائق من المعاملة ، فی حین کان للترکیز (%3) حسب من مطهر هایبوکلورات الصودیوم نفس الفعالیة على العزلات جمیعاً خلال المدة الزمنیة نفسها . ووجدت الدراسة أن تأثیر المطهر یزداد بازدیاد الترکیز والمدة الزمنیة للمعاملة . کما تبین أن جرثومةPs.aeruginosa أکثر مقاومةً للمطهرات مقارنةً بالنوعین الآخرین ، فی حین کانت جرثومة Pr.mirabilis أکثر حساسیةً لها .

Comparative study of the texture composition of non - sensitive parts in two types of fresh water fish

Ali Abd; Tagreed Saber

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 82-110
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74133


The present study represent the comparison of morphology and structure of the non- sensory components of the eye of two species of fresh water teleoast fishes : Chalcalburnus mossulensis , which found near the water surface , and Noemacheilus angora, which found in the water bottom and between the rocks . The Scleral structure was similar in both species in that consist of cartilages and collagen fibers. There were also common similarity in corneal components of the two species which include stratified squamous epithelium , Bowman’s membrane , collagenous stroma , Descemet’s membrane and Endothelium . The thickness of central and peripheral cornea were varied in the same cornea as well as between the two species . In both species the annular ligament (a structure composed of several rows of tightly stalked polygonal cells) in the peripheral cornea was identified which located between the stroma and Descemet’s membrane , on other hand the morphology and thickness of the annular ligament varies in the both species . The lens morphology was spherical in both species but in the N.angora larger than C.mossulensis and the stain density varies in the central and peripheral parts in both species . The choroid components were similar in both species which include choroid tapetum lucidum , argentea , several layers of melanocytes which varies in number between the two species and in the same eye , and choroid gland near the optic nerve emergency . The dimensions of iris in the C. mossulensis more longer than that of
N. angora . The iris composed retinal and choroidal component and some variations noticed between the two species. There were variations in the structure and morphology of optic disc of N.angora include several papillae while that of C. mossulensis one papillae . The number and package of optic nerve folds , as emerged from the retina , varied in the both species .

The level of photometry is the basic level of the Hungarian galaxy

Mohsen Ali; Saad Younis

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 111-121
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5794

AbstractThe photometric and fundamental plane for a sample of early type galaxies(elliptical and lenticular galaxies) which belongs to Virgo cluster have been calculated by fitting the Sersic model ( r1/n-model) to the surface brightness profiles along the major axis of the these galaxies. The results show that the photometric plane has the following relation with a vertical scatter of 0.199 in log re , this scatter translates to a 58 per cent error in distance per galaxy, and for the fundamental plane the relation found to have the following form with a vertical scatter of 0.124 in log re, this scatter translates to a 33 per cent error in distance per galaxy. الملخصتم حساب المستوی الفوتومتری PHP والمستوی الأساسی FP لعینة من المجرات الأولیة (اهیلیجیة وعدسیة) تعود الى العنقود المجری العذراء وذلک باستخدام نموذج Sersic لمطابقة منحنیات السطوع السطحی على طول المحور الرئیسی لعینة المجرات، وبینت الدراسة أن المستوی الفوتومتری یتمثل بالعلاقة الاتیة: . وانه یمتلک تشتتا عمودیا فی log re یساوی 0.199 ، وهذا التشتت یسبب خطاء مقداره 58% فی حساب بعد أی من هذه المجرات، إما بالنسبة للمستوی الأساسی فقد وجد أن العلاقة هی، ، وانه یمتلک تشتتا عمودیا فی log re یساوی0.124 وهذا التشتت یسبب خطاء مقداره 33% فی حساب بعد أی من هذه المجرات.

Minimize interlaced noise using the Adaptive Filter

Bassam Mustafa; Eman Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 122-137
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5787

AbstractSuggested this project a filter for speech signal enhancement. While steps can be listed below : First recording speech signal from microphone. Second input signal should be divided and attached into overlapped frames. Third these frames should be identified and recognized at (Voiced Sound)frame signals and(Unvoiced Sound). By using two adaptive filter algorithms: The Least Mean Squares(LMS) algorithm and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm. Then the objective tests have been done by measuring the LMS errors between input and output signals. When the suggested filter applied to several of applied samples, the results showed the filter order has agreed influence upon filtration time, and on the square of the error signal. The tests revealed that the LMS algorithm gives good results of reducing the square of the error signal.الملخصاقترح هذا العمل مرشحا یعمل على تحسین إشارة الکلام الداخلة الیه ، اما مراحل العمل فیمکن إدراجها فیما یأتی: أولا اکتساب إشارة الکلام من لاقط الصوت، ثانیاً تقسم الإشارة الداخلة على مقاطع متداخلة، ثالثاُ تمییز هذه المقاطع إلى مقطع من نوع صوت الکلام المسموع (Voiced Sound) ومقطع من نوع صوت الکلام غیر المسموعUnvoiced Sound)). استخدمت خوارزمیتان من خوارزمیات المرشح التکیفی (Adaptive Filter)هما:خوارزمیة النهایات الصغرى للمربعات الوسطیةLMS وخوارزمیة النهایات الصغرى للمربعات التکراریة RLS تلا ذلک إجراء الاختبارات الشیئیة وذلک عن طریق قیاس الحد الأدنى لمربع الخطأ بین الإشارة الداخلة والإشارة الخارجة.وعند تطبیق المرشح المقترح على عدد من الأمثلة التطبیقیة أظهرت النتائج ان درجة ترتیب المرشح لها تأثیر کبیر فی زمن تنفیذ المرشح ، وکذلک على مربع إشارة الخطأ.أظهرت الاختبارات ان خوارزمیة LMS تعطی نتائج أفضل من خوارزمیة RLS فی التقلیل من مربع إشارة الخطأ.