Volume 19, Issue 4, Spring 2007, Page 1-131

Effect of salinity on the microwave emission from dry soil surface

Manaf Ezzldien Al-Sabbagh; Jasim Khalaf Shallal; Sabah Hussein Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5923

The goal of this study was to apply the concept of passive microwave remote sensing to find the data set of microwave brightness temperatures of the dry soil surface as a function of actual salinity factors that influence the dielectric properties of the soil.

From the agricultural point of view, salinity factor refers to the state of accumulation of the soluble salts in the soil. In many area, this factor limiting plant growth (such as sodium chloride).
The measurements of the dielectric permittivity were conducted using shorted-circuited-waveguide technique at L-and C-band microwave frequencies (i.e. 1.4GHz and 5GHz, respectively). The dielectric properties of the salted soil samples were investigated at a thermodynamic temperature of 20.4 c .
The results show that the frequency of 1.4GHz (L-band) is more effective frequency for study of the penetration depth of the soil surface. Also the vertical polarized microwave signals is preferred to study the variation of the emission characteristics of the dry soil with respect to the salinity by using the microwave radiometric remote sensing techniques especially at low microwave frequency.

Mono, di and trinuclear complexes Co+2,Ni+2,Cu+2,Bi+3 and Sb+3 with bis-(n-butylthio)ethane

S.W. Zeedan; F.T. Saied; N.H. Buttrus

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5914

This paper describe the preparation of new ligand bis-(n-butylthio)ethane (L) from the reaction of dibromoethane and potassium-n-butylthiolate. Mono nuclear complexes were obtained by direct reaction of the above ligand with CoCl2.6H2O,NiCl2.6H2O and CuCl2.4H2O in 1:1 metal to ligand , while the dinuclear complexes were obtained from the reaction with SbCl3 or Bi(NO3)3 in 2:2 metal to ligand. Trinuclear complexes of general formula [M´2M(L)2X6]Cl2 were obtained from the reaction of [M´2(L)2X6], M´= Sb+3 or Bi+3 with metal chloride in 1:1 molar ratio, M=Co+2, Ni+2 or Cu+2.
The prepared complexes were characterized by metal analysis, IR,U.V-visible spectroscopy, conductivity and magnetic measurements.

Prevalence of bacterial contaminants in domestic kitchen sinks and laundry machines in houses of Mosul, and the effect of common disinfectants

Ghada A. M. Al-Taee; Sahar S. B. Al-Naqqar; Shababa A. Bahjet

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5907

A total of (107) samples, (54) from kitchen sinks, and (53) from laundry machines were obtained from houses in the city of Mosul . Samples were analyzed for the Presence of Mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Pseudomonas, Staphylococci, and enterobacteriaceae. Results showed that 94.4 % of sink samples were contaminated with one or more microorganisms. Pseudomonas and Klebsiella were the two dominant bacteria in addition to coagulase negative micrococcaceae, E. coli, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Proteus and Salmonella.
Also, 69% of laundry machines were contaminated mostly with pseudomonas, and coagulase negative micrococcaceae , in addition to Enterobacter and Citrobacter . disinfectant were evaluated against Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Klebsiella :Lenol, Fenetol, Hexavlon, Aredol, Chloroxylenol, and Na-hypochlorite. The latter was the most effective shortly after its addition .

Concomitance of Carcinoma With Hydatidosis in BALB/C Mice

Entisar R. Al-Kennany; Nabeel Salih; Buthaina Al-Sabawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 33-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74134


The present study aimed at investigation of the histopathological changes which may occur in mice due to experimental infection with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of different host origin.
Whitish-yellow nodules of different size, ranging between pinpoint and 0.5cm in diameter, both solid and cystic in structure, were observed in the liver and spleen of the infected mice. Further investigation revealed that these nodules indicate that they are tumor cells.

Antibacterial Activity of Glycine max L. Seeds Using Different Extracts

Firas Abbas Al-Bayati

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 43-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5905


In the present study, antibacterial properties of three different extracts from Glycine max L. seeds were screened against four types of Gram-positive and negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar-well diffusion method and comparing with standard antibiotics Chloramphenicol, Cephalexin, Tetracycline and Gentamycin. The ethanol extract demonstrated good inhibitory effects against most tested bacteria using the extract concentration 200mg/cm3 compared with chloroform and petroleum ether extracts which gave clear inhibitory effect against Ps. aeruginosa using the same extract concentration the study also revealed the complete resistance of B. cereus towards chloroform and petroleum ether extracts but was inhibited using all ethanol extract concentrations and the proportion between inhibitory effect and extract concentration was direct.

Evaluating Information Technology Application on Nursing

Isra Natheer AL-Kallak

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 54-66
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5915

This paper tackles the attitude of nursing staff towards the use of computers in hospitals especially in matters of documenting patients' records, and surgeries by Microsoft Access program which store data and other relevant information as information-bases set in tables and organized formulae, then displaying them in a way that facilitates access to data, storage of data and retrieve of data. Besides, this paper has designed a questionnaire consisting of question items regarding the attitudes of nurses made up of a sample of secondary school, health institutes and university graduates who currently practise or work at four hospitals in Nineveh district.
Their answers have been statistically analyzed by Microsoft Excel according to their qualifications.
Results confirmed hypothesis regarding the positive response to the use of computers since they reduce the paper work bulk, let alone the usefulness of computers as a clinical and administrative tool that is highly efficient in organizing nursing processes .However, the secondary school graduates do not find computers useful for their work.

Effects of Cadmium Chloride on the Activity ofFour Enzymes in Gills of Mosquito FishGambusia affinis

Waad S. Shahir

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 67-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5909

Abstract :
Gambusia affinis fishes were exposed to 2,4 and 8 mg Cd/L of water for 8 days and for 2,4, and 8 days to 10 mg Cd/L of water. Gills were used to investigate the effect of cadmium on the activity of four enzymes measured by calorimetric methods.

There were no clear changes in the activity of Alkaline phosphatase at different concentrations but the activity increased at different periods of exposure to cadmium.

Acid phosphatase activity showed a gradual inhibition after the first concentration, while the activity increased at the different periods.

There was no change in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at different concentrations and periods of exposure. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity increased at the concentrations 2 and 8 mg Cd/L, but the activity increased after the first period and decreased gradually at other periods of exposure to the metal.

Adherence ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to intestinal epithelium of Rabbit

A.H. Al-Hamadani; R.Z. Shinshal

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5911

This study investigated the adherence ability of fifteen isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to intestinal epithelium, by inducing in vitro infection of incubating suspension of rabbits intestinal epithelium cells of 107 cell/ml concentration with 5 X 107 cfu/ml suspension of Ps. aeruginosa and detect the occurrence of the adherence between them and the altering of function with the disrupt of the intestinal epithelial barrier.

The existence and approximation of the periodic solutions for system of second order nonlinear differential equationsby using Lebesgue integrable

Merna Adel Aziz; R.N. Butris

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 80-106
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5922


In this paper we study the existence and approximation of the periodicsolutions for system of second order nonlinear differential equations according to Lebesgue integrable concept and by assuming that each of measurable at t and bounded by the functions Lebesgue integrable functions numerical -- analytic method has been used to study the periodic The solutions of ordinary differential equations which were introduced by A.M. Samoilenko.

Three Near Points Method for Calculating Generalized Curvature and Torsion

Tahir H. Ismail; Ibrahim O. Hamad

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 122-131
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74136

The aim of this paper is to establish a new method for calculating generalized curvature and generalized torsion. This method depends on at least three points infinitely close to the considered point. The established method is characterize from other methods by using only dot and cross product of vectors combined from this points, without any parameter that interacts in the defined curve by using some concepts of nonstandard analysis given by Robinson A. and axiomatized by Nelson E.

An epidemiological study of the amoeba parasite The condition of the tissueEntameoba histolytican in the province of Nineveh

Duaa Alnafoli; Zuhair Rahemo

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74137

The study has been conducted to reveal the presence of amboebiasis in Neinava governorate for two successive years, 2002 and 2003 respectively. It was found , after depending on the mean numbers of the infected persons ,that the high prevalence was in June in both years as the average of the infected persons (49..800) in 2002, (44.700) in 2003, while the lowest average of infection was in January(11.500) in 2002 and in May( 5.80) in 2003 .And after depending on the percentages of infections the highest infection rate was in December (46.2963) in 2002 and in April(62.6016) in 2003., while lowest infection rate was in April(4.6607) and December(3.8777) in 2002 and in March(2.2073) in 2003. It is concluded that the percentages of infection give more accurate status of infection.
As concern relation between the infection and the age groups, the infection rate was high in the (5-9) years age groups as it reacted (37.583 ) in 2002 and (34.625) in 2003, while the lowest infection rate was in (45) years and more (8.833) in 2002 and (6.917) in 2003.
Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed between the infection and the kind of sex . Also it appeared that the infection rate was high among those sent for general stool examination in July 2002 and October and December in 2003 and the rate was low in January 2002 and April 2003.

The inhibitory effect of onion plant extract and its active ingredients in a number of germs and synergies between active ingredients and antibiotics

Khader Suleiman

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 14-35
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.74138

This study indicates the biological activity of Allium. The activity extracts including alcoholic and ethanolic volatile oil was studied against eight bacterial species: Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.
The results showed that alcoholic extract of onion has a comparable inhibitory effects against Sal. typhi, Sh. flexneri, E. coli and Pr. mirabilis compared to the antibiotics Cephalexin and Amoxicillin. The diameter of inhibition zone at concentration 200 microgram/cm3 was 24 mm toward Sal. typhi, while in case of Cephaloxin the diameter of inhibition zone is 21 mm using the same concentration. The study also showed moderate activity compared to the antibiotic Gentamycin.
The results also revealed that the acetonic extract and the volatile oil showed moderate activity against compared to the antibiotic cephalexin and lower effect compared to the antibiotic Gentamycin and has higher effect compared to Amoxicillin.
The alcoholic, acetonic and volatile oil showed meditate effects against the Ps. aeruginosa while they showed negligible effect toward the studied antibiotic.
Three types of antibiotics have been used for this study (Amoxicillin, Cephalexin and Gentamycin). The results of this study revealed that Sh. flexneri, Pr. mirabilis and Staph. aureus, became more sensitive against the antibiotic Gentamycin in the presence of alcoholic extract while Sal. typhi and Staph. aureus showed higher sensitivity toward cephalexin in the presence of the active ingradient, while showed no significant sensitivity of Amoxicillin against the microorganism in presence of the active compound.
The study also include the identification of diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide compound in hexane extract using TLC technique.

Study of the effect of trebenides received from green tea Khmer and bacterial races

Meshal Alenezi; Omer Saeed; Manal Al-Haek

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 36-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5924

AbstractIn this study Triterpenoids have been extracted from green tea powder, after that it is action on two species of yeast Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis and two species of bacteria staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa had been tested. This test shows variable degrees and effects, the growth of Candida albicans yeast has been inhibited 47% at a concentration of 12.5 µg/ml while the growth of Candida tropicalis has been inhibited by 43% at the same concentration while of 50 mg/ml pseudomonas aeruginosa had been inhibited by 66% and staphylococcus aureus by 58%at the same conc.الخلاصةفی هذا البحث تستخلص التربنویدات من مسحوق الشای الاخضر ثم یختبر تاثیرها فی نمو جنسین من الخمائر هما Candida albicans ، Candida tropicalis وجنسین من البکتریا هما staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa وقد اظهرت درجات مختلفة من التاثیر اذ تثبط نمو خمیرة Candida albicans بنسبة 47%عند الترکیز5. 12 مایکروغرام/مل وتثبط نمو خمیرة Candida tropicalis بنسبة 43% عند الترکیز نفسه وتثبط نمو بکتریا pseudomonas aeruginosa بنسبة(66%) عند الترکیز 50 مایکروغرام /مل وتثبط نمو بکتریا staphylococcus aureus بنسبة 58% عند نفس الترکیز ولم یظهر ای تاثیر عند الترکیز 25 مایکروغرام /مل فما دون.

The effect of involuntary smoking on embryonic composition and tissue composition of the eye And the appearance of facial abnormalities in the embryo of the Swiss white mouse Mus musculus

Raghed Abbas; Hani Hammodi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 43-60
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5921

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate the effects of passive smoking to induce embryonic malformations and eye lesions during development of the swiss albino mice Mus musculus. The pregnant females were exposed to cigrate smoking at variable time periods (1.5,2,2.5,3) hour daily, which started at the 7th day of pregnancy until delivery of neonate. The results revealed no pregnant period prolongation in contrast to control group. The results showed at the exposure of the mice for (1.5)hrs daily for two weeks of passive smoking there were no morphological malformatios, but some histological features appeared such as scleral pyknotic, lens swelling. At (2)hrs of exposure daily, there were (15%) of the seen embryos showed malformations; one of these morphological defect was congested. But the histopathological features were central retinal hyperplasia, and corneal pyknosis. At(2.5)hrs exposure to passive smoking, (17%) of embryos showed limb deformity and some histopathological malformations such as lens dentation and apoptosis of some neural retinal cells. At(3)hrs exposure daily, (25%) of embryos suffered from morphological and histological malformations represented in face deformity, necrosis of inner plexiform layer and ganglion cells pyknosis of the retina, compared with the control group. *البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستیر للباحث الثانی باشراف الباحث الاول.الخلاصة تناولت الدراسة الحالیة تأثیر التدخین اللاإرادی (السلبی) Passive moking فی إحداث تشوهات جنینیة مظهریة وافات فی العین أثناء عملیة الانماء الجنینی فی الفأر الابیض السویسری Mus musculus، من خلال تعریض الاناث الحوامل لدخان السکائر لفترات زمنیة مختلفة (3،2.5،2،1.5)ساعة لکل یوم، ابتداء من الیوم السابع من الحمل وحتى الولادة. اوضحت النتائج ان التدخین اللاإرادی لم یظهر تأثیرا فی إطالة فترة الحمل للفأر الابیض السویسری مقارنة مع المجموعة الضابطة، کما أظهرت النتائج عند التعریض للدخان لمدة (1.5)ساعة لم تظهر أیة تشوهات مظهریة، ماعدا ظهور بعض الأضرار المرضیة النسجیة تمثلت بتکثف طبقة الصلبة، وانتفاخ العدسة، اما عند التعریض لمدة(2)ساعة بلغت نسبة الموالید المشوهة(15%) ومن أبرز التشوهات المظهریة ظهور احتقان دموی، اما نسجیا فقد ظهر فرط التنسج فی الشبکیة المرکزیة وتکثف القرنیة. اما عند التعریض لمدة(2.5)ساعة بلغت نسبة الموالید المشوهة(17%) ومن ابرزها مظهریا تشوه الاطراف، فی حین أظهر الفحص النسجی تشوهات تمثلت بتسنن العدسة، وموت مبرمج لخلایا نسیج الشبکیة العصبی. اما عند التعریض لمدة(3)ساعات بلغت نسبة الاجنة المشوهة(25%) تمثلت مظهریا فی عدم تمایز ملامح الوجه، اما نسجیا فقد ظهر تنخر فی الطبقة الظفیریة الداخلیة وتکثف الخلایا العقدیة بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السیطرة.

Histopathological changes of ejaculated embryos of the ejaculation Confederation

Dunya Abdullah; Intesar Al-Knani; Ahlam Al-Taee

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 61-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5918

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to elucidate the histopathologicl changes in fetuses of ewe infected with Toxoplasma gondii , the results revealed that histopathological lesions occure in brain , liver , heart muscle ,lung , eye , pancreas and spleen . represented by preivascaular lymphostic cuffing in blood vesseles,parasitic encephalomylitis in brain , necrotizing hepatitis , lymphocytic myocarditis , interstitial pneumonia in lung and choroidreticulitis in eye.As well as neccrotizing pancreatitis and invasion of large amount of tachyzoit has been seen .In spleen localization of tachyzoit and tissue cyst in and out the lymphocytic cell in addition to thickness of spleen trabculae have been seen .الخلاصةتضمنت هذه الدراسة معرفة التغیرات المرضیة النسجیة فی أجنة النعاج المجهضة الخمجة طبیعیا بالمقوسة الکوندیة ، وأظهرت النتائج وجود آفات مرضیة نسجیة فی کل من الدماغ والکبد وعضلة القلب والرئة والعین والبنکریاس والطحال تمثلت بتکفف الخلایا اللمفیة حول الأوعیة الدمویة الدماغیة مع وجود التهاب السحایا والدماغ الطفیلی parasitic encephalomylitis فی الدماغ ، التهاب الکبد النخری necrotizing hepatitis ،التهاب عضل القلب اللمفی lymphocytic myocarditis وذات الرئة الخلالیة interstitial pneumonia والتهاب الشبکیة المشیمی choroidreticulitis ، فضلا عن ظهور آفات فی البنکریاس تمثلت بالتهاب البنکریاس النخری Necrotizing pancreatitis مع غزو أعداد کبیرة من الحوینات السریعة التکاثر لنسیج البنکریاس ، فی حین اظهر الفحص النسجی للطحال تموضع أعداد کبیرة من الحوینات السریعة التکاثر والأکیاس النسیجیة داخل وخارج الخلایا اللمفیة ، فضلا عن ظهور تثخن فی الحویجزات الطحالیة .

Determination of the optimal capacity of continuous molecular carbon dioxide

Zeyad Al-Qathely; Anwer Al-Fadhy

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 71-83
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5919

ABSTRACTSome parameters and their effects on CO2 laser output were studied in this research. This has been done through studying the effect of gases mixture pressure inside the electrical discharge tube and effect of electrical discharge current. Calculating (E/N) through molecular population using the optimum power parameters of the molecular laser CO2, was done. The theoretical value of output power and this value were compared with the practical value. It was found that the optimum operating conditions for the system were (35 mbar) as an operating pressure and (25 mA) as discharge current, where the velocity of the cooling water flow rate was . System efficiency in the optimum operating cases of CW CO2 laser reached (1.7%) and system output power was (0.765 Watts). The best value of the factor (E/N) of the system has been determined and found to be (3.42  10–16 V.cm2) which is near the international calculated standard value of CO2 laser systems (4.5  10–16 V.cm2).الخلاصةجرى فی هذا البحث دراسة تأثر قدرة خرج لیزر CO2 من جراء تغییر ضغط خلیط الغازات داخل أنبوب التفریغ الکهربائی ، و تغییر تیار التفریغ الکهربائی . وجرى أیضاً حساب (E/N) من خلال تعداد الجزیئات باستخدام معلمات القدرة المثلى المکونة لمادة اللیزر الجزیئی CO2 ، والتوصل إلى القیمة النظریة لقدرة الخرج ، ومقارنة هذه القیمة مع القیمة العملیة .وقد تم التوصل إلى تحدید الظروف التشغیلیة المثلى للمنظومة المستخدمة ، فکان أفضل ضغط تشغیلی لخلیط الغازات عند القیمة ، وأفضل تیار تفریغ کهربائی عند القیمة عندما کانت سرعة انسیاب ماء التبرید ، کما وجد بان أفضل قدرة خارجة للمنظومة المستخدمة هی (0.765 W) حیث وصلت کفاءة المنظومة من خلال تشغیلها فی الظروف المثلى إلى القیمة . کما تم تحدید أفضل قیمة للعامل للمنظومة فکانت بحدود ، وهی مقاربة لأفضل قیمة نظریة لمنظومات لیزر CO2 وهی .

The use of the genetic algorithm to match English character patterns

Maha Al-Badrani

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 84-99
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5913

ABSTRACT The focus of the present research is on the issue of compatibility of the patterns of the English letter through the use of a probable research Algorithm called the Genetic Algorithm. The research clarifies the ability of the algorithm in the compatibility of patterns between the original(ideal) pattern of the letter and the deformed patterns since the genetic algorithm is good for some tasks that require examples. It applies to the issues that have large (wide)areas and large variables. It can also be easily in addition quickly solved, in addition to that ,it provides a solution that is quite near to the ideal solution of the patterns used. The results have proved the ability of the algorithm to carry out the process of the compatibility of the patterns of English Letters compared with other algorithms. الملخص ترکز الاهتمام فی هذا البحث على مسألة تطابق الأنماط للحرف الإنکلیزی باستخدام خوارزمیة بحث احتمالیة تدعى الخوارزمیة الجینیة. یوضح البحث إمکانیة الخوارزمیة فی تطابق الأنماط ما بین النمط الأصیل (المثالی) للحرف والأنماط المشوهة، لکون الخوارزمیة الجینیة جیدة لعدد من الأعمال التی تتطلب الأمثلة، فهی تطبق على المسائل التی تمتلک مساحة واسعة ومتغیرات کبیرة وفی الامکان حلها بسهولة وسرعة، کما إنها تعطی حلا قریباً جداً من الحل المثالی للأنماط المستخدمة. برهنت النتائج على قدرة الخوارزمیة على إجراء عملیة تطابق الأنماط للحروف الإنکلیزیة مقارنة بخوارزمیات أخرى .

Analyze the heterogeneity structure of two sets of different spatial data with prediction

Ghanim Al-Hasoud; Mohammed Qasim

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 100-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5917

AbstractThis research tackles the analysis of spatial covariance structure for two different spatial data sets which involve the crome ore and copper ore respectively, where crome ore lies in a regular lattice and the copper ore lies in an irregular lattice. The fitted Varigoram function to the crome ore is appeared to be the spherical model while the fitted one to the copper ore is appeared to be the De Wijsian model, the De Wijsian model is characterized to have infinite variance and this can be seen in figures that are obtain in this work. Finally, the elementary Krigins is carried to both ores and the results are encouraging. الخلاصة یهدف هذا البحث إلى تحلیل بنیة التغایر المکانی لمجموعتین مختلفتین من البیانات المکانیة وتمثل المجموعة الأولى بیانات لمعدن الکروم (cr) والتی تقع فی شبکة منتظمة (Regular Lattice) . أما بیانات المجموعة الثانیة فهی بیانات لمعدن النحاس (cu) والتی تقع فی شبکة غیر منتظمة (Irregular Lattice) ، وتم توفیق دالة الڤاریوکرام لمعدن الکروم (cr) والذی تبین أنه موافق للنموذج الکروی (Spherical model) بینما المعدن الثانی معدن النحاس (cu) موافق لنموذج دیڤزین (De wijsian model) والنموذج الأخیر یتمیز بکون تباینه غیر محدد وهذا ما تظهره الأشکال التی زودت بهذا البحث وکذلک تم إجراء تنبؤ کریگنک الاعتیادی على البیانات وکانت النتائج مشجعة .

The Liner multiplexers for generalizing the distance of vehicle data from the complete statement with Some private data

Ahmed Ali; Ali Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 4, Pages 114-130
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.5908

Abstract It may be possible to find the Wiener polynomial with respect to a generalized distance of a compound graph constructed from two graphs having some kind of regularity. In this paper, we obtain the Wiener polynomials for a generalized distance of compound graphs constructed from a complete graph with some other special graph, such as a complete bipartite graph, a star, and a wheel, using binary operations defined by Gutman [4]. The Wiener index with respect to such generalized distance for each such compound graph is also obtained.الملخصإن وضع صیغة لمتعددة حدود وینر لتعمیم المسافة فی البیانات المرکبة یتطلب ان تکون البیانات المرکبة لها درجة من الانتظام, وهذا ینطبق على تراکیب بعض البیانات الخاصة التی لها انتظام معین, لذلک وجدنا من المناسب إیجاد حدودیات وینر لتعمیم المسافة للبیان المرکب من البیان التام مع بعض البیانات الخاصة مثلا البیان الثنائی التجزئة التام, وبیان النجمة, وبیان العجلة بإحدى العملیات الثنائیة المعرفة لـ[4] Gutman. وکذلک أوجدنا دلیل وینر لمتعددات الحدود لتعمیم المسافة لکل من البیانات المرکبة المذکورة سابقا.