Volume 19, Issue 1, Winter 2007, Page 1-229

Synthesis and characterization of zn(ll),cd(Il) and Hg(II) complexes with thioether ligands and their adducts with 1,10 phenanthroline

F. T. Saied

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162869

New complexes of general formula [M(LXSBu'')2],[M(L)(SFur)z] and adducts [M(L)(SBu")2(phen)]. [M(L)(SFur)z(phen)l,where L:C is-bis- I .2-(phenylthio)ethylene. SBu'': 1 -butanethiol. SFur:2-furanmethanthiol.
phen:1,10 phenanthroline, M:Zn(ll).cd(ll) and FIg(ll) have been prepared in basic medium. The complexes and adducts were ihaiacterized by atomic absorption, conductivity measurements,spectral (lR and electronic) and molecular weight measurements studies' ietrahedral environment around the metal ions in the complexes and
octahedral geometry in the adducts were suggested according to the above measurements.

Synthesis of Some New Sulfanilamide Derivatives

Haiffaa Y. Hussain

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 9-17
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51277

The synthesis of amino acid hydrazide derivatives (4a-f) has been achieved by condensation of the corresponding amino acid hydrazide [3] (which synthesized from sulfanilamide as starting material) with aldehydes or ketones. Compound [3] is also used as a synthone to obtain 1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-thiole [5], which upon reaction with alkyl halide and aldehyde gave compounds (6,7) and (9a-b) respectively. Compound [5] was also allowed to undergo Mannich reaction to give compounds (8a-b).
The structure of the synthesized compounds has been confirmed by physical and spectral methods .

Organic Microbiological Studies: Effects of Organic Dyes(GentianViolet or Methylene Blue)On Laser Lethal photosensitization of Fungus Aspergillus flavus Treated with Boric Acid

Shakir M. Saied

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 18-24
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51278

Organic Dyes (Gentian Violet or Methylene Blue) had increased the lethal photosensitization of Aspergillus flavus, when were treated with boric acid of different concentrations (1% and 2%) and exposed to He-Ne laser light with absorbed doses of 1.06 and 2.12 joules/cm2 respectively and survivors enumerated.
The inhibition of fungus growth was 92.2 and 96.6 % (Percentage differences from control PDC) for the coloring by Gentian Violet and 84.4and 87.7% for Methylene Blue.

Development of Spectrophotometric methods for Assay of Salbutamol in Pharmaceutical Formulations

Theiaa N. Al-Sabha

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 25-35
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51279

Two sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of salbutamol in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on the oxidation of salbutamol drug with Fe(III) in acidic medium. The liberated Fe(II) reacts with 1,10-phenanthroline in method A and the ferroin complex is colorimetrically measured at 510 nm against reagent blank. Method B is based on the reaction of the liberated Fe(II) with 2,2'-bipyridyl to form a stable coloured complex with maximum absorption at 520 nm against reagent blank. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.15-6.00 µg/ml and 0.25-8.00µg/ml with molar absorptivity of 7.858×104 and 4.555×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 for method A and B respectively. The mean percent recoveries are 100.39% and 99.11% for both methods respectively. The suggested procedures could be used for the determination of salbutamol in pure and dosage forms without interference from common excipients. The proposed methods are successfully compared with the official and other spectrophotometric methods.

Withdrawal effect of Chlorpromazine and Diazepam on chick blood (Plasma, Red Blood Cell) Acetyl cholinesterase activity

Luaay K. Yacoub

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 36-40
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51280

Administration of chlorpromazine at ( 50 mg / kg / day ) orally for a period of 21 days resulted in a significant increase in chick blood plasma and RBC acetyl cholinesterase activity by 43 % and 63% respectively , where as only a slight and non significant increase was observed when diazepam was given at ( 30 mg / kg / day ) orally in comparison with control group . However once The drugs were been discontinued, the enzyme activity returned to pretreatment level in about 11-16 days in group received chlorpromazine, suggesting that the drugs effect is reversible.

Study of histopathological changes by Staphylococcus aureus in kidney and ability to produce B-Lactamase

Reem Zuhair Shinshal

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51281

The study performed to explain the extreme susceptibility of the mouse kidney to the infection with Staphylococcus aureus by intraperitoneal inoculation. The percentage of the infection is (20%), histopathological examination showed many changes such as infiltration of the Inflammatory cells in interstitial tissue,cortex and medulla of the kidney ,and around the blood vessels , glomerulitis , addition to heamorrhage, necrosis in the cortex and medulla of the kidney. 19 Strains were positive for B-Lactamase production test (64%) and 6 were negative (36%)

Effect of Soaking Cereals with Ethylene Glycol in Tolerance And some of its qualities

Nahla S. Hmook; Mohammed A. M. Sadek

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-25
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162870

The study was carried out during the winter of 2002-2003 ,using spring wheat Triticum aestivum L.(Abu-Greab-3-cultivar).The study aimed to investigate the possibility of using ethylen glycol (an antifreezing solution )for induction of freezing tolerance in wheat plants by seeds soaking method. The study was carried out in three replicates and designated as (4×5)factorial experiment according to randomize complete block design with two factors. The first factor was ethylen glycol concentrations with comprised four levels (0,5,10,and 20%,v/v)while the second factor comprised five periods of exposure to –5 c(0,12,24,48 and 72 hrs). Different concentrations of ethylen glycol were showed significant effects at 0.05 level of significant in:-area of the first leaf after 15,30 and 60 days ,area of second leaf after 30 and 60 days;area of third leaf after 60 days ;fresh weight of first ,second and third leaves ; dry weight of second and third leaves; plant dry weight ;No. of leaves in main stem after 30 days ; total No. of leaves /plant after 60 days and the No.of stomata/mm2 , while there were no significant effects in amount of protein and chlorophyll a and b. Different exposure periods were showed significant effects in :- area of first and second leaves after 15,30 and 60days; area of third leaf after 30 and 60 days; fresh and dry weight of first ,second and third leaves and the complete plant ;No.of leaves in main stem after 15 and 30 days ;Total No. of leaves / plant after 60 days and chlorophyll a and b ,while no significant effects were noticed in :No. of stomata/mm2 of leaf surface and amount of protein.All the interactions between the two factors were significant except for protein amount. Analysis of regression between ethylene glycol concenterations and exposure periods with all studied parameters were also done for those showed significant differences.

Effect of Irradiation in Immune Response in Rats Experimentally Affected by Giardia Lamplasia

Falak AL-Dabbagh; Zuhair Raheemo

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 26-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51015

The present study was carried out on white rats , Rattus rattus norvegicus infected with Giardia lamblia isolated from patients feces , to investigate the effect of radiation with gamma rays on the degree of its infection and resistance of stimulation of immune response both cellular and humoral . After 24 hrs of radiation there was a clear effect on immune response on the host as it appears that the irradiated Giardia stimulated the immune system more than those un-radiated as it stimulates the production of neutrophils , monocytes , lymphocytes .

Estimation of cadmium, zinc and copper in the blood of workers in the fertilizer industry

Mousa Al-Hamish; Riad Abdul Jabbar; Salih Al-Obaidi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 42-50
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51016

The present study is consulted to measure the concentration of Cd , Zn and Cu in Workers Blood samples of The General Company for fertilizer industry /Northen region , Baiji . Blood samples were collected from (289) workers of this company then divided to five groups according to the site of work , the workers also divided to two groups according to exposure periods: (5) and (10) years.
The results showed a significant increase in the concentration of Cadmium in exposed workers through exposure periods (5) and (10) years in Ammonia factory and utility unite group, Urea factory and Packing unit group and Maintenance and workshops in comparison with control group. According to Zinc concentration , the results showed a significant increase in all groups except Administration departments group, while , the concentration of Copper were decreased through exposure periods in Ammonia factory and utility unite, Urea factory and Packing unit and Maintenance and workshops group comparing with the control groups .

Determination of concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper in the blood of workers at Baiji thermal power plant

Mousa Al-Hamish

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 51-60
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51017

The aim of this Study is to measure the concentration of Lead ,Cadmium , Zinc and Copper in the Blood of Biaji Thermal Power Station Workers . Blood samples were collected from ( 148 ) workers of this Station then divided to three groups according to the site of work ,the workers also divided to four groups according the exposure periods : ( 5 ) , (10 ) ,( 15 ) and ( 20 ) Years .
TheResults showed a significant increase in the concentration of Lead , Cadmium , Zinc for the exposed workers through all exposure periods in all groups compensation with control group , while , the concentration of Copper were decreased through exposure periods in workers group in departments of Mechanical maintainance and chemical tretment department , However , we have not detectes any diffrente between Irregular group and control group during the period of exposing ( 5 ) , (10 ) years , while the proportion of Copper has been decreased in this group with in ( 15 ) years of exposing period .

High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Quantitative Assessment of Diosaginine Metabolic Output Isolated from Callus Cultures, Cellular Pendants and Root Poems in Medical Plant Ring

Mzahim Al Malla; Luma Al-Zonbaidi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51018

Callus cultures were obtained from stem and leaf segments of Trigonella foenum-graecum grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with combinations of Benzyl adenine (BA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Maximum callusing 97% were obtained from stem segments grown on MS medium supplemented with a mixture of NAA 1.0 mg L-1 and BA 2.0 mg L-1. The friable callus was reasonable for cell suspension cultures. Liquid MS and B5 media with addition of NAA, BA, 2,4-D and Kinetin were used for induction of these cultures. Maximum and steadily growth of these suspensions were found on liquid B5 medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.2 mg L-1) and Kin. (1.5 mg L-1 ) with leaf callus. The study established also a culture of hairy roots developed from those adventitious roots induced on intact fenugreek seedlings inoculated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601.
High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed the presence of diosgenin in callus at ratio 46.3%, In liquid medium of cell suspension derived from leaf callus at ratio of 50.2%, that of stem callus 24.1% . The ratio was at 21.79% of hairy root culture.

The formation of carnation plants in Callus derived from the cultivation of cellular pods by way of landfill in the multiple droplets

Sahla Zidan; Jamela Rashid; Qutaba Al-Numa

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 76-84
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51019

Stem callus cultures of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) local variety were grown on asynthetic medium Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Optimal concentration of growth regulators were observed to be 0.5mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) combined with 0.1mg/L Benzyle adenine (BA). Cell suspenion cultures worked best in liquid MS medium suspplemented with 0.5mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1mg/L BA successfully plated in agar drops is petridishes. Cell divisions led to the callus formation. Successful shoot regeneration occurred in agar solidified MS medium containing 0.06mg/L indole- acetic acid (IAA) and 1.0 mg/L Benzyle adenin (BA). Shoot were easily rooted and transferred to soil.

Study of a number of vegetative traits and productivity of plants

Abdelkader Hussein

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 85-94
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51020

The study was carried out during the summer of 2005 using randomized complete black design with four replications. Seeds of mosaic cotton mutants (MC2 and MC3) producing from M2 plants were used to obtain M3 generation. MC2 plants showed significant decrease in: length of necked region, No. of fruiting branches/plant, No. of bolls/plant, No. of seeds/boll, ammount of chlorophyll A and B in comparison with control plants, while MC3 plants showed significant decrease in : length of necked region and ammount of chlorophyll A and B in comparison with control.
No significant differences were shown between the mutants and control in: plant height, No. of inter nodes to the first fruiting branch, No. of vegetative branches, total No. of leaves/plant, No. of days to first flower, first boll opening and boll weight.

Study of the effect of high temperature in a number of biochemical variables in the serum of exposed workers

Mona Jankair; Mahmoud Al-Joubori

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 95-110
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51021

The Present study included determination of the effect of high temperatures and continuous long exposure on some biochemical and physiological variables. Healthy males (170) workers, whom occupationally, exposed for a daily long period high temperature during their work in the ovens. The exposure periods were less than (5) years, (5-14) years, (15-24) years and more than (24) years for (75) workers from the Cement Factory Ovens, (40)worker from Bakeries and Ovens, (28) worker from Metallurgy factory ovens and (27) worker from Iron and Steel factory ovens. Also blood samples were collected from (40) volunteers (university students and administrators) as a control group.
The study showed the effect of high temperatures on some biochemical variables in serum of the studied groups. The heat exposures showed significant decrease in their total protein and cholesterol content, while blood urea increased significantly with the increasing of exposure period. The results also revealed a significant increase in the enzyme activity of transaminases (Alanine aminotransferase "ALT" and Aspartate aminotransferase "AST" ) as compared to control group.

The inhibitory effect of extracts of tea plant and tannins isolated from the growth of E. coli pathogen of isolated intestines from infants with diarrhea Enteropathogenic Escherchia coli (EPEC) in Mosul

Dhekra Al-Taee; Khuder Sulaiman

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 111-128
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51022

This study included isolation and diagnosis of the Enteropathogenic Escherchia coli (EPEC)from diarrhoeal cases in infants.Specimens were collected from(243) patients under 2 years during the period July 2002- March 2003. The follwing serotypes were isolated : (EPEC)O126 (47% ), (EPEC) O119 (%26) (EPEC) O111 (%20), and (EPEC) O114(7%) . The results indicated that the aqueous, alcoholic extracts and the Tannins separated from tea have inhibitory effect in all serotypes of EPEC. The study also included determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (M.I.C) for the aqueous, alcoholic and organic extracts and some of the effective components of the tea . The detection of the inhibitory effect for the separated Tannin in the growth of the EPEC In vivo, using the Illeal rabbit loop test showed that the Tanin has an inhibitory effect in the EPEC through the measurement of the dilatation indicator which was showed to be : (0.38) and in comparison with the other dilatation indicator measurement.

Characteristics and efficacy of cytosine and cytidine deaminase

Qusay Chalabi; Zahraa Hammodat

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 129-143
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51023

The study concerned with determination of some properties of cytosine deaminase activity in serum and erythrocytes haemolysate in normal human individuals, by spectral method. The study also included the determination of optimum conditions for enzyme activity and the normal values of specific enzyme activity. It included also, measuring the values of specific enzyme activity for cases of serum patients covering: patients with Leukemia Diabetes, and Thalassemia. Moreover, the present study determined the specific activity of cytidine deaminase in serum and erythrocytes haemolysate using the same optimum conditions for cytosine deaminase in normal individuals and cases of Diabetes .
The result of the study showed that maximum activity of cytosine deaminase in serum and erythrocytes hemolysate was obtained using
(250 µM) and (150 µM) of buffer solution (Tris-HCl) for serum and erythrocytes respectively at pH(7.5) and (3 µM) cytosine as a substrate as well as (100 µL) and (50 µL) for serum and erythrocytes respectively as a source of enzyme for (2 min.) at (30 ºC) . The results of the study also showed that the enzyme was active towards the substrate 5-Methyl cytosine, while in active towards Deoxy cytidine mono phosphate and cytidine triphophate. Also the presence of some metal salts such as MgCl2, CoCl2, HgCl2, KCl, CuCl2 in the reaction solution led to inhibited of the enzyme inhibited the activity.
The analysis also indicated the non-existence of any significant difference of values of cytosine deaminase activity in Diabetic, Leukemia and normal individuals. However, the enzyme activity was higher in Thalassemia patients by (1.5) folds than in normal cases.
Finally, the statistical results of cytidine deaminase showed that
a significant difference between normal and Diabetes.

Study of bacterial susceptibility Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics

Mahmoud Al-Hasso; Anfal Al-Nuaimi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 144-154
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51024

Twelve strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blood, wound and middle ear infections were tested against (20) kinds of antibiotics by disk diffusion method .The strains showed absolute resistance to Penecillin,Cloxacillin and Ceftazidime, while their resistance percentages to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin and Vancomycin were (91.7%,75%,33.3%) respectively. On the other hand the isolates showed absolute sensitivity to Cefuroxime , Amikacin and Chloramphenicol ,to Ciprofloxacin and Cephlothin (91.7%) for each, to Amoxicillin-Clavulinic Acid, Gentamicin and Rifampicin (83.3%) for each, to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Tetracycline (66.6%) for each, to Erythromycin and Clindamycin (58.3 % , 50 %) respectively .The study also showed that the middle ear isolates were more sensitive to antibiotics in comparison with blood and wound isolates, as they sowed absolute sensitivity to Amoxicillin-Clavulinic Acid, Cephalothin, Cefuroxime, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Rifampicin, Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin .

Study of the effect of silica fill ratio on some mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of styrene-peptadiene / silica rubber

Sana Al-Dulaimi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 155-165
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51112

The materials used in this work are locally produced Styrene Butadiene Rubber , with different silicate filler percent of (20,40,60,80,100) part per hundred rubber . Mechanical properties (Tensile, Hardness, Tear, Density and Elongation) were studied for all samples .The study shows that (Tensile, Hardness, and Density) properties increase , but elongation decreases as the filler percent increases. While the tear property records the best value at 60% of the filler percent .

Electrical Conductivity for all samples was studied and it was found that the conductivity decreases as the filler percent increases, and it increases with the applied voltage within the range (1-4) kV .

Symmetric distortion in semiconductor laser and directly included at the microwave frequency

Ammar Zaker; Mzahim Azawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 166-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51130

Characteristics of direct modulation of semiconductor laser microwave frequency were studied using the spectrum analyzer. The study showed the frequency distortion was greatly affected by the index of modulation, the laser diode temperature and the modulating frequency. The results indicated that the increase of distortion with frequency was found to be as (0.84 dB/MHz). On the other hand, the dependence of distortion on the index of modulation (m) showed that (m≤ 0.5) in order to keep the distortion as low as possible and a linear operation of laser diode.

Study the distribution of photovoltaic power and cross section in laser spot light

Ragheed Ibraheem

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 178-189
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51138

This article presents the use of image processing technique to study the effect of injection current on the optical power distribution and laser spot cross-section (profile) of semiconductor laser type (AlGaInP). The arranged optical system specially designed to this purpose had taken the
2-dimension picture of the laser spot at various values of injection current range (0.7Ith-1.2Ith). The images were then analyzed and performed using the computer software package (Matlab Version, 7) in order to get the 3-dimension photograph of the laser spot. This spot will translate the power distribution with color grade. Furthermore we found that intensity of the central mode and FWHM at different values of injection current. By using this technique we can observ beam profile and optical power distribution for laser beam immediately from different angles (4).
Including this research analysis of efficiency of laser beam usage on the base of geometrical consideration. It has shown that the losses of laser energy in some types of material processing technologies can reach as high as level of ( > 52% ).

The existence and approximation of the periodic solution of a system of nonlinear differential-differential equations of the first order with independent variable delay with boundary conditions

Raad Putrus; Ann Isaac

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 190-202
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51143

In this paper we study the existence and approximation of the solutions for some systems of nonlinear integro-differential equations with having retarded arguments and boundary conditions. The numerical–analytic method has been used to study the periodic solutions of ordinary differential equations which were introduced by A. M. Samoilenko.

Use of qualitative control and discriminatory function in applied studies

Marwan Dabdoub; Omer Al-Rawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 203-220
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51155

Shewhart control chart is used to control the quality of a process of a variable in a specific stage, if the chart is frequently constructed under different stages, we suggested to construct a pooled control charts, the aim of the pooling is to compare the path of the observations in the different stages. Whenever more than one variable affect the studied phenomena, we suggested to construct the quality control chart by using the discriminant function. The characters of the suggested methods were mentioned and applied study was discussed.

Use of the analysis of the main (axial axis method) to diagnose the most important variables affecting the birth of preterm infants

Thanoon Al - Shukriji

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 221-229
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51157

Measures of nine variables affect the births of the premature babies have been taken . And also the principal axis method was used then the factor analysis on the studied variables data to specify the importance of these variables to births of the premature babies . As well as , "Varimax" method was used to rotate the axis to get an easier and more specific results.
Statistic analyses, have shown the importance off all variables except the fifth variable (sex) ,and that for not showing ,this variable,any significant effect upon any of the selected factors having less communality among the variables .
For the other variables , they are the sequence of factors and the variables loading with factors and the ratio of what explain each factor from the total variance ,we find that the third variable " mother age "and the seventh variable"Number of Births" and the eightth variable" number of abortion cases "and the ninth variable "type of birth" in first place .And the first variable "premature weight" and the second variable "premature age" in second place.
Finally , the forth variable " the time that the premature has spent in The nursemaid " and the sixth variable " type of disease" in third place.