Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 19, Issue 3

Volume 19, Issue 3, Spring 2007, Page 1-176

Sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of catecholamines in pure and pharmaceutical formulations

Thabit Al-Ghabshaa; Mohammed Al-Enizzi; Zeena Al-Abdaly

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51320

A sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of catecholamine drugs namely; methyldopa, dopamine and adrenaline in pure and pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the oxidation of the cited drugs with iron(III) in acidic medium and the liberated iron(II) reacts with 1,10-phenanthroline. The ferroin complex is colorimetrically measured at 510 nm against reagent blank. Beer's law was valid over the concentration ranges of 0.1-2.8, 0.1-2.0, and 0.2-6.0μg/ml and the molar absorptivities are 1.851×105, 1.544×105 and 4.331×104 l.mol-1cm-1 for methyldopa, dopamine and adrenaline respectively. The common excipients and additives did not interfere in their determinations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the assay of the above drugs in various dosage forms.
Keyword: Spectrophotometry; Catecholamines; Ferric chloride;1,10-Phenanthroline.

Synthesis and Characterization of some complex salts of Ti(III) and VO(V) chlorides with pyrrolium , imidazolium , indolium and their benzyl derivative

N. Buttrus; T. Mohanad; I Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51318

New complexes salts of A2[VOCl5] and A3[TiCl6],where
A = , X = H or CH2Ph, were prepared by treatment of above organic salts with metal chloride in (3:1) or (2:1) molar ratio. The new complex salts were characterized by microelemental analysis, conductivity measurements, spectroscopic data (IR and U.V/Visible) as well as the magnetic measurements. These studies confirm that the complex salts are 2:1 electrolytes and the VO (V) or Ti(III) in the anionic moiety of the complex salts achieve octahedral environment.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Paracetamol in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Nabeel Sabeh Othman; Safaa Abdul Aleem Zakaria

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 21-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51321

A spectrophotometric method for the assay of micro amounts of paracetamol has been developed. The method is based on the reaction of p–aminophenol which results from the acid hydrolysis of paracetamol, with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt followed by coupling reaction in an alkaline medium with phloroacetophenone to form a stable and soluble orange azo dye. The intensity of absorbance for the resulting azo dye is measured at 472 nm and Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 10–180 g of paracetamol in a final volume of 25 ml, with a molar absorptivity of 2.16104, a relative error of -0.64 to +1.64% and a relative standard deviation of 0.4 to 1.24 %, depending on the concentration level of paracetamol. The method has been successfully applied to the assay of paracetamol in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Synthesis and Biological Study of Some New Pyrrolidines

A.J. Al-Hamdany; A. Mustafa; M. Abdulrahman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 33-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51316

A series of Schiff bases N-Arylidene benzylamie (1-6) have been prepared, and through 1,3-anionic cycloaddition under strong basic conditions were added to benzoquinone to afford the fused new pyrrolidines (7-12). The spectroscopic methods were used to confirm the structures of the new products, as well as melting points. The suggested mechanisms of most of the reactions were investigated theoretically on the basis of the values of heat of formation and steric energy of the products. A preliminary biological activity on E. coli and Staph. aureus of the products had also been tested.

Palladium and Platinum complexes with pyridyl thiolate selenium (IV) and (o-aminophenylthiolato) selenium (IV)

N.H. Buttrus; T.J. Mohamad; S. Mallo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 43-50
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51319

Selenium metal react with di-o-anlinedisulfide or di-2-pyridyl- disulfide in refluxing toluene to give the compounds tetrakis-(o-aminophenyl- thiolato) selenium (IV) and tetrakis-(pyridylthiolato) selenium (IV), [Se(SC6H4NH2-o)4] and [Se(SC5H4N)4], through an oxidative addition reaction. Trinuclear complexes of the general formula [Se(SC6H4NH2-o)4 (MCl2)2] and [Se(SC5H4N)4(MCl2)2], {M=Pd(II) or Pt(II)} were prepared by direct reaction of K2MCl4 with the selenium compounds. Complexes of the general formula [SeM2(SC6H4NH2-o)4 (SPh)4] and [Se M2(SC5H4N)4(SPh)4] were also prepared through neuclephilic substitution reaction. The prepared complexes were characterized by their elemental analysis, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, conductivity and magnetic measurements.

Partial purification of Exfoliative toxin of Stuphylococcus aureus Isolated from skin Infections

Sarab D. Alshamaa; Muna M. Isaam; Reem Z. Shaker

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.162871

Exfoliative toxins causes staphylococcal scalded skin syndrolne rvhich was characterized by a specific lntraepidermal separation of the skin layers. We describe here the extraction of the ETs from staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from hospitalized patients suffering from severe epidermal lesions , and we found that their was an association between skin lesions and ETs producing strains. The incidence of the exfoliative toxin producing strains of S. aureus from hospitalized patients was 12 %, Further more it appeared that partially
purified ETs injected in to neonatal mice revealed a clefting and destruction of skin which was demonstrated in the upper epidermis.

Antibacterial Activity of Pistacia vera L. Nuts and Extracted Lipophylic

Firas Al-Bayati; Hassan Faesal Al-Mola

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 59-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51317

The present study investigated antibacterial activities of different extracts from Pistacia vera nuts against Gram positive and negative bacteria using disc diffusion method, The Aqueous extract showed moderate effects against test bacteria specially on Bacillus cereus. Ethanol extract showed significant inhibitory effects against most bacteria compared with the standard antibiotics except Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium which resisted all concentrations of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Acetone extract showed less activity against test bacteria compared with ethanol extract, and the optimal concentration was 12.5mg/cm3 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, The lipophylic extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Ps. aeruginosa and also the optimal concentration was 12.5mg/cm3 against Ps. aeruginosa, meanwhile no inhibitory effect was seen using lipophylic extract against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium and Serr. marcescens.

The investigation of solutions for nonlinear system of differential equations with boundary conditions

R.N. Butris; Azzam salahdin younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 71-86
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51322

In this paper we investigate the existence and approximation for nonlinear system of differential equations with boundary
conditions by using the numerical-analytic method for investigate of
a periodic solutions which is given by Samoilenko A. M. and also these investigations lend us to the improving and extending the above method.

Existence Of (18,9;f)-Arc Of Type (4,9) In PG(2,5)

Makbola J

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 87-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51323

In this paper we prove the existence of (18,9;f)-arc of type (4,9) when L0 =13 in the projective plane of order five ,and classified it then give an example of this case .Then by personal computer we construct some projectively distinct (13,4)-arc in PG(2,5) and compare the results with (18,9;f)-arc of type (4,9) .Also this paper conclude the proves of the theorems that deduced.

The Lower Bounds of Eight and Fourth Blocking Sets and Existence of Minimal Blocking Sets

L.Yasin Nada Yassen Kasm Yahya; Abdul Khalik

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 99-111
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51324

This paper contains two main results relating to the size of eight and fourth blocking set in PG(2,16). First gives new example for (129,9)-complete arc. The second result we prove that there exists (k,13)- complete arc in PG(2,16), k≤197. We classify the minimal blocking sets of size eight in PG(2,4).We show that Rédei –type minimal blocking sets of size eight exist in PG(2, 4). Also we classify the minimal blocking sets of size ten in PG(2, 5), We obtain an example of a minimal blocking set of size ten with at most 4-secants.We show that Rédei –type minimal blocking sets of size ten exists in PG(2, 5).

Isolation of alkaline phosphatase enzyme from cactus plant Aloe Vera and study its properties

Sakina Rashid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51310

The research was concerned with isolation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) from the aqueous extract of Aloe Vera using gel filtration technique.
It was shown that, using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, the solution of the proteinous precipitate produced by ammonium sulphate saturation, contained two proteinous peaks. The two peaks possessed a variable activity of alkaline phosphatase, where maximum specific activity was obtained in the first peak with higher molecular weight which showed (28) folds of purification.
Furthermore, the comparative molecular weight of the partially purified alkaline phosphatase (first proteinous peak) using gel filtration was found to be (147353) Dalton.
The research was also concerned with finding the optimum conditions of alkaline phosphatase. Maximum activity was obtained using sodium carbonate- bicarbonate buffer (100 mM) at pH ( 9.7 ), (50ºC) and (30 mM) of di-sodium phenyl phosphate as a substrate.
Using linweaver-Burk plot, it was found that the Vmax and Km have the values of (185.18 enzyme unit/dl of proteinous solution) and (3.9mM) respectively.
The results also predicted that the activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased gradually and reached 76% and 50% from the original value when stored at 4ºC and at room temperature (33-40ºC) respectively for 30 days.

Effect of a number of protein extractors and protein isolated from the fruit of tomato plant Solanaceae at the level of glucose, fat, clotathione and melonadialdehyde in mice with diabetes

Shehab Al - Bajari; Mohammed Al-Sadoon; Omer Al-Abassi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 16-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51311

This study was included prepare a cold aqueous extract of solanaceae fruit plant. The study also comprised the isolation and study the proteinaceous compounds, seperated by using the gel filtration technique which was isolated two compound A (52251) Dalton and B (6725) Dalton .
The effects of these extracts and compounds previously mentioned above were studied on serum glucose , total cholesterol , triglyceride (TG) , low density lipoprotein-cholesterol ( LDL-C ) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ( HDL-C ) levels , also glutathione ( GSH ) and malondialdehyde ( MDA ) levels in liver, kidney and heart tissues in diabetic mice- induced alloxan. Extracts were administerated interaperitioneally.
After one week from the treatment the results were indicated that the crude aqueous non proteinaceous extract , proteinaceous precipitate and proteinaceous compounds ( A ) and ( B ) which were caused a significat decrease in serum glucose, total cholesterol , TG, LDL-C leves and MDA level in liver , kidney and heart tissues , with an associated significant increase in serum HDL-C level and GSH level in liver , kidney and heart tissues , in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. finally we suggest that most of extracts isolated from fruit plant ( especially compound B ) have anti-diabetic effect in diabetic mice.

Determination of the amount of gases and their effect on the blood characteristics of the workers in Fertilizer Industry

Mousa Alhamesh; Reyadh Abduljabbar; Salih Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 34-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51312

The study aimed to determine the concentrations of some gases and their effect on the Blood properties of the Workers in the General company for Fertilizers Industry . Blood samples were collected from (289) workers and they were divided to five groups according to work site , They were also divided into two groups according to exposure periods: (5) and (10) years. The results compared with (38) blood samples collected from healthy individuals living at Al-Hajaj and Al-Butoma area as a control groups.
The results rerealed significant raises in the percentage of carboxy hemoglobin in all groups except quality control and inspection department group, in the different exposure periods. The results also showed an increase in ESR value and RBCs number, While. Showed a decrease in PCV , Hb , MCV , MCH and MCHC values in all groups in comparison with the control group through periods of exposures (5) and (10) years.
No significant difference was recorded in the numbers of WBCs , in all studies groups in comparison with control group. While the percentage of nutrophils and acidophils was increased and decreased for lymphocyte according to basophils and monocytes. The percentage of these cells not affect in the three groups above in comparison with control groups.

Effect of sodium nitroproxide inhibitor for yeast growth Candida albicans

Mohammed Shandala; Mohammed Qasim; Taha Khamees

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51313

Nitric oxide (NO) has been recently recognized as a major mediator of resistance against fungus infection. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the pharmacological compound (Na nitroprusside) (SNP) as the NO donor on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans . The results of present study revealed that Na nitroprusside (NO donor) inhibited the C. albicans growth in a concentration - dependent manner, maximal inhibition concentration was observed in (SNP) with concentration (17.5mg/ml from growth media), there was complete inhibition of C. albicans growth occurs in comparison with the control without (SNP) .On other hand the addition (SNP) at concentration ranged from )10- 15mg/ml from growth media ( capable of restricting the growth of C. albicans . In contrast, no C. albicans growth inhibition occurs when (SNP) addition at concentration ranged from (0.625- 7.5mg/ml from growth media ) . The data suggest that the pharmacological compound (SNP) may be useful in the development of new therapeutic agents for treatment of Candida infections.

Study of the traits and characteristics of the variegated cotton mutants Leaves - Third generation (M3)

Mohammed Sadek; Abdulkader Hosain

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 59-67
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51309

M2 cotton seeds of mosaic leaves mutants (MC2 and MC3) plants (Gossypium. hirsutum – Coker-310) were used to obtain M3 plants for study the productivity and technological characters. The MC2 mutant was obtained after exposure of dry seeds to 10 K rad gamma rays from Co60 source ,while MC3 mutant was obtained after 24 hrs treatment with 0.03% colchicine solution .This study was carried out according to randomize complete block design (RCBD) during the summer of 2005.
The results showed significant differences among the mutants and control plants in : seed cotton yield/plant, maximum lint length, active lint length, fineness of lint, maturity of lint and lint strength and index while there were on significant differences among the plants in : ginning out-turn and seeds index. MC2 mutant showed superiority on MC3 mutant and control plants especially in : maximum and active lint length, lint strength and index.

Effectiveness of mushrooms Trichoderma herzianum in the biological resistance of two types of mushrooms Fusarium isolated from the seeds of cloves

Nadeem Ramadan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 68-76
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51314

The present study was able to isolate eight different species and yeast of seed born fungi from carnation seed (Dianthus caryophyllus ), six of which belong to the class Deuteromycetes, one to the class Ascomycetes, and one to the class Zygomycetes . The percentages of isolation were 7% Alternaria alternata , 1% Fusariun colmorum, and 1% F. oxysporum .
The infection with these fungi caused reduction in the seed germination ratio to 28% and 16 % in the seed of the local cultivar and the red (Dwarf) with F.oxysporum respectively . while seeds of white cultivor (Doppio) exhibited ratios of 60% and 80% with both species of Fusarium.
The biological controller Trichoderma herzianum had a clear effect on the growth of both species of the Fusarium and the antagonism degree 1.3 and 1.6 respectively.
Fusarium oxysporum producd more polygalacturonase , pectatelyase and showed a clear zone 6 cm diameter around the fungal colony.

The nervous system of a typical bariatric model Ophiotaenia europea detected enzymatically

Sinds Al - Klak; Zuhair Rahemo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 77-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51315

The nervous system of Ophiotaenia europea appeared distinct after reaction with the enzymatic technique (AchE) as the sites appeared as brown in color . All other parts appeared as yellow white which made the detection of the nervous system fairly easy . The nervous system of the worm consists of two cerebral ganglia connected together by transverse cerebral commissure forming the cerebral ring which is in turn connected to small rostellar ring , which is the first to be discovered in this species . The rostellar ring is formed from the connection of 4 rostellar ganglia .From each cerebral ganglion six pairs of trunks arises two thin pairs lateral and one distinct pairs ventro- lateral lie between the lateral and the margin . From rostellar ganglia about 18 very slender nerves arise and run parallel to other nerve cords , they become as network in each of the mature segment .the nerves trunks both stout and slender are connected each other by a number of transverse commissures which vary with respect to the different proglottides . This worm is unique in distribution of the post- lateral ganglia at the connection of the transverse commissures and along the lateral and medial nerve trunks .Furthermore the ganglia present at the connection of transverse commissure are smaller than those present at lateral and medial nerve trunks. A positive reaction was also observed in the gonad anlagen and in the reproductive organs.

Morphological abnormalities and histopathological lesions of ethyl alcohol During the embryonic development of the Swiss white mouse Mus Musculus

Hani hammodi; Raghad Abbas

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 91-110
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51325

The present study aims at investigating the effects of ethyl alcohol to induce morphological malformation and histological defects during the embryological eye development of the Swiss albino mice Mus musculus at the level of light microscope. The pregnant female ingested alcoholic solution orally as ascending concentrations (15%, 20%, 25%, 30%) daily, which started at the 7th of day pregnancy until delivery of neonate. The results revealed no pregnant period prolongation in contrast to control group, On the other hand, at (15%) conc. No morphological lesions were observed, while the histological malformations represented as retinal duplication and iris necrosis. At (20%)conc.(22%) of the embryos suffered from malformation (morphological and histological) which were represented in eye involution, adhering of corneal and retina to the lens, while at conc. (25%) the ratio of malformed embryos was (26%) represented in ophthalmocele and optic nerve necrosis. At (30%) conc. The ratio of malformed embryo reached to (32%), the features represented in the absence of left limb and the reduction of retinal layers with the absence of coronal stoma, compared with control group.

A Chemical Study Of Heptin Hormone And Its Relationship With Diabetes

Qusay Al-Chalabi; Dhekra Alwash

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 111-120
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51326

the research involved a study of the relationship between Leptin, Insulin, with Diabetes Mellitus in type I and II compared to normals.
The results demonstrated a significant decrease of Leptin and Insulin in serum of type I diabetic Patients in comparison to control , while a significant difference of leptin and Insulin between type I and II patients. The results also demonstrated a significant increase of leptin in serum of type II diabetic patients in comparison with that of control according to body mass index (BMI) , while a significant increase in serum blood glucose of type I and II patients in comparison to control.
Correlation coefficient between Leptin, Insulin and blood glucose of diabetic patients showed that Insulin was the most variable linear relationship with Leptin in control and diabetes type I and II, also a linear relationship of blood glucose with Insulin hormone in control.

Effect of addition of SiMa filling to styrene - butadiene (SBR) rubber on its mechanical properties and homogeneity

Wafaa Sulaiman; Seham Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 121-126
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51327

In this reaserch the effect of adding the Silica filler with amounts (25,50,75,100)parts per 100 parts of the rubber Styrein-Butadien(SBR),on the mechanical properties and homogenity of the SBR was studied.It was found that the amount 50 parts of Silica per 100 parts of SBR gave the best compound with high homogenity and best mechanical properties with the condition that it should be added to the rubber in its elastic stage and not in its glass stage.

Studying the effect of the geometric shapes of the screen and the projection devices (Computers) in Amount of radiation change

Qusay Al-Dulaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 127-142
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51328

The importance of this study is encountered in the fact that there is no lower limit for The dangerosity of radiation . The problem arises especially after the arrival of a number of visible devices with lower international standards Thermo luminescence Dosimeter.(TLD) and x-ray film were used to study the effect of geometrical shapes of the screens of these devices working with (20-40kV)on the amount of change in radiation dose emitted from these screens.

Detection of water vapor and some gases using a semiconductor laser

Ammar Zaker; Mozahem Azzawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 143-155
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51329

A laser sensor was designed in this work in order to detect water vapour and some chosen gases for the enviromented pollution or in the field of meteorology .
The gases that had been studied were , , and . The results had been pointed out that the gas gave the lowest attenuation on laser radiation , while the gas the largest attenuation . we were able to detect the of an amount (23.5) part in athousant of volume when passing through the gas chamber in per second .

Development of the hybrid method to solve boundary values problems in Ordinary Differential equations

Basheer Al-Hayali; Mohammed Al-Taee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 156-176
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.51331

The purpose of this research is the development of a Hybrid Technique for solving Boundary Value Problems (BVPs) linear & non-linear in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs).
We display the hybrid method by using backward integration. In addition, we study the application of the hybrid method for solving BVPs with derivative boundary conditions. We used the hybrid method for solving BVPs from order third and fourth. And we ended discussion the results of the hybrid method by:

1 –Increasing the number of estimations for the unknown boundary condition.
2 -Decreasing the step size of the integration.
3 -Using accurate interpolation formulae.
4 -Using higher order integration methods.
Finally, we studied the stability and error control of the hybrid method.