Volume 21, Issue 2, Spring 2008, Page 1-182

New Complexes of Co(II) With Benzilbis (semicarbazone) & Amino Acids

Zuhoor F. Dawood; Rawa D. Sulman

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51233

New cobalt (II) complexes with mixed ligands including benzilbis(semi- carbazone)-BscH2 and amino acids-AH {glycine (GlyH) or alanine (AlaH) or cysteine (CysH) or cystine (CyH) or tyrosine (TyrH) or histidine (HisH) or threonine (ThrH) or proline (ProH)} have been prepared and characterized physiccochemically. They have been found to have general formulas [Co(BscH2)(AH)(NO3)](NO3) or [Co(BscH2)(AH)](NO3)2 and [Co(BscH)(A)] in neutral and basic medium, respectively (where AH = any of the amino acid, A = deprotonated amino acid, BscH = deprotonated BscH2 ligand). The results supported that the complexes had high spin octahedral geometries.

Synthesis of 3-phenyl-4-styryl and 3-phenyl-4-hydroxy coumarins

Shaima Ismaeel

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 12-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51234

In this paper the synthesis of substituted 3-phenyl-4-styryl and
3-phenyl-4-hydroxy coumarins is reported. The substituted benzaldehydes were treated with 2-hydroxy acetophenone to give the corresponding chalcone, the hydroxy chalcone then reacted with phenyl acetic acid in pyridine and phosphorus oxychloride to give the intermediates esters, which then cyclized to 3-phenyl-4-styryl coumarins by their reaction with potassium hydroxide. Substituted methyl salicylate were converted to the esters by their reaction with phenyl acetic acid and phosphorous oxychloride in pyridine, followed by cyclization with potassium hydroxide in pyridine to give 3-phenyl-4-hydroxy coumarins. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established by physical and spectral methods.

Synthesis of Spiro Pyrrolidines From the Addition of Schiff Bases to -Arylidene Cyclohexanones

A Al-Hamdany; A Mustafa; ِA Hamza

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 19-27
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51236

A series of -arylidene cyclohexanones (1-4) had been prepared via Claisen-Schmidt condensation, while other series of N-arylidene benzylamines (Schiff bases 5-10) had also been synthesized by equimolar addition. The 1,3-anionic cycloaddition of Schiff bases to -arylidene cyclohexanones under basic conditions afforded the corresponding spiro pyrrolidines (11-23). The structures of the products are supported by valid spectral data and physical properties. Theoretical data had been used to support the suggested mechanism.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Dipyrone in Pharmaceutical Preparations Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with

E.S. Salih; M M. Al-Sharook

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 28-38
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51237

A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of dipyrone in a bulk and in dosage forms. The method depends on the organic oxidative coupling reaction of dipyrone with m-toluidine in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) in aqueous solution to form purple product measured at 530 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.4-10.0 g.ml-1 with accuracy (average recovery) of 99.71% and precision (RSD) is less than 2%. The molar absorptivity is 40770 l.mol-1.cm-1 with LOD 0.051 g.ml-1 and LOQ 0.167 g.ml-1. The analytical results agree favourably with official method (iodimetric method) and also with certified values.

Synthesis of Some Phenolic and Amino derivatives of Cinchoninic Acid

M. A. Al-Iraqi; K Al-Naimi; A Al- Sabawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 39-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51238

Treatment of cinchoninic acids (1a,b) with allyl bromide afforded compounds (2a,b), and the hydrolysis of (2a) gave the 2-(4`-allyloxyphenyl) cinchoninic acid (4) . Glycedylation of compound (1a) afforded compound (3a), while glycedylation of compound (1b) gave compounds (3b) and (3bb). The acetylation of the acids (1a,b) gave the acetyl derivatives (5a,b) . Benzylation of the amino compound (1b) with m-fluorobenzyl chloride afforded compound (6) . The reaction of compounds (1a,b) with allyl isothiocyanate or amino compound with carbon disulfide afforded thiocarbamate (7a), thiourea (7b) and dithiocarbamic acid (8) which is used as a synthone to prepare allylic ester of dithiocarbamate (9) respectively . Finally Compound (1b) can be transformed to a glycene derivative of cinchoninic acid (10). The synthesized compounds were confirmed by the physical and spectral means in addition to the functional groups systematic identification .

Modification of Asphalt by Diols

Issa S. Issa

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 49-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51239

The research aimed to study the effect of Diols on modification of an asphaltic materials which could be used as a binder for paving material obtained from Qaiyarah asphalt. 0.5-5 wt.% of Diols (ethylene glycol ,diethylene glycol &mixture of them) were used to modify Qaiyarah asphalt binder .The performance of modified asphalt was investigated by rheological properties of asphalt.
Generally, the rheological properties (softening point, penetration point & ductility) showed decreasing of softening point, increasing of penetration and ductility with increasing of Diols ratio .In another aspect about 3wt.% of Diols were dissolved in Qaiyarah asphalt molten.

Antibacterial effects of mixture (honey , Nigella sativa oil and propolis) on experimental animals infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

R.Z. Shinshal

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 54-63
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51282

The present study showed the possibility of using a mixture of honey , Nigella sativa oil and propolis in the treatment of experimentaly infected rats occurred after induction of Pseudomonas aerugiosa in aburned area on the thigh at a concentration of 108 cfu / ml , the abscess appeared after 48hr .
The study showed that mixture of honey, Nigella sativa oil and propolis showed a good activity in the treatment of the abscess with in 48 – 72 hr ., compared with the antibiotics (Gentamicin , ampicillin) which gives the same results with in 96 hr
The aim of study
The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of amixture (honey , Nigella sativa oil and propolis) in treating infections caused by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Determination of the Orthometric Height inside Mosul University campus by using GPS data and EGM96 Geoid Model

Sabah Hussein Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 64-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51247

In the geodesy science, the heights determined by Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements are related to the perpendicular distance above the reference ellipsoid, while heights of Mean Sea Level (MSL) are determined with respect to geoid. The datum that defines the MSL (also called the geoid) is a complex surface that requires dense and accurate gravity data to define its shape.
Determining the geoid in Iraq is not an easy matter, mainly because of the lack of necessary data at the present time.
In the present simple study, ellipsoidal heights were derived from GPS measurements) with respect to WGS84 reference ellipsoid) at specific locations inside the campus of Mosul University. Orthometric heights (MSL) data of the test locations were then obtained according to
geoid undulation (geoid height) given by the global model of the geoid (The Earth Gravitational Model 1996: EGM96). From the result of the measurements, a geoid map was produced for the study area.
This study is being considered as primary attempt, so later in the future the whole geoid separation of Iraq can be measure or part of Iraq, I hope so.

Improving Reliability of cw Bar Laser Diodes by Novel Mounting

F Mustafa; M Azzawe

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 76-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51248

High power bar laser diodes, with CW optical power output were studied experimentally. A novel mounting was designed to bring the coolant as close as possible to the laser bar in order to improve the bar laser diode characteristics. Thermal properties can influence significantly device characteristics, affecting wavelength, maximum output power, threshold current, slope efficiency and operating lifetime. Stable emission (803 nm) of the bar laser diodes was maintained during the investigation since it is very important for different kinds of applications. A high external quantum efficiency of (1.66) and a characteristic temperature of (106 oC) were obtained in our experimental setup. A reliable and high performance IR bar laser diode source was achieved experimentally.

Annealing Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of SnO2 Thin Films

Sanaa M. Al -Delaimy; Rajaa Basheer

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 92-102
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51232

Thin solid films of SnO2 were deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on glass substrate at 450C and 2.5L/min.air flow rate. Deposited films were annealed at different temperature (200,300,400,500) C in air for 60 minutes.
Structural properties have been studied for annealed and unannealed films. It was found that the films have polycrystalline structure with grain diameter(190-230)A depend on annealing temperature. And the crystal structure is tetragonal with lattice constants (a=b=4.782 ,c=3.233)A°.
Optical properties also studied for annealed and unannealed films using UV-visible spectroscopy. The transmission spectra showed higher transparency over the visible wave length region with maximum value (85-95)% depend on annealing temperature. Absorption edge energy is increased by annealing temperature from (3.93 to 4.1)eV while Optical energy gap is not affected by annealing and it is found to be (4.17)eV.

Existence of a periodic solutions for certain system of nonlinear integro-differential equations

R. Butris

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 103-117
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51249

In this paper we investigate the existence and approximation of the periodic solutions for certain systems of nonlinear integro-differential equations, by using the method of successive periodic approximation of ordinary differential equations which is given by A. M. Samoilenko. Also these investigation lead us to the improving the extending the above method.

Finding the general Solution for some extraordinary Differential Equation

Shayma Murad

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 118-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51250

This paper has a dual purpose. One purpose is to introduce a method consists of repeatedly applying Riemann-Liouville operator of appropriate order until the equation
, ( ) , (q is integer) is transformed into an ordinary differential equation.A second purpose is to apply the Adomian decomposition method for the solution of fractional differential equation an alternative method of Laplace transform.

An Efficient Similarity Measure for Color-Based Image Retrieval

Israa Khidher; Kais Ismail

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 128-135
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51283

Similarity measures are an important factor in the Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). This paper finds the most efficient similarity measure from four image similarity measures. Related work on (CBIR) indicated that these measures have significantly improved the retrieval performance. These measures are the Chi-Squared, The Weighted Mean Variance distance (WMV), The Euclidean distance, and Cosine distance. A sample of 50 colored images is selected from CALTECH visual database. These images were transformed to (HSV) color space. Color features were extracted; these features are the color moments. Experimental results of the proposed work show that the Euclidean distance measure is the most efficient measure for color based image retrieval.

Construction of a new technique in Aitken extrapolation method for solving Fredholm integral equation of the first kind with iterated kernel.

Amal Jasim Mohammed; Junaid Idrees Mustafa

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 136-142
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51251

In this paper a new technique for Aitken extrapolation method is used to solve F.I.E. k. This method requires many reiterative steps. Therefore, it depends on the iterative method which results in an increase in the rate of approximation of the solution and simultaneously it minimizes the number of the steps in comparison with the outdated successive method and iterative method itself.

On Investigation of the convergence by least square method for solving Fredholm integral

Mohammad Hasso; Amal Jasim Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 143-149
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51252

In this paper we used the improved least square method presented to solve Fredholm integral equation of the second kind .This method combines, forward and backward factorial polynomial and quasi orthogonal polynomial. These polynomials improved the above method and getting it to a strong convergence property .The numerical results are agreeable in comparison with exact solution .

Existence and Uniqueness Solution of Second Order Nonlinear Integro-Differential Equations with Boundary Conditions

Ghada Jameel

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 155-163
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51230

In this paper we study the existence and uniqueness solution of second order nonlinear integro-differential equations with boundary conditions, by using the Picard approximation method which is given by . Where we extend some results gained by .

Measurement of the doped ion depth of junction semiconductor prepared by ion implementation using ESCA technique

Slah Sheet; Hazim Mahmoud

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51284

Measurement the depth of ion implantation is considered to be one of the important subject in physics , which has been employed by using SIMS and RBS methods. In this research Electron spectroscopy of chemical Analysis (ESCA) technique has been used to determine the depth of indium ion implantion in P-N Junction silicon semiconductor sample , which has been prepared by using pulse dense plasma focus . Such determination was depend on the chemical shift of the silicon spectrum. The prepared sample was scraped until the above noted chemical shift was disappeared. From this technique the depth of indium doped in the silicon sample was found to be about 450 A° .

Antioxidants level in serum of patients with high cholesterol

Ameera Hamdoon

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 7-14
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51285

This study included evaluation the relationship between cholesterol and antioxidants level in the human with hypercholesterolemia .
Blood of 33 samples were collected from patients with hypercholesterolemia 18 male and 15 female with age ranging between (42 – 60 )year . 20 samples of blood were also collected from human with normal cholesterol (10 male , 10 female ) , this group considered the control group .
Cholesterol , Vitamin C , Glutathione , SOD activity , peroxy nitrite ,and albumin levels , were measured in the serum of both groups .
The statistical results showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the SOD activity and peroxy nitrite concentration in the human with hypercholesterolemia for both sex compared with the control group , while insignificant increase was showed in the albumin levels in the hypercholesterolemia patients compared with control group .
The results also showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 ) in vitamin C and glutathione levels in the patients with hypercholesterolemia for both sex compared with control group .
This study demonstrated that there was a relationship between antioxidants levels and hypercholesterolemia patients , male and female
include (Vitamin C , Glutathione , Peroxy nitrite , Superoxide Dismutas enzyme ).

Determination of jump property of some resistant genes to antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Khaled Ahmed; Rayan Faisel

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 15-26
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51286

Forty isolates of Pseudomonas were collected from different human clinical speciemens (Urine, Stool, Sputum, Pus, Blood and Ear swab) . They were microscopically examined and their identification was confirmed by API 20E test which showed that all of them belonged to the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa .Their response to eight antibiotics used in this study was tested .There were differences in pattern of their resistance. Depending on their source of isolation six isolates were chosen to determine the transposition property of some antibiotic resistance genes carried on plasmid DNA of the chosen bacterial isolates. It was found that the isolate from ear infections contained transposon with a gene for amplicillin resistance on the plasmid DNA . These genes had the ability to jump from its location on the plasmid DNA to the chromosomal DNA of the laboratory strain E. coli JMP294 .

Allopathic Effect of Avena fatua L. and Cyperus rotundus L with Two Types of Barley (L. Hordeum Vulgare)

Eman Al-Rawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 27-39
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51287

This research was carried out to study the effect of aqueous extracts of the residues of two weeds Avena fatua L. and Cyperus rotundus L. on seed germination and growth of two barley cultivars(Aswad Mahaly, Arevat).
Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of aqueous extracts of residues and soils collected from under neath the weeds on seed germination, plumule and radicle length and their dry weights .
Green house experiments were conducted to study the effect of aqueous extracts on germination and growth of both barley cultivars.
Results of the laboratory experiments showed that the aqueous extracts of Avena fatua L. residues caused reduction in seed germination and growth while the aqueous extracts of Cyperus residues L. increasing growth, plumule length and dry weight but caused a little reduction in the radical length and its dry weight in comparison with the control.

Effect of taurine on some antioxidant levels in rats exposed to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide

Sameera Al-Kateb; Ahmed Thanoon

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 40-56
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51288

This study included the use of hydrogen peroxide 0.5% in drinking water to induce an oxidative stress in male rats and asses the ability of the different concentrations of taurine for protection or prevention from the oxidative stress.The following parameters in serum during 10, 20 and 30 days were measured in the serum: vit. C, vit. E, glutathione, malondialdehyde, SOD activity, peroxynitrite, albumin, selenium, zinc and copper
Fourty male rats (with age of 3-4 months and weight of 300-400 gm) were divided into 4 groups depending on the body weigh: group [1] as a control group received drinking tap water, group [2] : treated with H2O2 0.5% in drinking water, group[3] : treated with H2O2 and taurine 0.5%, group[4] : treated with H2O2 and taurine 1% . Hydrogen peroxide treatment revealed a significant reduction in the vit C, vit E, GSH, albumin, Se, Zn and Cu levels, and a significant increase in the MDA, peroxynitrite and SOD activity levels in the serum for the most of the treatment periods compared with control group (P<0.05).
The different concentrations of taurine tretment revealed a signifigant effects in the protection from the oxidative stress induced by H2O2. The effects of taurine ratio 0.5% were significant on the serum levels of vit C, SOD, peroxynitrite, Se and on the MDA level in the serum. The taurine 1% ratio produced maximum effects on vit E, GSH, albumin, Zn and Cu levels in the serum.

The periodic solution for some systems of nonlinear integro-differential equations of Volterra type.

Raad Putrus; Ghada Jameel

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 57-77
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51289

In this paper we investigate the existence and approximation of the periodic solution for a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations of Volterra type. The numerical-analytic method has been used to study the periodic solutions of the non-linear ordinary differential equations that were introduced by A.M. Samoilenko.

Recognitions of the printed English characters using Fractal Dimension.

Hanaa Mahmoud

Journal of Education and Science, 2008, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 78-88
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51290

In this research we presented approach for recognize printed English script, in the proposed approach, the technique can be divided into three major steps. The first step is digitization then do some pre-processing like segmentation to obtain the character image and resize it. Second, feature extraction, using Fractal Dimension. Finally, the K-Nearest-Neighbors is used for classification. This method was tested using 20 patterns for each English character. The sample images were divided into 15 training and 5 test images. Images in the test set did not appear in the training sets. This method performs extremely well with recognition rates 85.3%. This is a very good performance. All of this demonstrates that the new method is able to handle printed English character task efficiently. It is a promising technique for recognition printed English character.