Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 21, Issue 1

Volume 21, Issue 1, Winter 2008, Page 1-170


The Factors Affecting on Association of Some Carboxylic Acids Effect of Solvent, Isomerism, Conjugation Process and Steric Effect

A.S.P. Azzouz; M. M.H. Al-Niemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51291

Abstract
The study is mainly concerned with the physical factors affecting on association of carboxylic acids such as type of solvent, isomers, conjugation and steric effect of acid.
The degree of association of carboxylic acid is depend on the type of cis or trans isomer of acid. It is also increased by either increasing the number of conjugated double bonds or by introducing a polar group, taking into consideration a planer structure of acid.
Cis isomers of carboxylic acids prevent the association process by formation of acid monomers, while trans isomers facilitate the formation of dimers or polymers.
Finally exchange of solvent from non polar (benzene) to polar (nitrobenzene), prevents the association process by formation of monomers.

Pathological and Histochemical Study on Mice Treated With Black Nightshade Solanum Nigrum L. and infected with Secondary Hydatid Disease

Nabeel E. Salih; Entisar Al kenany; Buthaina H. Al-Sabawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 8-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51292

ABSTRACT
Histopathological and histochemical changes in the liver and spleen tissues of mice which was treated with alcoholic extract of Solanum nigrum and infected with secondary hydatid disease, were investigated with an ultimate goal of determining the role which might be played by the extract in modulating the immune system towards a better response to the hydatid disease. Results demonstrate the appearance of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly due to deposition of amyloidosis in liver and spleen, in addition to other changes such as fatty changes and hemosiderosis. Causes of these changes and the role played by the plant extract, as an immunomodulator, were discussed.

Enzymatic Changes in Serum of Benign and Malignant Brain Tumors Patients

Kusay A. M. Al-Chalabi; Saba Z. Mahmood Al-Abachi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 19-30
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51293

Abstract
The present study is concerned with the investigation of the activity of some enzymes as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), xanthine oxidase (XO), adenosine deaminase (ADA), cytidine deaminase (CDA), 5`-nucleotidase
(5`-NT), deoxyribonuclease (DNase), in serum of benign and malignant brain tumor patients. Blood samples 93 from brain tumors patients, and 65 blood samples from healthy subjects as control group are collected for the present study. The results obtained indicated a significant increase in the activities of LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALP, XO, CDA, 5`-NT and DNase in serum of benign and malignant brain tumor patients compared with control group. A decrease in the activity of ADA was observed in malignant patients only.

Interaction effect of iron and defatted soybean (Glycin max L.) supplementation to wheat (Triticum aestivum G.) flour on hemoglobin regeneration efficiency of growing male rats

Khalid Hammady Hameed Sharaf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 31-44
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51294

ABSTRACT
Wheat flour (WF) of 85% meal extraction was blended with or without defatted soybean flour (DSF) meal and enriched with 50 or 100mg iron/kg diet. Experimental diets (WF control, WF+50mg iron, WF+100mg iron, WF+50g DSF, WF+50g DSF+50mg iron and WF+50g DSF+100mg iron) were prepared and used for protein digestibility and hemoglobin regeneration efficiency studies. Sixty male weanling albino rats were used as a biological and experimental model for this study, rats were divided into two equal major groups. The first group (healthy rats) divided into six subgroups according to the hemoglobin (Hb) value fed experimental diets separately for 10 days period. The second group was iron depleted by removing 20-25 drops of blood from ocular vein by using capillary tube and considered to be anemic rats, divided and fed diets as a above. Analysis of variance showed that, the protein digestibility index of the healthy rats was higher than that index of the anemic rats. Apparent iron absorption was positively proportional to the dietary iron enrichment. DSF protein was improved the dietary iron absorption of the rats. The dietary iron absorption of the anemic rats was higher than that absorption of the healthy rats. Hb value, Hb iron gain and HRE were increased with increase dietary iron level (18-121mg/kg diet) in both trails of rats. HRE% of the anemic rats was higher than that ratio of the healthy rats. WF+50gDSF+50gm iron diet was found to improve protein digestibility, dietary iron absorption and HRE in rats.

Reformulation of the Generalized Curvature by Using Decomposition Technique

Tahir H. Ismail; Ibrahim O. Hamad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 45-60
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51295

ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper is to establish a new formula of generalized curvature discussed with the help of decomposition theorem which is used to obtain generalized curvature for algebraic curves by using some concepts of nonstandard analysis given by Robinson A. and axiomatized by Nelson E.

The existence and approximation of the periodic solutions for system of first order nonlinear differential equationsby using Lebesgue integrable

R. N.Butris; Merna Adel Aziz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 61-77
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51296

ABSTRACT
In this paper we study the existence and approximation of the periodic solutions for a system of first order nonlinear differential equations by assuming that each of the functions are measurable at t and bounded by Lebesgue integrable functions.
The numerical-analytic method has been used to study the periodic solutions of ordinary differential equations which were introduced by A. M. Samoilenko.

Periodic solutions of second-order nonlinear system of integro-differential equations unsolvable for the highest derivative

R. N. Butris

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 78-89
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51297

ABSTRACT
In this paper we study the existence and approximation of the periodic solutions for certain systems of second-order of integro-differential equations unsolvable for the highest derivative by using the numerical analytic method for ordinary differential equations of A. M. Samoilenko which given. Also these investigation lead us to the improving the extending the above method.

Emotion Recognition in Speech Using Neural Network

Fatin B. Sofia; Sahar K. Ahmed; Abdul-basit K. Faeq

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 103-112
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51255

ABSTRACT
Emotion recognition in speech studies has grown after the growing of speech recognition technologies. The aim of such studies is to make language interfaces in human-computer interaction applications more wide in use and to make it efficient. And it may help the studiers of the human sound areas.
This study deals with four spoken sentences of sixteen short utterance expressing five emotions: a happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and normal (unemotional) state. The feature extraction techniques are used to capture the most important information of the signal, this process is applied in the time domain. The extracted feature vector contain 12 LPC (linear predictive coding) parameters, the pitch, the power, and the three first formant frequencies. While in the second part of the system (the emotion recognizer) the artificial neural network technology is used, the designing network is with feedforward backpropagation. This design used ten separated nets. each one make a decision whether the spoken sentence is belong to one of only tow emotions. So the computational time is increased with this system, while such a system has better performance with respect to other systems.
The designed system could recognize all emotions with ratio 75% except the fear one which recognized in ratio of 50%.

A new self scaling PCG algorithm with dynamical retards

ABBAS Y. AL-BAYATI; ASEEL MOAYAD QASIM

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 113-134
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51257

Abstract
The problem of optimizing a certain systems as a function of time may be formulated in terms of maximizing or minimizing a non-linear cost function. It was found that a Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm was particularly efficient procedure for solving this problem compared with an alternative nonlinear programming method.
In this work, a new CG method with dynamical retards is generalized and combined in a dynamical way with non-monotone globalization strategies to obtain a new type CG-algorithm for minimizing non-quadratic functions that can deal efficiently with large scale nonlinear optimization problems.

comparative isothermal and differential thermal analysis of epoxy-polyurea / metal blends alloys

Akram Mohammed; Mahmoud Hasen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51301

Abstract
In this work, comparative isothermal and differential thermal analysis of epoxy-polyurea / metal blends were investigated. IGA measurements show fast loss in weight in the first 20 minutes before they reached a constant weight, while the period where about 25 minutes for epoxy alone. This behaviour was explained by the strong network formed by the polyurea complex with epoxy which diminshes its decomposition. Meanwhile, DTA thermograms of most belnds show two distinct exotherms (T2 and T4) while these exotherms are small and not clear in case of epoxy alone. This behaviour may explained by the presence of the metal ions through the blends which promotes the oxidation process.

Antioxidants Levels of heavy-duty workers

Loay Al-Helaly; Zeena Al-Jwadi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 14-26
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51302

ABSTRACT
The study was included the determination of the antioxidants levels of heavy duty workers in Mosul city (Workers in vegetable and fruit markets, Building workers and Grinder workers). The antioxidants investigated were: Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Folic acid, Celuroplasmin (Cp.), Selenium, Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Uric acid. Heavy duty workers (74) and control group with the same age (37) were included in the research .
The results showed that there were significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in: vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin C, and GSH, but, there were significant increase for folic acid and MDA for heavy duty workers when compared to control group. Moreover the antioxidants levels were decreased significantly in heavy duty smoker workers as compared with control group for the parameters: vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin C, and GSH. On the other hand, there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) for selenium, Cp. and MDA. Moreover, with increasing the period of working, the results showed a significant decrease in vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin C, and GSH, but, a significant increase in folic acid, selenium and MDA.
Conclusion drawn for the study, that high oxidative stress was occurred for the heavy duty workers leading to a significant decrease in the measured antioxidants. This might affect by producing several diseases, especially smoking workers.

Selection of Pisum sativum L. distinguished from callus culture stems and leaves resistant to Fusarium solani

Badya Jamal; Adnan Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 27-39
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51304

Abstract
Callus was stimulated from leaves and stems explants of Pea seedlings on MS media supplemented with growth regulators. Medium containing 1.5 mg/L BA and 2.0 mg/L NAA was the most favorable for callus induction from leaves. Whereas MS medium containing 2.0 mg/L BA and 4.0 mg/L IAA was the best for stem callus. Selection of resistant callus to the virulent strains of Fusarium solani was examined from culture medium that contain the concentration 2.5, 5.0 7.5, 10.0, 12.5. 15.5. 17.5 and 20.0 % of filtrates. The concentration which allowed selection were 10.0 and 12.5 %. Regeneration of pea plants from callus of leaves and stems were resisted the toxic effects of filtrate. In spite of reduction of the regeneration ability of the resistant callus up to 45 and 26% derived from leave and steam respectively compared with control. The chromosome number assay showed no difference between resistant and control plants, Pea plant regenerated from tolerate callus exhibited clear resistance when inoculated with virulent fungi.

Physiological response of wheat plant growing in polluted soil with some heavy elements

Faeza Mahmoud; Farah Salih

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 40-55
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51305

ABSTRACT
The study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education , Biology Dept . to study the effect of soil pollution with heavy metals (Cadmium , Lead , Nickel and Zinc )each one separately in a concentration of (1.00) mM/kg of soil. By applying on 3 cultivars of wheat (Umm Rabee”, Al-waha ,Corfella). Was studied directed to measure the growth, and other physiological .aspects of the wheat plant: (Triticum aestivum L.).The results shows that addition of (Cadmium, Lead ,Nickel and Zinc ) to the soli caused decrease in plant growth ,As the decrease in dry weight of shoot plants and root plants .The results proved reduced leaf relative water content and the degree of stability of cytoplasmic membrane whith an increase in the proline accumulation in the leaf tissues .

Assessment Widal Test for leukocyte Counting for Diagnosis of Salmonella typhi in Nineveh

Muhsen Essa; Bushra Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 56-74
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51306

Abstract
This study was conducted for evaluating laboratory diagnosis reality of Salmonella typhi which causes typhoid fever that is considered one of an important health problems in Iraq. Questionnaire study showed, that physicians depend on both of laboratory results and clinical symptoms in order to diagnose typhoid fever (83.6) % and there is an limited dependence on clinical symptoms only (13.7) % or laboratory results only (2.7)% . There are a high rate of these physicians (78)%stated that there were insufficient accuracy about Widal test which is considered the unique laboratory test used by laboratories, also, results showed that Widal test represents (95.6)% of laboratory methods which is used to diagnose Salmonella typhi and culturing methods is limited (4.4)% or not existed .
When Widal test results were evaluated which is done in different health analysing laboratories in Nenavah province by using Widal test (dilution method) the results showed great differences of results whether result type (positive or negative) or kind of antigens which showed positive results.
When leukocyte count was used as a test to support the diagnosis of typhoid fever, it was shown that there is a relation between typhoid fever and decreasing leukocyte count in these patients.

Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Myrtus communis in Healing and curing the infected wounds by Staphylococcus aureus in white mice for specific Time Periods

Abedurazzaq Mahmoud; Enam Abdulmoum

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 75-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51307

Abstract
The study involved the isolation and characterization of some species of bacteria caused the wound infections. A number of (180) pus samples were collected from patients suffering from infected wounds.
The Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and characterized in (29%) percentage according to the other bacterial species.
The alcoholic extract of Myrtus communis under studying the inhibitory effect in the isolations bacteria, this extract showed high inhibitory effect on the isolated bacteria from the infected wounds and Staph. aureus was the most susceptible bacteria species against this extract.
The (MIC) for the tested bacteria was determined and the results showed that the (MIC) for the alcoholic extract of the fruit of Myrtus communis was (0.25) mg/cm3.
According to the results, the alcoholic extract of the fruit of Myrtus communis was selected to test its activity In vivo, so the extract showed a good effect in healing and curing the infected experimental wounds by the Staph. aureus in white mice strain BALB/c in a period of less than ten days, as it is clear in pictures of this study.

Dianthus caryophyllus L. Selection of Culophyllus L. Cultivars Differentiated from Calas Cultivars resistant to Fusarium oxysporum

Adnan Abdullah; Nadeem Ramadan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 94-108
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51308

Abstract
In this study callas stimulated from cotyledons explants of carnation seedlings cultured on MS media supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of BA and 0.5 mg/L of 2,4-D was used . The ability of cotyledons callus for regeneration on MS media supplemented with different concentrations (0.5-3.0 ) mg/L of BA combined with different concentrations ( 0.1-1.0) mg/L of NAA or 2,4-D was tested . The best regeneration medium was MS with 2.5 mg/L of BA and 0.5 mg/L of NAA . Selection of resistant callus to the virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum. f.sp. diunthi was examined from culture medium contained the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 , 7.5, 10.0 12.5,15.0,17.5 . 20.0 and 25% of fungal filtrates. The concentrations which allowed selection after three cycles (20 days /cycle) of selection were 12.5 and 15.0% . The resistant callus showed a high level of peroxidases enzymes activity . Carnation plants which regenerated from callus of cotyledons were resistant the toxic effect of fungal filtrate, in spite of reduction of the regeneration ability of the resistant callus up to 43.7% compared with the control plants . Carnation plant regenerated from tolerante callus exhibited clear resistance when inoculated with the virulent fungi .

Effect of Optical Feedback on the Modulation Properties of AlGaInP Semiconductor Laser

Musab Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 109-123
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51330

Abstract
Effect of optical feedback (O.F) on AlGaInP semiconductor laser properties and intensity modulation has been studied experimentally. Threshold current of semiconductor laser decreased 1mA when O.F equal to 160W , while there is no significant decreases observed in threshold current both when increasing O.F above that value or less than it. Influence of O.F on amplitude modulation spectrum at frequencies modulation (0.123,0.246, 0.546, 1.2)MHz has been studied. Fundamentals harmonic spectrum peaks increased with O.F especially at frequency modulation (1.2)MHz , whereas opposite effect of O.F observed on Fundamentals harmonic spectrum peaks at frequency 132kHz, since it decreased with O.F . O.F participate in decreasing of relative intensity noise (RIN) just at frequencies modulation(0.264, 0.546, 1.2)MHz with appearance of Flicker noise at frequency 132kHz. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) increased with O.F especially at frequency modulation equal to 1.2MHz has been observed.

The existence and uniqueness of the solutions for a system of some fractional order nonlinear differential equations

Raad Putrus; Hamsa Saleem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 124-137
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51258

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we study an existence and uniqueness of the solutions for some nonlinear differential equations which has fractional order , in the case , by using the picard approximation method .and through this study we obtained on many computation in the solutions of the existence and uniqueness theorems for the same fractional nonlinear differential equations. Further more this study development and extended the previous method , such that the solutions and computations which has been obtained became more general and universal.

Spatial stochastic Process and estimation of variogram Function

Mohammed Ismaeel; Nibal Sabah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 138-148
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51259

ABSTRACT
As it is known the process encounter the researchers who are working in spatial statistics, in mining fields about ores, ground water, and agriculture and engineering sciences and ecology. From these experiences one concludes that the data have not normal distribution or approximated to normal distribution which is usually,supposed in theoretical side of studying spatial process. In this research we discuss the robust estimation of variogram function which is considered as effective tool in studying and prediction of stochastic process and also when the stochastic process is far or approximated the normal distribution. We show here the transformation of fourth root by using with and without M-Estimation method that result real stationary estimation of variogram function. The robust variogram function is applied on real data and another real data containing outliers. The results are encouraging.

Management of relational databases of herbaceous plants using neural networks and fazzy logic

Anhar Mohammed; Suhair Abd Dawood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 149-160
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.51260

The research aim is to design a system that help the user which want agriculture some of types of plantago with adequate way without losing in effort, Time & money through designing of general computer database about this plantago & understanding its behavior and sensitivity to light and temperature by connecting database with fuzzy logic, so number from fuzzy logical bases are shaping to know the growth ratio for the seeds of a number from the kinds of the planted plantago, the membership functions connecting within the every one of its variables.
We connect Backpropagation Neural Network with Fuzzy Logic to appoint the Type (classifying) of Plantago which growths .
The database is designed by using(Microsoft Access)and is programmed by using Visual Basic Ver. 6 and works With Windows Me.