Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 21, Issue 3

Volume 21, Issue 3, Summer 2008, Page 1-182


Electrical Behaviour of Association Phenomena of Tetra aqua-1,10-phenanthroline Iron (II) Chloride in Methanol-Water Mixtures at Different Temperatures

Y.O. Hameed; F.A. Thanon; S.H. Abdul-Rahman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56047

ABSTRACT
The electrical behaviour of mixed ligand complex of Fe(II) in different percentage of binary mixture of methanol and water at different temperatures can give information about ion-ion and ion-solvent interaction in solution so the limiting molar conductance , KA the association constant and (R) the main distance between ions in solution as a results of those interaction can be calculated. Thermodynamics parameters (H, G, S) of the association processes and the coulombic forces which play an important role in the association process also have been studied, Walden product also calculated for solvent composition which indicate the tendency of the association of the ions in different percentages.

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn+2 , Fe+2 , Co+2 , Ni+2 ,Cu+2 and Cr+3 Complexes With a Bidentate Schiff Base Ligand

Najla H. Taher

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56046

ABSTRACT
Metal complexes of general formula [M(L)2Cl2] and [Cr(L)2Cl2]Cl {where M is Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) and L (2,3- Bis (N-hexylimino) butane) is a Schiff base formed by condensation of 2,3-butanedione and hexylamine}, have been prepared (in 1:2 metal: ligand molar ratio). The complexes were characterized by analytical, spectral, magnetic and conductance measurements. IR spectra show that the nitrogen of the azomethine groups takes part in coordination. Magnetic measurements and electronic spectral studies suggest an octahedral structure for all complexes. Conductance measurements show a non electrolytic nature of the complexes, with the exception of the [Cr(L)2Cl2]Cl compound with a 1:1 electrolytic nature.

Diazotised Suhphanilic Acid Reagent for the Determination of Trace Amounts of Cephadroxil in Aqueous Solution – Application to Pharmaceutical Preparations

Shilan Ali Omer; Nabeel Sabeh Othman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56045

ABSTRACT
A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of cephadroxil in aqueous solution is developed. The method is based on the coupling of cephadroxil with diazotised sulphanilic acid reagent in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The yellow azo-dye formed is water– soluble, stable, and shows maximum absorption at 445 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the range 10–240 mg/25 ml (0.4 –9.6 ppm) with a molar absorptivity of 1.73´104 l.mol-1cm-1, Sandell’s sensitivity index of 0.0210 mg/cm2, a relative error of –0.42 to +2.22 % and a relative standard deviation of ± 1.7 to ± 2.4 %, depending on the concentration level. The composition of the yellow azo-dye has been evaluated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of cephadroxil in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Complexes with Multidentate Schiff Bases

Kawakeb A. Aziz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56044

Abstract
Complexes of the type [M(L)2.2H2O]X2 (where M=Co(II) or Ni(II), X=Cl- or NO3-), [M(L)2Cl2] (where M=Cu(II),Zn(II) or Hg(II)) and [Cd(L)2](NO3)2 where L= multidentate Schiff bases ligands (resulted from the condensation of 2,3-butandione or benzil with 2-aminothiazole) 2-oxo-3-imino-(N-thiazole-2-yl) butane (atc) and 1-oxo-1,2-diphenyl-2-imino-(N-thiazole-2-yl) ethane (atb), have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (Infrared, and U.V./Visible), magnetic data and conductivity measurements.
The ligands have been acted as bidentate with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Hg(II) and tridentate with Cd (II) ions. The prepared complexes had hexacoordinated with octahedral geometries.

Effect of the aqueous extract and some proteinous compounds from Aleo vera leaves on Blood serum glucose and cholesterol levels in normal mice

Safaa A. AL-Ameen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56049

Abstract
Two proteinous compounds (I and II) had been isolated by gel filtration chromatography of the precipitate produced by full saturation of the aqueous extract of the Aloe vera.
The apparent molecular weights by gel filtration chromatography of the isolated compounds (I and II) were in the range of (63095,19952) Dalton respectively.
The effect of the aqueous extract and the proteinous fractions on glucose and cholesterol levels in normal mice were investigated.
Glucose level was lowered by intraperitoneally administration of the concentrated aqueous extract and the low molecular weight proteinous compound (II) by (41.77% and 36.71%) respectively in normal mice. Furthermore, there was non significant reduction in the cholesterol levels by intraperitoneally administration of high molecular weight proteinous compound (Peak I) by (19.98%) in normal mice. Also there was non significant reduction in the glucose levels by orally administration of (40 mg/10 ml) of low molecular weight proteinous compound (Peak II) by (15.56%).

Synthesis of Some Substituted Benzoxazole [3,4-b] imidazoles

Yaser S. Al-Jawharji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 54-61
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56050

ABSTRACT
In this paper the synthesis of 4-substituted benzoxazole [3,4-b] imidazole (9,10) and 4-aryl hexahydrobenzoxazole [3,4-b] imidazole (13,14) is reported. Glycine was treated with benzoyl chloride or p-nitrobenzoyl chloride to give N-aroyl glycine (1,2), the reaction of N-aroyl glycine with thionyl chloride followed by treatment the product (3,4) with ammonium hydroxide to give N-aroyl glycine amide (5,6). Treatment of the amide with 1-bromocyclohexanone gave N-methylene-2-hexahydrobenzoxazole) aryl amide (7,8), cyclization of this gave product (9,10), whereas the compounds (13,14) was synthesized from o-aminophenol and the acid chlorides to give N-methylene (2-benzoxazole) aryl amide (11,12) which cyclized with phosphorous oxychloride to give the products (13,14).
The structure of all synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral data.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Noradrenaline in Pharmaceutical Formulation with Alizarin Red Sulphonate

A. M. S. Al-Delymi; T. S. Al-Ghabsha

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 62-71
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56048

ABSTRACT
A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of noradrenaline was developed. The method is based on the proton transfer reaction with alizarin red sulphonate (ARS) in aqueous neutral solution to form violet product showing maximum absorbance at 530 nm with molar absorptivity of 6720 l.mol-1.cm-1. The method follows Beer’s law over the concentration range (0.5-10) g.ml-1. The accuracy (average recovery) of the method is 100.29% and the precision (RSD) of the method is less than 1%.
The method was successfully applied for the determination of noradrenaline in pharmaceutical formulation as injection and the results were in good agreement with the standard addition procedure.

Estimation of growth rate, biosilica, protein and lipid content in locally isolated Fragellaria vaucheria

Yosef J. Ismaeel Al-Shahrii

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 72-81
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56051

Abstract
The study was conducted in Mosul city, northern Iraq to obtain a local isolate of the algal, Fragellaria vaucheria (Bacillariophycophyta) . Maximum biomass (58 mg/l) was obtained after seven days of incubation. The ratio of precipitated biosilica in the cellular walls ranged between 30 to 35 % of the dry weight of the biomass. The amount of biosilica increased with progress of incubation period. The infra red spectrum test showed the high purity of isolated silica.
The protein content increased with increase of algal growth and reached 125 mg/l after fifteenth days of incubation, Maximum lipid content (198 mg/l) was obtained after eleven days of incubation. Generally final pH value was higher than the initial one. The algal Fragellaria vaucheria have a wide pH range and the optimum pH for growth was 7.6 .

The condition requirements for optical bistability in semiconductor laser under injection locking

A. I. Abdullah; M. S. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 82-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56043

Abstract
The experimental fulfillment for optical bistability in a semiconductor laser under injection locking is studied. The required setup to provide the stability in current, temperature and power output of the laser diode used in experiments has been described in detail. A small change in the injection power of the slave laser SL could induce a dynamic change of the lasing power of the master laser ML has been observed. Optical bistability for two non identical laser was possible has been experimentally observed.

Naphtha catalytic treatment using aluminum silicate derived from bentonite ore

Mohammed Sabri

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56041

ABSTRACT

The catalyst was prepared from red bentonite ore after the removal of unreactive materials toward catalysis (carbonate and bicarbonate). This catalyst was used in the catalytic treatment of naphtha from (Baba) Kirkuk . The naphtha was passed to the reactor in the vapour phase and treated at (450, 500 and 550)° C at constant rate.
The hydrocarbon composition for the treated naphtha samples were studied by determining the amount of n-paraffins, aromatics and olefinics. Moreover additional measurments of refractive index and density were determined. The chemical structure of n-paraffins were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) depending on the (UOP) standard methods (UOP-690). Olefinic content was also determined using standard American method ASTM-D1492. The paraffins amount increasd up to (48.913%) in the treated naphtha, compared with (39.4065%) in the untreated naphtha. Aromatic hydrocarbons reached up to (22.5773%), compared with 11.8843 % in the untreated naphtha, with the amount of naphthenic to 28.5097 % in the treated naphtha compared with 48.7092 % in the untreated naphtha . The amount of olefinic hydrocarbons increased up to 2.5 % at (550)°C compared with (0.0 %) in the untreated naphtha.

Effectiveness of the enzyme cytosine deaminase in the free living ciliary organism Tetrahymena pyriformis (Ehrenberg, 1830)

Zahraa Bashi; Muna Jankeer

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 15-27
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56042

ABSTRACT
Cytosine deaminase (EC.3.5.4.1) activity and properties was determined in the extract of the free living ciliata Tetrahymena pyriformis grown in proteose peptone medium.
The optimum conditions for the enzyme activity was also determined and it was found that the highest activity was obtained from the reaction mixture containing 300 M of Tris-HCl buffer at pH 7.2 containing 3 μM of cytosine as a substrate and a concentration of enzyme extract equal to 250 g at 35C for 10 min.
Under the optimum conditions, the specific activity was found to be 42.23±2.3 M of cytosine deaminated per min per mg protein in the supernatant of Tetrahymena pyriformis extracts compared with 20.08 ± 1.0 M of cytosine deaminated per min per mg protein.

The inhibitory effect of extracts of elm and eucalyptus and the synergy between its active ingredients and antibiotics in Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium isolated from food poisoning

Fatema AL-Dulaimi; Khuder Suliman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 28-52
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56034

SUMMARY
In this study, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated and identified from patients suffering from food poisoning, (250) samples showed positive bacterial growth (96.1%). After the biochemical tests were done, (60) isolates (41.4%) showed Staph. aureus and (85) isolates (58.6%) showed S. typhimurium.
After detecting the inhibitors effect of plant extracts and active components on the bacteria under study, the aqueous, ethanolic, chloroform and acetone extracts of Slippery elm bark have also good inhibitory effects against Staph. aureus while then benzene extract is not effective. The aqueous, ethanolic and acetone extracts have clearly inhibitory effects on S. typhimurium. The isolated phenolic acid compounds from Slippery elm have highly inhibitory effect against Staph. aureus while they are less effective against S. typhimurium. The eucalyptus leaves extracts and the isolated essential oils showed to be good inhibitors against Staph. aureus while S. typhimurium is not affected.
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts under study and the separated active components were also identified. In addition, the antibiotic sensitivity of both types of bacteria with the presence of the active components was also tested. The results showed that active components have synergistic effect against Staph. aureus but antagonistic effect against S. typhimurium.

Determination of some heavy metals quantities in some leguminous plants grown in polluted soil

Anwar Hammodi; Faeza Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 53-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56039

ABSTRACT

The biological study was conducted at the University of Mosul, College of Education, Department of Biology. To aims at identifying effects of environmental pollution in the seven sites at Nineveh (Al-Rahmanyah,Al-Rashidiyah, Yarmejah, Hamam Al-Alil, Al-Nimrud, Al-Qayarah and Sinjar) in concentrations of heavy accumulated metals,(Pb,Cd,Ni,Co) in the parts that are eaten from leguminosae plants.
The study results showed that pods of leguminosae plants in different sites contained heavy metals with different concentrations within the normal levels of toxicity: cobalt (0.53-1.36), nickel(0.1-5), cadmium (5-30), lead (30-300)ppm. the concentration of cadmium was over than (0.1)ppm., which applied by (WHO).

Determination of the sensitivity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.viciae bacteria to the anti-beta-lactam group

Mohammed AL-Taee; Mohammed Alhes

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56036

ABSTRACT

Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.viciae was isolated and identified from root nodules of Vicia faba L. plant. Its susceptibility to 14 types of -lactam antibiotics was tested by disk diffusion method. The isolate was resistant to the following antibiotics; Amoxicillin, Carbencillin, Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefuroxime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Ceftizoxime, Cefepime, and Aztreonam, while it was sensitive to only three antibiotics including; Imipenem, Cefoperazone and Ceftriaxone. The occurrence of multiple drug resistance in a soil bacterium, that is not a pathogen, suggests that chemotherapeutic use of antibiotics is not required for the development of multiple drug resistance. This may considers as a defense line to protect plant roots from pathogenic soil microorganisms.

Effect of boric acid and some calcium and magnesium salts in the chemical and mineral composition of barley grain

Fareh Salih

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 76-87
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56040

The study was conducted in the wiry house in order to study the effect of treated soil with (Boric acid, Magnesium sulphat, calcium chloride) with concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%)Kg soil each one treated separately.on yield, carbohydrate, protein and metal composition of barley cultivar (402).
Results showed that treated soil in (calcium chloride) especially in concentration (0.2%) led to improve the yield by increasing the number of the spike grains, weight of crop /plant, biological yield spike length and weight. Also led to significant increase in protein contents in barley grains in comparison with other treatment.
ABSTRACT

The study was conducted in the wiry house in order to study the effect of treated soil with (Boric acid, Magnesium sulphat, calcium chloride) with concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%)Kg soil each one treated separately.on yield, carbohydrate, protein and metal composition of barley cultivar (402).
Results showed that treated soil in (calcium chloride) especially in concentration (0.2%) led to improve the yield by increasing the number of the spike grains, weight of crop /plant, biological yield spike length and weight. Also led to significant increase in protein contents in barley grains in comparison with other treatment.
However the result showed that treated soil with Boric acid especially in concentration (0.3%) led to decreasing in number grains/ spike, biological yield the weight of (100) grains, weight of grains / plant, spikes weight and Ca, Mg, K contant of grains and also led to increase concentration Na , Cl in barley grain plant comparing to other treatment.

Histopathological effects in the kidney of male white rats resulting from treatment with ethyl alcohol

Alham Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 88-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56032

ABSTRACT
This study carried on to investigate the histopathological changes on the kidney of male albino mice as a result of athyl alcohol treatment at different period.
The study revealed the presence of many histopathological changes in kidney tissue these were represented as follows: Hypertrophy of some epithelial cell of renal tubules, vacuolations, necrosis and cystic structure in others. On the other hand infiltration of monocytes in the interstitial tissues also noted. The blood vessels showed congestion, perivascular cuffing, wall thickening and hyaline arteriopathy.

Effect of lipopolysaccharide extracted from Escherichia coli in immune response of BALB/c mice against infection with secondary hydatid disease. II. Blood picture.

Sadam Yaseen; Asmaa Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 99-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56031

This study investigates the immune system response to infection with secondary hydatid cysts in BALB/c mice activated with lipopolysaccharide, extracted from Escherichia coli, and infected with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus.
The pathological changes occurred in the mice activated with LPS, were followed in comparison with the control group (mice infected with protoscoleces without activation with LPS) along the five months peroid of experiments , depending on certain criteria including changes in the means of total and differential count of WBCs. Results of the study revealed an increase in the rates of total count of WBCs, represented by an increase in the number of lymphocytes, decrease in the number of neutrophils and variation in the number of monocytes, in activated mice compared with the control group. In general, results of the present work provide another evidence that the lipopolysaccharide has modulated the immune defense of the host against infection with secondary hydatid cysts. Therefore, We support our previous findings that this lipopolysaccharide may well possess an immunomodulating activity in mice against infection with unilocular hydatid disease.

Sensitivity of some species of pathogenic bacteria to the aquatic extract of local acacia Myrtus communis

Dhuha mohammed; Adeeba Shareef; Saad AL-Hafodhi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 114-124
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56035

ABSTRACT
The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous Extract Of Fruits Myrtus communis at different concentration (3.1, 6.2, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400) mg/cm3 on the growth and viability of eight pathogenic bacteria the following bacteria were sensitive to the extract (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). while Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris and Serratia marcescens were resistant .
The results showed that the effect of the extract was proportionally increased. With increasing the concentrations up to 12.5 mg/cm3. However the DIZ (mm) values for the bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis). Were (17.54, 14.75, 12.66, 12.08 and 9.29) mm respectively Also the values of minimum inhibitory concentration MIC (mg / cm3) for proceeding. Pathogenic species were (12.5, 25, 50, 50 and 100) mg/cm3 respectively.

Effect of water extract of buckwheat plant seeds Fagopyrum esculentum and ring Trigonella foenum-graecum in the vitality of the initial nodules of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin in vitro

Arqem Mesbah; Emad Albadrani; Ibraheem Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 125-137
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56029

ABSTRACT
The results of this study revealed significat inhibitory effect of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of the buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum and the fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum on the viability of the protoscleces of Echinococcus granulosus in concentrations of 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml in the periods of 15, 30, and 45, minutes in vitro. Herein, the concentration of 75 mg/ml of the buckwheat inhibited the viability of the protoscoleces completetly in a period of 45 minutes.In general, the effect of the extracts of both seeds increased proportionally with the increase in concetration and the increase in the period of exposure, By the sametoken, the effect of the buckwheat was higher than that of the fenugreek on the viability of the protoscoleces of E. granulosus in vitro.

Universal empirical relationship between efficiency of scintillation detector NaI(Tl) with gamma ray energy and distance using gamma spectroscopy (UCS-20)

Layth Mohammed; Ali Hussain

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 138-152
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56030

ABSTRACT

In order to find a universal empirical relationship among the absolute efficiency of a photopeak, the energy of gamma ray and the distance from the source to the detector face, we used a modern gamma-ray spectroscopy called (SPECTECH UCS-20) with a scintillation detector, NaI(Tl), of dimensions 3.8cm(diameter)×2.5cm(thick). The system is connected to a personal computer with a program installed for this purpose. The absolute efficiency have been found using standard radioactive sources (Na-22, Mn-54, Co-60, Cd-109, Eu-152) in the energy range (88-1408) keV and a distance (1.25-10.25)cm. A fit to the figure of measured absolute efficiency with distance was applied, and we have found that the best fit is the power fit. Also we found the best equation to calculate the two constants, in the power fit equations .Thus we have combined the absolute efficiency, energy, and distance in one universal empirical equation. The experimental results have been compared with those calculated by the universal empirical equation and a good correspondence has been found between them .Further, we find detector efficiency of standard sample from (KCl) putted in touch to the detector surface, this efficiency can be used to calculate the concentration of (40k) in different situations.

The automatic continuity for particular type of homomorphism nonassociative algebras

Roqya Ballo; Amer Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 153-159
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56038

Abstract
Rodriguez conjecture ensures the automatic continuity of a dense range homomorphism from a complete normed nonassociative algebra into another one with zero strong radical. Rodriguez conjecture still unsolved. But there is an affirmative answer of Rodriguez conjecture presented by Rodriguez himself in [7] for particular type of nonassociative algebras called power-associative algebra. Also the authors in [11] gived an approximate solution of Rodriguez conjecture by putting a condition on multiplication algebra of a domain of such homomorphism. In this work, we give another partial solution of Rodriguez conjecture as follows:
If A and B are complete normed nonassociative algebras and if  is a dense range homomorphism from A into B such that B simple with identity and multiplication algebra of B is also simple. Then  is continuous.

Efficient and effectiveness retrieval of information using some of the approximate string matching algorithms

Anhar Mohammed; Suhiar Essa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 3, Pages 160-182
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56037

ABSTRACT
The research aims at buliding integral computer database for sales ,by using six algorithms of approximate string matching with practicable example;soundex,information metaphone,longest common subsequence ,dice cofficient,levenshtein distance and fuzzy string matching .
The algorithm of matching is called (name similarity) to find the similarity between two strings depending on one kind of algorithm mentioned above as a limited digital value between (zero-one) representing the rate of information retrieval .while this rate is larger than 0.79 the matching between the two strings will be the best ,if the rate is smaller this will indicate a lack of conform of the strings. is addition to consider the precision of retrieve the intended records out of the existed records of the table.