Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 21, Issue 4

Volume 21, Issue 4, Autumn 2008, Page 1-159

Synthesis of Some Atophan Derivatives

M. A. Al-Iraqi; K. H. Al-Naimi; A. H. Al- Sabawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56107

The research was concerned with preparation and characterization of some esters (2-4) derived from atophan (2-phenyl cinchoninic acid). These esters were converted to the corresponding carboxamide by their reaction with ethylene diamine. This reaction may be follow either one of three path ways. The first gives the monocarboxamide (5), whereas the second gives the dicarboxamide (6), while the last one gives a heterocyclic product (7). All the synthesized compounds, have been characterized by physical and infrared and electronic spectral means

Preparation and Characterization of Cobalt (II)- Complexes of 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde Semicarbazone and Amino Acid Esters Ligands

Mushal W. Ibrahim; Zuhoor F. Dawood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56110

Cobalt (II) complexes with mixed ligands including 4-hydroxy- benzaldehyde semicarbazone (HBSCH) and esters of amino acids - A {phenol glycine ester (GlyP), phenol alanine ester (AlaP), 2-aminophenol glycine ester (GlyA) and 2-aminophenol alanine ester (AlaA)} have been prepared and characterized by physical chemical techniques. General formulaes [Co(HBSCH)(A)2(NO3)]NO3, [Co(HBSCH)(A)2(NO3)2], [Co(HBSCH)2(A)(NO3)]NO3 and [Co(HBSCH)2(A)(NO3)2] have been proposed for the complexes prepared in neutral medium. Whereas, the formulaes [Co(HBSC)(A)2] and [Co(HBSC)2(A)] have been proposed for the complexes prepared in basic medium (where HBSC = deprotonated HBSCH ligand). The study suggested that all the complexes had octahedral geometries.

Response Of Latheticus oryzae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) To Three Pyrethroid Insecticides

Lubna Y. Abbass

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 23-28
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56099

Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the response of 4th and 6th larval instars and 1week old adults Latheticus oryzae by exposure for 24, 48, and 72 hour to wheat treated with different concentrations of the three pyrethroids: ALPHACHEM® (5 EC), TRUST® (25 WP) and DECIS® (20 EC). Based on the Lc50 values of the three insecticides the result showed that 4th instar larvae were much susceptible to the insecticides than the 6th instar larvae and adults. The toxicities of insecticides increased (the values of Lc50 decreased ) as the exposure period increased from 24 to 72 hour. Also th study showed that, ALPHACEM and DECIS were more effective than TRUST.

Designing Educational Web pages for Post Operative Nursing Care

Omar Akram Alsafar; Sana Thanoon Ahmad; Isra Natheer Alkallak

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 29-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56105


This research drives at connecting information technology to nursing. This is to be carried out by way of designing an educational site for medical and nursing care to be performed post operative care to patient on the internet.
The site's function is to expose various related windows (pages) relevant to nursing care in post operative. The information to be projected include data, texts, figures pics and animations which facilitate navigation for the visitor and provide information which may save a lot of effort and time devoted to book and reference searching.

Haematological Changes in Stored Blood

Karama M. I. Al Nuaimy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 49-56
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56106

Blood transfusion is the process of referring blood. Or blood – based products from one person into the circulatory system of another blood transfusion may treat medical condition. The blood bank is the section of the lab that processes and distributes blood products under the supervision of a medical director certified in transfusion medicine.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of storage for varying periods on some haematological parameters.
The study include (120) blood sample admitted to Mosul Hospital (Central Blood Bank of Mosul for Blood Donation), (60) of them as normal donors and the other (60) received blood to treatment, in order to evaluate the effect of these changes on the recipients after transfusion to avoid transfusion complications as much as possible.
There is a highly significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (P.C.V. %), and also decrease in total white blood cell (W.B.C.) count and platelets.

Key words: Stored blood, blood bank, haematological parameters.

Efficient System of Laser Diode CW Pumped on Nd:YAG Laser

F. H. Mustafa; M. I. Azzawe

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 57-66
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56104

In this paper, we report the recent progress made in the design and development of a miniature solid-state system, consisting from a bar laser diode and a slab of Nd:YAG crystal. Single longitudinal mode, stable CW power output at 1064 nm wavelength has been demonstrated. An ever power conversion efficiency was reached with an amount of 46.32%. Bar laser diode of wavelength 803 nm, and power output up to 24 W was used as a direct pumping device. Basic principles of operation and output characteristics will be demonstrated by this proposed technique. Taking the full advantages of the bar laser diode array, influencing the mechanisms of excitation, amplification, and saturation in the crystal; spectral emission, efficiency and beam quality can be tailored in the experiment.

Determination of Backbending in 122-130Ba Even-Even Isotopes

I. M. Ahmed; W. M. Najeeb

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56098

The γ-unstable O(6) limit of the interacting boson model IBM-1 has been applied successfully to determine the backbending in weakly deformed 122-130 Ba even-even isotope. The application of this limit has showed successes in determining the backbending in the energy levels of the isotopes under consideration through the good coincidence with the experimental results.

The Influence Of Hole Radius On The Properties Of Photonic Crystal Fiber

Huda Masood Mohamad; Abdulghafoor Ibrahim Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 76-87
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56097

The influence of air hole radius on the numerical aperture, total dispersion, effective area, and nonlinear coefficient for the photonic crystal fibers are investigated. This study shows, when the pitch size and the number of rings holes are held constant, the increasing of air hole radius up to 0.8m gives better coupling efficiency due to the increasing in numerical aperture. The results show that the zero dispersion point is shifted toward the shorter wavelength due to the increasing of air hole radius.
The PCF structure of 0.8 m gives an effective area 10 µm2, nonlinear coefficient 16 km-1W-1 and zero dispersion at communication wavelength 1.0m. While the same structure gives negative dispersion 80 ps/(, effective area 8 m2 and nonlinear coefficient 19.8 km-1W-1 at communication wavelength 0.8 m of Ti-Za laser.

Doping effects on electrical and dynamical characteristics of GaAs / AlGaAs quantum cascade laser

Erada A. Al-Dabbagh; Ragheed M. Ibrahim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 88-96
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56103

A theoretical analysis of the doping density level influence on the output characteristics of GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As triple quantum well QCL emitting at (=9 m) is presented. The employed theoretical model was based on Schrodinger equation analysis. Six different doping density levels, have been used in this study to explain doping density level influence on model gain as a function of wavelength and negative differential resistance (NDR). In the conventionally employed high doping regime, the wavelength shift to the shorter wavelength furthermore to decrease of the peak gain value with doping density level increase has been observed. The available current range before the occurrence of the NDR reduced when the doping density level decrease was found.

Calculation of Energy Levels and The Reduced Transitions Probability For Even-Even Number of Isotones ( N=90)

Ahmad K. Mheemeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 97-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56101

In this work the Interacting Boson Model IBM-1, Davydov-Filippov (D-F) models and the Critical Point Symmetry X(5) have been employed to study the energy levels and the reduced transition probability B(E2) for the )N = 90( transitional nuclei 146Ba,148Ce,158Er and 160Yb in the concepts of theoretical treatment. The best input parameters for the above approaches which lead to the best fit to experimental data are determined. The reduced transition probability B(E2) for the above nuclei have been calculated in a relative and absolute scales by using the most recent available experimental data.

Pressure Dependence of Frequencies and Frequencies Distribution Function for Aluminum: Theoretical approach

Seham J. Abdallah; Adnan M. Al-sheikh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 114-123
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56109

A theoretical study was made of the pressure dependence of lattice frequencies and distribution function for aluminum by analyzing phonon frequency spectrum, using Grüneisen approximation and many equations of state (EOS).
Each change in the specific volume of a crystal excites a change in the frequencies of lattice vibration in a very complex manner . This work shows how this complexity can be overcome at least approximately depe- nding on Grüneisen approximation and Murnaghan , Birch- Murnaghan and Vinet equations of state.

Successive approximation method (S.A.M.) for solving integral equation of the first kind with symmetric kernel

Najmaddin A. Sulaiman; Talhat I. Hassan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 149-159
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56108

In this paper we used successive approximate method (S.A.M.) to solve Fredholm integral equation of the first kind (F.I.E.1st. K.) with symmetric kernel. And also suggested an algorithm for this method the computer programming is given for the algorithm. The method and algorithm are tested on several numerical examples. After comparing the results with exact solution see tables (1, 2), it occurred that the results are good. (in this work Matlab programming used).

Preparation and spectral diagnosis of an AZO derived from 4-Amino Acetophenon and its complex preparation with Ferrous

Theyaa Mohsen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56088

Azo dye is prepared by Diazoniom salt method derive from 4-amino acetophenon and salicylic acid, the product compound is Acetophenon-4, azo-N,4-salicylic acid which identified by infra red spectra IR and the visible spectrum in acetone solvent.
A complex of azo dye with Ferrous is prepared and identified by visible spectrum in acetone solvent and determined molecular ratio for this complex by mole ratio method.

The use of microwaves to combat the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab) (Bruchidae: Coleoptera), the effect on its life

Ayad Ismaeel; Sufyan Alsenjari

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56087


Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab) is considered one of the important agricultural pests that infests legumes in general and especially cowpea and chickpea resulting devastating damages to these yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microwave radiation with energy levels of 260, 520 and 780 Watt, within periods of exposure of
30, 60 and 90 seconds on hatching, mortality percentages and the life-span of this pest.

The percentage of mortality among the adults of Callosobruchus maculatus that have hatched from radiation exposed eggs was 96.6, 96.6,90.0, 100.0, and 100.0 % for legume yield seeds, i.e. cowpea, chick-pea, green pea, lentil and broad beans, respectively at the high levels of radiation energy 780 Watt for 90 seconds compared with a control trail of 6.6, 50.0, 33.3, 76.6, and 86.6 %, respectively.

The phylogenetic response of two varieties of Thomas laxton and smooth Mammoth melting to increased concentrations of copper

Fareh Salih

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 20-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56091

The experiment was conducted in plastic pots under wiry house conditions to study the effect of soil treatment by sulphat copper concentrations (150,100,75,50,25,0.0) mg /Kg soil on growth and some physiological alterations of two Pea genotypes (Mammoth melting) and (Thomas laxton).
These treatment caused significant reduction in growth plant, degree of cell membrane stability, relative water content in the leaves, concentrations of chlorophyll a,b , a+b , carbohydrate and protein in leaves tissues. also notes asignificant increase in the proline accumulation in the leaf tissues in both of them (Mammoth melting) and (Thomas laxton).
The shoot and concentration carbohydrate and protein in the type (Mammoth melting) species non effect to in increase cooper sulphates except the concentration (150) mg/Kg soil reduced significan compared with control treatment.

The effects of exposed Black seed (Nigella sativa L.) callus by gamma rays on specific activity of dihydrofolate reductase and folate content Extracted from it

Sajeda Abood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 34-44
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56086


The present study was conducted to determine the effects of gamma rays on specific activity of dihydrofolate reductase and folate content of Black seed (Nigella sativa L.) callus. The effect was dependent on doses of gamma rays.
The obtained results showed that specific activity of dihydrofolate reductase increased with the growth period at doses 5, 10, 30 and 50 rad, the total folate content increased substantially, but the high doses of rays (70, 90 rad) led to decrease of dihydrofolate reductase activity and folate content extracted from callus of different ages.
On the other hand, the results revealed that the exposed callus at 5 rad exhibited high level resistance to 10-1 M of aminpterin and trimethoprime. The specific activity of dihydrofolate reductase and total folate content were partly reserved as a result of radiation compared with non-radiated callus.

Investigation of beta-lactase enzymes in chromosomal bacilli isolated from diarrhea in children

Shaker Jarjees; Mahmoud Alleh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 45-54
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56093

Thirty clinical isolates of gram negative bacilli isolated from diarrhea cases in children aged ≤5 years were investigated for the presence of β-lactamases, and it was found that 21 (70%) of them contain these enzymes. Fifteen positive isolates were selected for the detection of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases. The results showed that eight (53.3%) of the tested isolates were ESBLs producers, and nine(60%) of them were potential producers of AmpC β-lactamases. The enzymes were found more frequently in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates.

Investigation of AmpC-induced beta-lactase enzymes in some types of Gram-negative bacilli

Mahmoud Alhes

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 55-61
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56095

The detection of inducible AmpC β-lactamases in (47) clinical isolates of gram negative bacilli, isolated from lower respiratory tract infections, was performed using disc induction method. The results showed that 39 (83%) isolates contain these enzymes with variable rates according to the bacterial species tested. The research indicates the efficiency and simplicity of this method in detecting inducible β-lactamases, and recommends using it in hospitals and laboratories to detect strains with inducible enzymes.

Use of overlap between cyclohexymide, chlorum L. wheat plants to be depleted and their effect on germination and number of phenotypesamafenicol, temperature and treatment mixture concentrations in raising the resistance of T.aestiv

Mohammed Sadeq; Ghareba Danyal

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 62-76
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56090

Homogenized healthy seeds of Triticum aestivum L. Abo-Greab-3- cultivar were used to study the possibility of using a mixture of two protein synthesis inhibitors in Eukaryote and Prokaryote (cycloheximide and chloramphenicol) to increase cold and freezing tolerance of wheat. The study was designed as 3X3X3 factorial experiment and carried-out with three replicates according to randomize complete block design (RCBD). The first factor was represented by the temperature which comprised 20, 0, and -5 C˚. The second factor was the concentration of the antibiotics mixture (cycloheximide: chloramphenicol) which comprised 0:0; 50µg/ml : 50µg/ml and 100µg/ml:100 µg/ml. The third factor was the treatment period which were 0,12 and 24 hours.
Low temperatures showed reduction in percentage of germination, fresh and dry weights of plant, while an increase in percentage of emerged seedlings, leaf area, plant height, no. of leaves/plant and no. of tillers/plant were noticed. High concentrations of antibiotics mixture showed significant decrease in all studied parameters except in fresh weight of plant, while treatment in all studied triates except in dry weight of leaf. Most the interactions between the studied factors showed significant effects in most studied parameters.

Study the extent of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.viciae tolerance to several levels of salinity

Mohammed Altaee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 77-83
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56092

The effect of different Concentration (1% -5%) of NaCl on growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.viciae was studied by their addition to Manitol yeast extract agar medium and observing the bacterial growth and tolerance to exceeding salt concentration comparing to the control. The bacterium showed higher growth rate than control at 1% concentration, while the rates decreased at other concentration , with no growth at 5% concentration.

Study of optical modulation of the bipolar exposed transistor using semiconductor laser

Taghreed Younis; Musab Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 84-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2008.56096

The effects of semiconductor laser light on static and dynamic characteristics of bipolar exposed transistor had been studied experimentally. There was no significant influence on these characteristics in the absence of semiconductor light on transistor device. Analog optical modulation of bipolar transistor had been realized with semiconductor laser light direct modulation, while there was evident effect of injection current of semiconductor laser on the harmonic of spectrum modulation of transistor output. Optical modulation of bipolar transistor had been realized using pulse width modulation technique, and there was no deformation in pulse shape out from collector of the transistor modulated by small duration time pulses. Deformation in pulse shape out of the bipolar transistor has been observed when semiconductor laser modulated by large duration time pulses that is decrease qualification of data transfer.