Volume 22, Issue 1, Winter 2009, Page 1-150

Study on Interaction of 2,3-Butadione Monoxime with some Phenols

Adel Saeed Azzouz; A. Siddieq; N. Sharif

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57427

The interaction of 2, 3-butadione monooxime (B) with phenol and its five substituents in n-heptane are studied by using uv spectroscopy. The study lead to the formation of mono-protonated, bi-protonated as well as intramolecular hydrogen bonding species. The later are found to be of the type O − H∙∙∙∙N and O − H∙∙∙∙O. The process of hydrogen bond formation is confirmed here from uv spectra and the calculated thermodynamic parameters. This shows that ∆H and ∆S have a negative signs, in addition to their values which support hydrogen bond formation.

Synthesis of Some Substituted Benzoxazole [3,4-b] imidazoles

Yaser S. Al-Jawharji

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 11-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.57443

In this paper the synthesis of 4-substituted benzoxazole [3,4-b] imidazole (9,10) and 4-aryl hexahydrobenzoxazole [3,4-b] imidazole (13,14) is reported. Glycine was treated with benzoyl chloride or p-nitrobenzoyl chloride to give N-aroyl glycine (1,2), the reaction of N-aroyl glycine with thionyl chloride followed by treatment the product (3,4) with ammonium hydroxide to give N-aroyl glycine amide (5,6). Treatment of the amide with 1-bromocyclohexanone gave N-methylene-2-hexahydrobenzoxazole) aryl amide (7,8), cyclization of this gave product (9,10), whereas the compounds (13,14) was synthesized from o-aminophenol and the acid chlorides to give N-methylene (2-benzoxazole) aryl amide (11,12) which cyclized with phosphorous oxychloride to give the products (13,14).
The structure of all synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral data.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Bromhexine Hydrochloride by Azo-Dye Formation Reaction

Nabeel Sabeh Othman; Shilan Ali Omer

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 19-31
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57438

A spectrophotometric method for the assay of trace amounts of bromhexine-HCl based on the reaction of bromhexine-HCl with nitrite ion to form the corresponding diazonium salt followed by coupling reaction with pyrogallol in a acidic medium to form a stable and a soluble yellow azo dye with maximum absorption at 387 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 20-280g of bromhexine-HCl in a final volume of 25 ml (0.8- 11.2 ppm) with a molar absorptivity of 1.031104 L.mol-1.cm-1, a relative error of -0.36 to +0.72 % and
a relative standard deviation of 1.07 to 1.72 %, depending on the concentration level of bromhexine-HCl. The method has been successfully applied for the assay of bromhexine-HCl in various pharmaceutical preparations.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Microgram Amounts of Aliphatic Amines with Quinalizarin

T. S. Al-Ghabsha; A. Al-Delymi

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 32-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57440

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of aliphatic amines was developed. The method is based on the proton transfer reaction with quinalizarin reagent in aqueous neutral solution to form violet product which shows maximum absorbance at 560 nm with molar absorptivity ranged between 3600 l.mol-1.cm-1 for ter-butyl amine to 6720 l.mol-1.cm-1 for sec-butyl amine. The accuracy (average recovery) of the method was 100.15% and the precision (RSD) was less than 3.1%. The effect of various compounds on the determination of aliphatic amines has been studied. The nature and stability constant of the products have been estimated.

The Use of 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthaquinone for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Primary Aliphatic Amines in Aqueous Solution

Thabit S. Al-Ghabsha; Theiaa Al-Sabha; Usra I Al-Neaimy

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 43-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57441

A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of some primary aliphatic amines in aqueous solution, i.e. ethanolamine, n-butylamine and n-hexylamine. The method is based on the interaction of these amines in aqueous medium with 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthaquinone (DClNQ) reagent in the presence of bicarbonate buffer solution to form an orange coloured products measurable at maximum wavelength of 475 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-30, 5-20 and 3-30g/ml for ethanolamine, n-butylamine and n-hexylamine respectively. The DClNQ products were formed in the ratio of 1:1 amine: DClNQ, and their stability constants were ranged between 1.92105 and 4.14105 L.mol-1. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ethanolamine in its pharmaceutical preparation.

Elimination of resistance of some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to certain antibiotics by chloroform and acetone extracts of the plant Olivera dicumbens

Abdul-Razzak K. Mahmood

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 54-60
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57432

Out of 50 samples obtained from humans of different environments, 18 were diagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus. 6 out of these diagnosed isolates were tested for elimination of resistance to antibiotics by chloroform and acetone extracts of the plant Olivera dicumbens.
Bacterial isolates were treated with subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of the above mentioned extracts. Percentage of loss of resistance of colonies to antibiotics was measured. Chloroform extract at the concentration 250 mg/ml was found to be the most effective concentration inducing resistance of this bacteria to the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin. Highest percentage loss of resistance (38%) was found in the 5th isolate. For loss of resistance to the antibiotic Ampicillin, highest resistance (36%) was found in the 6th isolate. On the other hand, the least loss of resistance was found against the antibiotic Nalidixic acid in the 5th isolate. No clear effect was obtained with the acetone extract. It can, therefore, be concluded that the chloroform extract may have acted as mutagenic, eliminating the resistance of certain Staphylococcus aureus isolates to some antibiotics.

Designing Educational Web pages for Post Operative Nursing Care

Isra Natheer Alkallak; Sana Thanoon Ahmad; Omar Akram Alsafar

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 61-77
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57437

This research drives at connecting information technology to nursing. This is to be carried out by way of designing an educational site for medical and nursing care to be performed post operative care to patient on the internet.
The site's function is to expose various related windows (pages) relevant to nursing care in post operative. The information to be projected include data, texts, figures pics and animations which facilitate navigation for the visitor and provide information which may save a lot of effort and time devoted to book and reference searching.

The Effect of Ionic Substitution on the E.P. of Superconductor using Madelung Method

Bassam Mahmoud Mustafa

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 78-92
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57434

The effect of substitution of the ion instead of La+3 in the superconductor was studied, an increase in electrostatic potential energy E. P. (E) with increase of Sr % was noticed, and a step change in P. E. when Sr is added is noticed indicating a phase change occurrence in the crystal structure .Increase of Tc, with the increase of Sr, noticed earlier, is linked with increase of E.P. and a relation between E.P. and Tc is found , the increase of Tc is due the creation of holes by valance difference between La & Sr, which also leads to collapse of crystal by reduction of repulsion between Sr & Cu atoms this have the same effect as the application of pressure on the crystal, which increases Tc also. For x >0.15, Tc decreases due to the appearance of vacancies which may have screening effect of the electrostatic field.

Application of A domian Decomposition method for Solving Fractional Differential Equation

Shayma Adil Murad; Shaker Mahmood Rasheed

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 93-103
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57439

In this paper we apply the Adomian decomposition method to find solution of fractional differential equation:
, (1.1) and m is integer number, with two different initial condition the first is , where C1, C2,... are constant, the second initial condition is the Taylor polynomial of order (n-1) for y, as an alternative method of Laplace transform.

India Handwritten Digits Recognition

Iklaas A. Sultan

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 104-112
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57436

An Optical Character Recognition (OCR) approach for handwritten Indian digit is presented in this paper, by using the proposed sector approach. In this approach, the normalized and thinned digit image is divided into sectors with each sector covering a fixed angle. The features totaling 24 include vector distances, angles. For recognition, the K-Nearest-Neighbours classifier is used. This method was tested using 45 patterns for each digit with different writers. The sample images were divided into 20 training and 25 test images. Images in the test set did not appear in the training sets. This method performs extremely well with recognition rates 82.8%. This is a very good performance.

Estimating parameters of factor analysis model maximum likelihood method)) by using EM algorithm with application

Thanoon younis thanoon alshakerchy

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 113-122
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57442

Expectation maximization algorithm (EM) is used to create estimator with the same qualities of maximum likelihood Estimator taking into consideration the existence of two types of data, Data viewing (observed data) and hidden data (missing data), in this research the estimating parameters of factor analysis model (maximum likelihood method) has been done by using expectation maximization algorithm and applied factor analysis (maximum likelihood method) on data for patients infected with breast cancer, and found from the results importance all of the variables in breast cancer variables except first variable (level of education) and fifth variable (hormone treatment used).

Designation the Structural forms that derived from 4.2 -di- hydroxide benzaldehyde using chemical and physical methods

Adil S. Azooz; Mohammed M. H. Al-Noayme

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57426

The work is involved with the preparation of 2,4- dihydroxy- benzaldehyde as a mother compound. Then after, the mentioned aldehyde is converted into fourteen imines derivatives in forms of Schiff bases and oxime, by its reaction with an appropriate primary amines as hydroxylamine hydrochloride and o,m , p-aminophenols and others.
The structures of these prepared imines are confirmed by using some physical methods such as U.V, I.R spectra and melting points for all Schiff bases and theirs greater solubilities in water are attributed to their presence in zwitter ions forms.

Study of some biochemical variables in the blood serum of workers in the service sector exposed to lead

Mona Husain Janger; Hala Abdulhade Alsafar

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 17-31
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57415

The present study included the effect of lead on some of biochemical variables for (150) worker from non smokers normal male workers who occupationally exposed to lead pollution, through their daily work.
The exposure periods were less than (10) years, between (11-20) years and more than (20) years for (42) printing workers, (62) painters, (20) radial photographers and (26) TV repairers and (28) normal male persons lived in villages aside from lead pollution as control group.
The results showed that accumulate lead element through the different exposure periods. The concentration of the accumulated lead in the painters blood was (8.87168.81) Ug/100 cm3 blood. The results also showed less lead accumulation in the printing workers, radial photographers and TV repairs with varying ratios.
The present study showed that exposures to lead significantly increase urea, cholesterol and triglycerides concentration for exposure periods .
The results also included determination the activity of two enzymes: Acid phosphatase (ACP), and Acetylcholinestreas (AchE) in the groups exposed to lead pollution for different periods. The results showed a significant increase in the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme in all studied groups. Its activity in the serum of the painters was (0.17  5.68) IU/L for more than (20) years exposure period compare with the control group (2.7  0.21) IU/L. Finally the results showed that the activity of acetylcholinestrase is similar to that of acid phosphatase as there was a significant increase in the activity through the exposure periods for all the studied groups compared with control.

Bacteriological study in some clinics of doctors' assistants in Erbil city

Vean D. Saeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 32-50
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57416

This study was carried out in the (private clinic of nurses) in all places in Erbil city. The swabs were taken from ground of the rooms, recycle bins and air. Twenty four isolates were obtained according to cultural, morphological, biochemical tests and other tests including motility, oxidase, catalase, coagulase, urease, and gelatin hydrolysis.
Also the antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out and the results were as follow:
1) Different places (ground of the rooms, air and recycle bins) for these (private clinic of nurses) were polluted by five genus of pathogenic bacteria.
2) The identified bacteria was gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus 12.5% and gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli 33.3%, Klebsiela spp 25%, Pseudomonase spp 20.8% and proteus spp 8.3%.
3) Staphylococcus aureus was resist to Gentamycin, Penicillin Tetracycline, Ampicilline and Nalidix acid with the range of 33.3%, 100%, 33.3%, 66.6%, and 33.3% respectively and was 100% sensitive to Lincomycine, cephalothin, trimethprine and chloramphenicol. The range of resistance to antibiotics Gentamycin, Penicilline, Tetracycline, Lincomycine, Ampicilline, Nalidix acid, Cephalothine, Trimethprine and Chloramphenicol for Klebsiela spp reached 33.3%, 100%, 66.6%, 83.3%, 83.3%, 16.6%, 16.6%, 100%, and 66.6% respectively.
For Escherichia coli reached to 12.5%, 100%, 37.5%, 12.5%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 50% and 75% respectively. The Pseudomonas spp were resistance to Gentamycin, Penicilline, Tetracycline, Lincomycine and Ampicilline with the range of 20%, 20%, 20%, 80% and 40% respectively, while Proteus spp appeared resistance 100% to Gentamycin, Penicilline, Tetracycline, Lincomycine, Ampicilline, Cephalothin and Trimethprime, and 50% to Chloramphenicol, while it was 100% sensitive to Nalidix acid with.

Effect of radio frequencies on the histological composition of nonsensory components of the teleost fishes eye

Tagreed Hazim Sabir; Ali A. Abid

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 51-76
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57420

The present study carried out to investigate the injuries of radio frequency on the nonsensory components (lens, cornea, choroid, iris, sclera and optic nerve) of two species of teleost fishes which were Chalcalburnus mussulensis and Noemacheilus angora. The fishes exposed to 80KHz and 1400 volts of radiofrequency for sixty day. The time of exposure was five hours daily. The dissection of samples occurred at thirty day and sixty day.
The results revealed several histophathological changes for each of the above components, but the lesions were more sever in N.angora than C.mussulensis. After thirty day of exposure, different lesions were appeared in the various parts of the two species. The injuries were more sever at sixty day, which generally summarized as: lens cataract, pyknosis of lens capsule in C.mussulensis while in N.angora wide deterioration in lens was appeared which were pyknosis, necrosis and wrinkiling of the whole lens. The lesions of cornea were deterioration of some parts of central cornea epithelium, pyknosis of Bowmans membrane and keratocytes, degradation of Descemet membrane and endothelium. on the other hand necrosis and rarfaction of the stroma occurred: The previous lesions variable in the different regions of eye ball (dorsal, ventral etc.). The injuries were more sever in N.angora. The iris of C.mussulensis degenerate completely in some regions and appeared as a thin dens structure generally. In N.angora the iris dialated in some regions and several mass of melanocytes appeared in all of the area, necrosis of blood capillaries and gauanophore cells also appeared. In some regions the discrete feature of the iris disappeared. The choroid lesious in C.mussulensis appeared as: Necrosis and disruption blood capillaries, bleeding, necrosis rarefaction of the argentum layer, necrosis and shrinkage of choroid gland. In the N.angora most of the choroid was deteriorated. The sclera of the C.mussulensis showed rarefaction and unorganization of collagenous fibers at the central part, pyknosis and thining at the peripheral parts. In the N.angora rarefaction and swallowing of scleral collagenous fibers occurred. The optic nerve of the N.angora showed deterioration and edema in specific region. We could conclude that the low level of radiofrequency induced obvious and variable injuries in the nonsensory components of the eye of two species of fishes. The variation may be due to the species differences.

Modeling the population density and losses caused by the red and Khapra flour beetle and the impurity of the flour and its effect on its qualities

Ayad Y. Ismael

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 77-83
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57413

The regression of population density and nutrient medium weight of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum(Herbst) were 0.993, 0.987, respectively. Whereas, in Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarum(Everts) were 0.975, 0.948, respectively. The nutrient medium weight decreased significantly in red flour beetle in comparison with Khapra beetle and the result were 186.11, 188.67 gm respectively. In Khapra beetle the fermentation size changed significantly in comparison with red flour beetle and the result was 10.43, 18.58 cm3, respectively. There was no change in absorbed water and glutine weights in both insects, but there was significant change in comparison with control in initial time, two and four months after treatment.

Isolation and partial purification of the clotamine synthetase from the black bean plant (Nigella sativa L.)

Nehal Ezzat; Sajeda A. Abood

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 84-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57421

Callus induction occurred on stem segments of Nigella sativa L. seedlings grown on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 10-6 M of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4 – D).
Glutamine synthetase (EC 6. 3 . 1. 2) was isolated and partially purified from Nigella sativa L. callus the partially purified enzyme from the aqueous extract by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration on sephadex G – 200 revealed that the activity increased by 37 fold. The molecular weight by gel – filtration chromatography was found to be around 50000 Da. The optimum conditions of the partially purified glutamine synthetase from callus were obtained by using Tris – HCl (80 mM) at pH 2.7 as a buffer and 10 mM of glutamate as substrate with incubation temperature 30° C. The Michaelis Menten constants for glutamate, adenosinetriphophate and ammonium chloride were 10 × 10-3M, 2 × 10-3 M and 0.280 × 10-3 M respectively.

The inhibitory effect of the water extract of Olea auvopea on the growth of the ovaries and the digestive tract of the domestic fly Musca domestica L.

Najim S. Gorgees; Olfat T. Yaseen; Safaa M. Mahmoud

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 96-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57425

The effect of aqueous extract of Olea auvopea L. on inhibition of ovary growth in house fly Musca domestica L. as well as itُs effect on mid gut tissue structure, at concentrations, 0.5 , 1 , 2.5 and 5 % . Results show significant inhibition of ovary growth and itُs follicles at 1 , 2.5 and 5 % during 24 , 48 hours after emergence. After 72 hours of emergence, the concentrations 0.5 and 5 % were caused significant inhibition in ovary growth and its follicles also these concentrations led to reduction in ovary size and number of follicles as well as lyses with deformity in their shape and sheath.
The histological pictures showed separation of circular and longitudinal muscles from basal membrane and undistinguished of epithelial cells and reduction in circular muscles thickness.

Biological effect of acetone extract of Quercus infectoria and Hibiscus sabdariffa in some germs compared to a number of antibiotics

Sura Ibrahim Khader; Amera Ali Ahmed; Ibrahem Talal Dawod

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 108-116
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57412

The antibacterial activates of Quercus infectoria and Hibiscus sabdariffa extract were screened against Yersinia enterocolitica, Brucella melitensis, Listeria monocytogenes .
Nutgalls of Quercus infectoria and calyces of Hibiscus sabdriffa were extracted in acetone using a Soxhlet apparatus. Extract of the plants showed high antibacterial activates on all types of bacteria tested using well diffusion method.
The study also detecte the antibacterial effect to of some antibiotics using the disc diffusion method, The two extracts showed agood effect on Yersinia enterocolitica, the inhibition zone of nutgalls extract aganist this bacteria was (28)mm using the concentration (200) mg/cm3 which was greater than cephalexin, while the inhibition zone of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract was (20)mm using the same concentration which was greater than chloramphenicol.

Study of the Effect of Addition of ferrosilicon in Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Concrete Mix

Hameed Hummade; Nadhim A. Abdullah; Mothanna A. Abood; Mohammed Abeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 117-132
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57414

In this study we focused on adding ferrosilicon and this adding was in form of different ratio and constant size of these additive to the matrix of Iraqi cement (Om Quasar factory for cement). the prepared samples was in form of cubic and evaluated as they were treated different (water treatment, moisture treatment dry treatment). All the prepared samples had a proportion of (3/1 cement to sand) and in the form of cubes with aside (50 mm) long. they also had the weight–rate of the added ferrosilicon to the cement which was (1% - 5%). The obtained results showed that the cement mixture that had the weight rate of 1% at moisture curing is the best as it has good mechanical properties (flexural strength, splitting tensile, compressive strength). These properties have been used to study the resistance of the modified cement to the chemical agents that attack cement and concrete.

Construction of Arcs (k, 5) - at the level of Dizark PG (2,9) (*)

Abdulkhalik Yaseen; Farah Hasim Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2009, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 133-150
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57419

A (k,n) – arc in the finite projective PG(2,q) is defined to be the set K which is composed of k points such that there is a line passes through n points but no line can pass through more than n points. A (k,n) – arc is called complete if there is no (k+1,n) – arc containing it. In this research we have constructed and classified all the projectively distinct (k,5) – arcs for k = 7, 8, 9 in the projective planes PG(2,9). We proved that (k,5) – arcs are not complete in the projective plane PG(2, 9) for 5 k 25. We contructed and classified the (13,5) – arcs in the projective plane PG(2,9) where all of these arcs containing a conic by using a computer program .