Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 22, Issue 2

Volume 22, Issue 2, Spring 2009, Page 1-384

Synthesis of new Bismuth (III) compound and adducts of benzothiazol disulfide derivatives and their complexes with Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)

Nabeel. H. Buttrus; Z. U. Jassim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57684

Bismuth metal react with dibenzothiazole disulfide (C7H4NS2)2 in refluxing toluene to give the compound Bi(S2C7H4N)3 through oxidative addition reaction, similary, a mixture of bismuth, (C7H4NS2)2 and iodine in 1:1:0.5 molar ratio in refluxing toluene lead to the formation of Bi(S2C7H4N)2I. Adducts of new bismuth compounds with triphenyl-phosphine and 1,10-phenanthroline have been synthesized by direct reaction between the bismuth compounds and the neutral ligand. Trinuclear complexes of the general formula[Bi(S2C7H4N)3(MCl2)2] were prepared by a direct reaction of CoCl2.6H2O, NiCl2.6H2O or CuCl2.4H2O with bismuth compound. The bismuth compounds their adducts and the complexes have been characterized physico-chemically and spectro-scopically.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Tolnaftate in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Thair Tahssen; Nief Rahman Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57685

A highly, sensitive, indirect spectrophotometric method has been develop for the determination of tolnaftate in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the oxidation of tolnaftate with Fe(III) in acidic medium. Fe (III) subsequently reduces to Fe(II),which is coupled with potassium ferricyanide after heating for 10 minutes at 70 0C to form prussian blue and the absorbance of the product was measured at 785 nm against a reagent blank. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.02-0.16 ppm with molar absorptivity of 1.7 x106, relative standard deviation of the method was less than 2.5% and accuracy (average recovery %) was 100.3%. The effect of various factors such as temperature, heating time,concentration of reagents, and interferences were investigated to optimize the procedure. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of tolnaftate in pharmaceutical preparations (quadrim cream and topical solution). A statistical compartsion of these results with those of official method shows good agreement using "t" and "F" test at 95% confidence level. the results indicated that there is no systematic error and the present method has good validity.

Synthesis of New Compounds Bis-(N-Naphthal) Phthalisoimid, Bis-(N-Phenyl) Phthalisoimid and Studying Thermal Stabilty and Bio Activity

Marwan Mohammed F. All-Heety

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57682

Synthesis Cyclic Compounds which are difficult to obtain in normal ways. Developing our in formation concerning the Synthesis of two new Bis-Phthalamic Compounds from reaction between diamines Aromatic Compounds with Phthalic anhydride and add new Compounds to (Compounds Isoimids) by Synthesis two new Bis-Phthalisoimids from adding reagent (DCC) to the Bis- Phthalamic and Studying and diagnosing them by Spectrally (I.R.) in addition to the accurate quantitative elemental analysis. Studying the thermal stability to yield compound and the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compound was tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and some fungi. This method provides several advantages such as good yield, simple work-up procedure and environment friendly and have good effect upon some becteria and fungi.

Synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles

Shereen R. Mohamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 29-37
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57686

In this paper the synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles is reported. Ethyl methacrylate was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give the corresponding hydrazide (1). The hydrazide was converted to 1-acyl thiosemicarbazide (2) byits reaction with ammonium thiocyanate, which was treated with sodium hydroxide solution and with concentrated sulfuric acid to give 5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles-3-thiol (3) and 2-substituted-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (4) respectively. The acid hydrazide (1) was treated with benzaldehyde or substituted benzaldehyde to give hydrazones (7-12), the hydrazones were then cyclized with lead dioxide to 2-subtituted-5-phenyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole (14). The reaction of the hydrazide (1) with formic acid gave 1-formyl-2-acyl hydrazine (6) and the cyclization of (6) by phosphorus pentaoxide gave monosubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (13). Acid hydrazide (1) was treated with phenyl isothiocyanate to give substituted thiosemicarbazide (5).

Synthesis of some substituted pyrimidines via cycloaddition reaction of amidines and chalcones

H. M. Al-Ajely; G. T. Sedeek; M. S. Al-Ajely

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 38-46
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57680

Substituted amidines (1,2) where prepared from the condensation of benzyl, furfuryl alcohols and ethyl sulphate with thiourea. Chalcone compounds (3,5a and 5b) where also prepared from condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to give compound (3) while acetophenone, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde and 1,3-dibromopropane gave the diformyl intermediate (4) then it was underwent further reaction with either acetophenone or 4-methyl acetophenone to afford compounds (5a,5b) respectively. Condensation of the above amidines with the resulted chalcones or dichalcones afforded the substituted pyrimidines (6-11).
Their structures confirmation were studied by IR and were discussed.

Effect of Washed Sunflower Oil on Lipid Profile in the Experimental Hypercholesterolemia in the Adult Male Rats

Khalid H. H. Sharaf; Man S. Kalo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 47-59
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57681

Vegetable oils are considered to be active in modulation of the blood lipid profile and profilacting from cardiovascular diseases, oils extracted from plants (sunflower seeds) may also contains some polar substances which can interferes with their action, if these oils are exposed to some washing processes with worm water, these substances will be removed. A thirty adult albino male rats were divided into five groups and exposed to a hyperlipidemic and hypercholesterolemic diet (animal fats 16% of total calories) and H2O2 (0.5%) in the water for a 30 days for induction of hypercholesterolemia in addition to 15 days in which. sunflower oil are administered orally as a crude and washed oils at a doses of 300 and 600 mg/ kg body weight. There was no significant effect of the washing process on the nutritional status but there were a decrease in total cholesterol TC (50 %), phospholipids PL (42%), low density lipoproteins LDL-c (74%) and elevation in high density lipoproteins HDL-c (70%) resulted from the treatment with washed oil (600 mg/ kg body weight) in addition to decrease in liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In conclusion, the washing process of sunflower oil will improve it’s hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects.

Vancomycin Resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTI) in Mosul City

Muna M. Isaam

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 60-67
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57683

The present study includes the study of the inhibitory effect of vancomycin which has been used as the standard treatment for MRSA Staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Results showed the appearance of resistant isolates 9(19.69 %). Intermediate 5 (10.86 %) and susceptible 32(69.56 %). The study also revealed that there was a relationship between antibiotic resistance and exfoliative toxin producing (ETS) isolated from hospitalized patients suffering severe epidermal lesions. The incidence of ETS resistant to vancomycin was 3 (6.52 %) of total strains.

Twenty eight novel Schiff base metal complexes: A toxicity study with potato tuber moth, Phthormaea operculella Zeller, larvae

Amira Jehad Al-Shaheen; Juhaina Adrees Muhammad Ali; Hani Jehad Al-Aattar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 68-75
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57679

The toxicities of twenty-eight novel Schiff base metal(II) complexes to potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthormaea operculella Zeller, larvae were determined by separately exposing 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar larvae to treated potato slices in 2.5 cm dia Petri deshis. The insecticides Altracidin, Deltamac, and sevin were used as standards for comparisons. All Schiff base complexes tested were toxic at levels practical for PTM larvae control. However, some of them were much more toxic than others and generally, their toxicities decreased in successive instars. More than 1/2, 1/2, and 1/4 of the complexes were as or more effective than Ultracidin, Deltamac, and Sevin, respectively. The toxicity of the comple-xes tested could be attributed,at least in part, to their complimentarity with the site of action. Further laboratory and field tests are highly recom-mendded to fully assess the effectiveness of the most effective complexes as controls for PTM and/or other insects.

Effect of Carrier Transport on Thermal Distribution in Laser Diode

M. I. Azawe

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 76-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57678

A comprehensive numerical model to simulate self-heating effects of laser diode under continuous-wave operation is presented. The model is self-consistently accounts for the close interaction between optical, electrical, and thermal processes in the laser diode. Electro-thermal simulation offers the possibility of examining the effects on device performance of structure. Thermal profiles and time-dependent heat diffusion is presented in this investigation. Current injection modified the Peltier coefficient at interfaces; and gives rise to thermoelectric cooling at the active region and on the device parameters. Lattice temperatures, included in the rate equations were found to shift the frequency of the resonant dominant mode of the laser diode emission. 3D thermal plot of the thermal distribution was obtained in order to assess the heat diffusion as carrier-dependent for the laser diode.

Conduction Mechanism in Polyaniline -Polyacrylic Acid Blend

Hesham A.Saleh; Nadhim A.Abdullah; Hameed A.hamdi; Wael. A. S. Abdul Ghafor

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 92-101
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57709

The electrical properties of polyaniline-polyacrilic acid blend are reported using Al/Polymer/Al structured. The D.C. conductivity is measured in the temperature range (23-70) C˚ via two probe method. The current was measured at steady state conditions. The domains conduction mechanism was identified as Ionic conduction. The D.C conductivity and the activation energy were estimated to be 5.7x10-11 (Ω.cm)-1 while activation energy is (1.3 eV), and dark DC bulk conductivity of blend was observed to increase orders of magnitude in the investigated temperature range.

Measurement of Stopping Power, Residual Range and Equivalent Dose Rate of α- Particles in Polymers PP and PE

Ali KH. Hussain; Laith R. Mohammed; Ahmed K. Mheemeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 102-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57702

The stopping power of α-particles of initial energy 7.69 MeV (emitted from 214Po source) have been measured in the polyethylene(PE) and polypropylene(PP) using surface barrier detector technique and compared with calculated value by SRIM-2003 program. The deviations of the measured data from SRIM's results in PE and PP films are approximately about 0-7% and 0-11%. An empirical formulae between the stopping power and energy have been found. The residual energy, the residual range and the equivalent dose rate also calculated.

Laser Field Distribution Dependence on The Missing Holes of Photonic Crystal Fiber

Abdulghafoor Ibrahim Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 114-126
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57701

The aim of this study is to show the laser field distribution dependence on the number of missing holes in the core of the photonic crystal fiber, so that three different structure of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) were proposed, the parameters of the proposed structures are identical; hole diameter d is 0.46 µm, pitch size Λ is 2.3 µm, while the number of the hole rings (Nr) is one for all the structures. The difference only in the number of the missing holes in the center of the core, that means PCF1 of one missing holes, PCF2 of three missing holes, and PCF3 of four missing holes.
The characteristics of the PCFs structures such as effective index, dispersion, confinement losses and field distribution were calculated and discussed. The results of such study show that the increasing of the missing holes reduces the fluctuation in dispersion profile and pushing the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) towards the longer wavelength, in addition the confinement losses are reduced over a wide range of wavelength. This study shows, by the field distribution, that the PCFs of large core area are operated in high order mode.

On Strongly  – Regular Rings

Baida S. Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 127-131
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57704

The main goal of the work is to study a strongly -regular rings, which was introduce by Mohammad A. J. and Salih. S. M. in (2006). That is, a ring R is said to be strongly -regular if for every
a R there exists bR and a positive integer n≠1 such that a = a2bn.
We will study some basic properties of those rings. Finally, we show the relation between strongly -regular rings and other rings.

A Numerical Method for Accelerating the Convergence of the Power Method

Ekhlass S. Al-Rawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 132-146
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57705

This paper describes a procedure which combines between the Wilkinson and Aitken methods in order to obtain a best approximation of the greatest eigenvalue. Both the symmetric and the nonsymmetric matrices are solved. It shows that our suggested method converges quickly and it is quit insensitive to the properties of the matrices used. A comparison between these approximations for five numerical examples is given, depending on the number of iterations and running computer time. Experimental results indicate that the new numerical procedure is more efficient than Power, Wilkinson and Aitken methods.

Solution of Higher Order Linear Freadholm Integro-differential Equation by Elementary Approximation

Aml Jassim Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 147-154
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57703

In this paper, we found an approximate solution for solving linear Fredholm integro-differential equation, by using Aitken's method with the help of the successive iteration method. Some numerical example were presented to show the accuracy of this method.

Biometric Identification by Fingerprint Image Based Minutiae Detection

Israa Mohamed Khidher

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 155-166
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57707

In an increasingly digital world, reliable personal authentication has become an important human computer interface application, some examples where establishing a person’s identity. Biometrics is the science of verifying the identity of an individual through physiological measurements or behavioral attributes. Biometrics such as fingerprint, face and voice print offers means of reliable personal authentication. Fingerprints were one of the important forms of biometric identification to be used for law and civilian applications.
Data base images for fingerprint images are selected from the First International Fingerprint Verification Competition FVC2000/DB2. Then a primary processing to these images are performed through the transformation from RGB color to binary form using the derivative of Gaussian filter scheme because, the excellence of this scheme in edge detection. The Sobel horizontal and vertical gradient are relied to compute the ridge angle and to detect its orientation, then to detect the details accurately image morphological operations are used for thinning operation. These images are segmented to image portions represented by blocks also to segment the finger tip to image portions contain details assimilate by ridges ending as well ass ridges bifurcation. Indeed, to detect the details of the fingerprint Crossing Number method is relied with the resultant binary portions to test them if they represent ridge ending or ridge bifurcation. The proposed work shows efficient results exceeds 82% compared with other system on the same field.

Recognizing Text Objects within Images By Uses Fractal Dimension

Omar A. Najim; Eklass A. Sultan; Hanaa F. Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 167-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57706

This paper proposes a new algorithm for recognizing text object images by using fractal geometry. The fractal dimension was used as a main feature for recognizing text objects within images. Box-counting method was used to estimate the fractal dimension for image contents. In order to determine a threshold value for the textual objects within image, the fractal dimension was computed for a number of gray scale textual images. The fractal number of each pixel was calculated, then the mean value of all these fractal values were computed. The threshold value was used in recognizing and retrieving the textual objects within image.
This algorithm was applied on 75 image samples, 25 image samples were used in training phase, the threshold value was determined throughout this phase; whereas 50 image samples were used in testing the algorithm. The proposed algorithm has performed extremely well with recognition rates 91.5% which is considered good performance. It is a promising technique for optical character recognition system.

Proposed Model For Teleradiological System For Medical Telediagnosis Process

Rafida Hameed Ahmad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 178-184
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57708

The need and importance of radiographs in the diagnostic process makes the Telediagnosis system depends on the Teleradiology application and its services as important sources for diagnostic information.
This article discusses this need that creates faster diagnosis. A proposed teleradiological prototype system was described, which can be used in the open hospitals on the Internet.
The scenario of such system that explains the role of radiologist in the diagnosis process was explained. The equipments needed for the information of this system, methods of transmission, and some of current teleradiology systems in use were mentioned.

Study of optimum conditions for formation of phenolic azoeimine

Adel Saeed Azzoz; Mohammed M. Al-Nuami

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57669

The main object of the study is concerned with studying optimal conditions for the azo dyes formed by the reactions of the mother compound 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde and its twelveth imine derivatives in the forms of oxime and Schiff bases by the spectrophotometric method, at different experimental pH,s.
This study include several experimental factors as volume of reagent, best volume of a Na2CO3 base to obtain the desired pH, order of addition, development time with stability period and optimal wavelengths of the dye complexes. The study comes to a conclusion that each of the experimental factors just mentioned depends primaraly on the chemical structure of imines.
The stoichiometry for all formede dyes under study, are determined by using a mole ratio method and founded to be of types 1:1.

Effect of protein compound isolated from Lens culinaris in mice exposed to experimental oxidative stress

Alaa Mohammed; Nashwan Ibrahem; Eman Saeed Shamuoin

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57650

Its clear that the plants were the important source for drugs before chemicals products in the 60s, but its used was expand in advanced countries. This study was concerned with preparation of cold aqueous extract of Lentil seeds, and also comprised the separation of study the proteinous compound from cold proteinous precipitate by using gel filtration technique and its approximated molecular weight was amount (1710.8) Dalton.
The effects of crud aqueous, non proteinous extracts, proteinous precipitate and proteinous compound were studied on serum glucose, total cholesterol (T.C), triglyceride (TG) in female mice which was exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, also on glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver and kidney tissues which belong to it. Extracts were administrated interaperitioneally.
The results indicated that after one week of treatment with the individual extracts mentioned above the serum glucose, T.C, TG, levels and MDA level in liver and kidney tissues were decreased significantly (p<0.05) while GSH level in liver kidney tissues were significantly increase (p<0.05) in female mice which were exposed to oxidative stress. Finally, we may conclude that the extracts isolated from the lentil seeds plants especially proteinous compound have antioxidants and hypoglycemic.

Immune response in BALB/c mice by polyamine oxidase isomer against infection with secondary hydatid disease.II.Total and differential WBCs count.

wathba Edris Tohala; Khawola Flayeh; Asmaa ِAbdulaziz Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 33-46
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57676

Polyamine oxidase activity in cerebrospinal fluid of normal children was determined, it was found that specific activity of crude PAO 64.16  8.18 enzyme unit/mg protein. Partial purification of the enzyme was performed by dialysis and ion exchange chromatography. Two main peaks of high PAO activities were obtained I,II with specific activity of 1201.92 and 1157.22 enzyme unit/mg protein, and with purification fold of 18.17 and 17.50 respectively.
Innate immune response to infection with secondary hydatid disease in BALB/c mice activated by partially purified CSF-PAO with spermine and infected with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus was studied. The changes in total and differential leukocyte count shown in mice activated by different concentrations of PAO II 200-1000g / 10 gm body weight with constant concentration 200 g Spm, were compared with positive and negative control group, along one month. Changes in leukocytes were followed in activated BALB/c mice with optimum concentration 800 g/10 gm body weight PAO II with 200 g Spm compared with positive control group throughout two and three months, depending on the mentioned criteria.
An elevation in the total leukocytes count, expressed by an increase in the number of lymphocytes accompanied by a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes in mice activated with PAO-Spm system, for (one) month, and also in mice activated with optimum concentration of PAO-Spm system, for (tow and three) months, in comparison with the +ve control group.
Therefore, it is concluded that PAO II isolated from CSF with Spm could be considered as an effective stimulator for innate immune response against infection with secondary hydatid disease.

effect of lead and nickel on growth and some physiological aspects of Helinthus annus L.

Faik Hassan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 47-60
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57670

Biological study was conducted in a green-house at Mosul University, College of Education, Department of Biology. The aim is to study the effect of different concentrations of heavy metals lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) at levels (0,100, 200, 300) mg/Kg of soil on growth and some physiological aspects for sun flower plant.
The results of the study showed that addition of the lead and nickel to the soil showed a significant decrease in growth, relative water content, degree of cytoplasmic membrane, chlorophyll (a,b), total (a+b), chlorophyll (a/b), area of leaves / plant, carbohydrates and protein content of leaves.
While there was a significant increase of proline accumulation in leaves. In the other hand, there was a significant increase in the concentration of lead in comparison with nickel's concentration.

Isolation of leptin hormone from plasma and molecular weight estimation using bio techniques

Nawal Thnoon Youis; Qusi Al Jalabi; Thikra Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 61-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57654

The research include the isolation of leptin hormone from plasma of female by gel filtration chromatography technique using separating column 1002Cm containing Sephadex G - 75 produced 5 bands where number 5 showed leptin concentration 0.5ng/ml.
The apparent molecular weight of leptin had been determined by gel filtration chromatography technique using Sephadex G - 75, and by SDS electrophoresis, the results showed that the apparent molecular weight for the band number 5 of leptin hormone was 15750353 Dalton and 16000 Dalton respectively.

Effect of microwaves on growth of Nigella sativa seedlings and Callus development.

Osama Mohammed Saeed; Rehab AbdulJabar Hamed; Hana Saeed Abdulalla

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 71-81
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57675

The research included the effect of microwaves on Nigella sativa seedling ,which grown on the culture media for germination of seeds and seedling growth. This was done by exposure of seeds to microwaves for different periods, the results showed that the germination percent of seeds exposed to microwaves for (100) minutes, was nearly that of the seeds in the control treatment ,it reached to 90%,94% respectively ,this was after 7days
from culture.
Germination percent in the other treatments ranged between 68%-88%, also the mean of seedlings length which grown from seeds exposed to microwaves for 20 and 120 minutes reached 2.5 and 2.4 cm respectively ,and so it is closely to 2.6 cm for the control treatment.
On the other hand, the results cleared that the stem explants of seedlings containing a node, exposed to microwaves, varied by their response for callus initiation, that is after 20 days from culture. The explants in the control treatment showed good (+++) response, while in the other treatments where explants exposed to microwaves showed less (++) response than the control. except that exposed for (100) minutes, the response was similar to that of the control.
The fresh weight of callus grown for 45 days from stem explants exposed to microwaves for 20 and40 minutes were 2.0 and 2.1 g respectively compared with 2.3 g for the control. In spite that the maximum fresh weight of callus gained in this study which was 6.8 g after 70 days growth from explants exposed for 80 minutes to microwaves ,but it is still less than 8.5 g for the control

Genetic basis of fungicidal Carboxin resistance in Aspergillus amstelodami

Sahey Juad Thahey; Hana Ramathan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 82-90
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57668

A Sample of 63 mutants resistant to the fungicide carboxin (Vitavax) was isolated in the parental strains A76 (bwA nicA, brown conidia, nicotinic acid-requiring) and AZG131 (wA lysA azgA131, white conidia, lysine-requiring and resistant to 8-azaguanine) of the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus amstelodami. All mutants were normal in their morphology and recessive to their respective wild type alleles. Complementation tests in heterokaryons among the mutants put them all in a single gene designated carA (for resistance to carboxin) as the first gene of its kind to be identified in A. amstelodami. Haploidization analysis has shown that carA is not linked in any of the chromosomes I, II, III, IV or VII, but its linkage relation to the other groups (V, VI, VIII or IX) recognized in this fungus was not determined.

Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of Nigella sativa L. callus

Hekmat Mustafa Al Doliemy; Sajeda Aziz Aboud

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 91-99
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57667

The effect of different doses of gamma rays on the fresh weight and some cell constituents of Black seed (Nigella sativa L.) stem callus was investigated.
The results revealed an increase in the fresh weight with an increase in the cellular contents of protein and nucleic acid (DNA, RNA) extracted from radiated callus at doses 5,10, 30 and 50 rad, on the other hand, the high doses (70, 90 rad) led to death more than of 50% of initiating cells of callus.
Shoots formation occurred on radiated callus, at dose 50 rad. In solid MS media, which are provided with 2,4–D(10-6 M). Verdure branches that occurred on radiated callus have been rooted by using MS free growth regulators. The plant developed on this medium can be readly transfered to the soil after harding.

Preparation of local culture media for growth of Salmonella typhi

Bushra Daley Hamd; Mohsen Auob Essa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 100-114
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57671

This study deals with the ability of preparing local culture Media which can be used as a suitable replacement of Blood agar medium used for diagnosis of Salmonella typhi by using some of plant and animals extracts as fish, dates and Alfalfa extracts. fish and dates extracts were used together to prepare a local medium, the study showed that the optimum proportions were (70)% fish extracts and (30)% dates extracts and other medium consists of fish and alfalfa extracts with an optimum proportions of (70)% fish extracts and (30)% alfalfa extracts, it selective and differential media were prepared and used to isolate and identify Salmonella typhi.

Mutagenic effect of hydroxyl amine on resistance of antibiotics and heavy metals in isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Ibrahem Talal Dawood; Khaled Daham Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 115-125
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57652

Twenty isolates of bacteria Klebsiella were collected from different clinical specimens of human infection from Al-Salam, Al-Khansa’a and Ibn-Alatheer hospitals in Mosul city. These isolates were identified by using microscopical examination, culture characteristics, biochemical tests and API20E test used for confirmation detection. The isolates belonged to the species K. pneumonia. The ability of the isolates to resist nine antibiotics and heavy metals (cadmium chloride and mercury chloride) were tested. The isolates varied in there antibiotic resistance, but they all they resisted heavy metals. Moreover the mutagen hydroxylamine (H.A.) was used to remove the antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in these isolates by two methods. 1M concentration of (H.A.) for 50 minutes treatment appear to be very effective and high percents of antibiotic resistance for amoxicillin 40% and trimethprim 38% occur in some isolates and for cefalixin 28% in other isolates. Increasing the mutagen concentration to 2M for 50 minutes appeared even more effective.

Histological and histochemical structure of sinus gland and neurosecretory granules in local freshwater Astacus Potamon magnum magnum (Pretzman)( arthropoda:Crustacea:Decapoda)

Baida Abdulaziz Barwari; Najem Shlemoon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 126-148
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57674

The current study is the first one, at least, in Mosul University, and perhaps, in other universities in Iraq, being a new topic, the sinus gland. Furthermore, an original and successful method was found and used to overcome an old and difficult problem regarding the sectioning of the eyestalks which are covered by a thick, hard and calcified cuticle that causes destruction of the sections. Five histological and nine histochemical staining techniques were employed. The results have clearly shown the presence of only one sinus gland in each eyestalk. It is an elongated ellipsoid structure, dorsoventral in position and composed of four principal elements, the capsule, axon terminals, stromal tissues, and blood sinuses and vessels. Four patterns of neurosecretory granules were distinguished and classified according to certain basic criteria.

Investigation on some Beta- lactamase enzym types in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae

Mohammed Ibrahem Altee; Mahmoud Zakei Alhaso

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 149-158
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57657

Detection of β–lactamases was conducted in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba L.. Acidimetric method was used to detect the occurrence of β–lactamases in general, the isolate gave a positive result. Detection of extended–spectrum β–lactamase (ESBLs) was also performed using two methods; double disk synergy method and the method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The isolate gave a positive results too. R. leguminosarum biovar viciae also showed a resistance to cefoxitin, which consider a primary evidence for being a potential producer of AmpC β–lactamase. The results clearly indicated the occurrence of more than one type of β–lactamases in the tested isolate, which might be used as a defensive mean for survival and resisting β–lactams antibiotics in the surrounding soil.

Effect of ethifone cocentrations, size and seeds viability in some physiological features and viable material in local pea ( Pisum sativum L.)

Mohammed Abdulelah Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 159-173
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57673

The study was carried out in a field of khorsebat region (north-east of Mosul city) during season 2001-2002 with silty loam soil in order to investigate the effect of different Ethephon concentrations (0, 240, 480, 720) gr/ha a.i. on local species of pea (Pisum sativum L.). the plants were germinated from large and small seeds as well as low and high viability. In order to decreased the viability, the seeds were exposured to 100% humidity and 40 Co for 48 hours. The seeds were grown under rain-fed irrigation. The result showed a significant decrease in plant length, Leaf Area Duration (L.A.D.), Relative Growth Rate (R.G.R.), Biomas Duration (B.M.D.) and Net Assimilation Rate (N.A.R.) when increasing the concentration of Ethephon more than 480 gr./ha. But on the other hand, the plants decreased at the minimum rates of Ethephon 240 gr./ha. Moreover, a significant increase was observed for large seeds as compared with the small seeds in all the studied descriptions even in low viability. Furthermore, the minimum concentration of Ethephon increased the studied descriptions or the low viability seeds previously mentioned.

Effect of light and nitrogen concentration and phosphorus on growth and protein component of Oscillatoria angustissima algae

Balqis yahya Alsoufi; Mohammed Basheer Ismael; Yousef Jabar Alshahery

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 174-186
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57677

An is isolate of Oscillatoria angustissima was obtained from local environment at Mosul city. The results showed that the growth was high and achieved (0.399) as an optical density after fifteen days of incubation in a continuous light’s period. While the growth reach upto (0.309) as an optical density when the culture exposed to 12 hour light and 12 hour dark, but did not achieve any growth when it used continuo's dark period. For all used photoperiods, the final pH was significantly higher than the primary pH. The maximum growth for algal (0.37) as an optical density when the concentration of nitrogen in culture medium was (0.09%) while the protein content was (309) mg/L when the concentration of nitrogen in culture medium was (0.15%). The results also showed that the maximum growth for algal (0.33) as an optical density was achieved when the concentration of phosphor in culture medium was (0.13%) and protein content was (288) mg/L. The final pH was significantly higher than the primary pH for all the used concentration nitrogen and phosphor.

Morphological effect of Ceftriaxone on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis

Mahmoud Zakei Alhaso

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 187-194
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57659

The effect of ceftriaxone on the morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis was investigated by incubating the bacterial suspensions with serial doubled concentrations of the antibiotics for (4) hrs. The results showed that ceftriaxone induces obvious morphological changes in the tested bacteria. Cell elongation and filamentation, with various levels, were the most frequent changes observed. The study also found that these morphological changes depend on the antibiotic concentration.

Production of polysaccharides and unicell protein by some types of Penicillum

Najelaa Tariq Altekrety; Reyad Khelel Barhowy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 195-203
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57692

The study was conducted to show the ability of three species of Penicillium; P. roquiforti, P. camemberti and P. viricosum for single cell protein and polysaccharides production. The results indicated that
P. viricosum, P. camemberti, P. roquforti achieved highest figures in polysaccharides (0.21 gm/100ml), dry weight (1.8 gm/100ml) and protein content (0.72 gm/100ml) respectively.
The effect of different nitrogen sources were studied. Ammonium phosphate gave maximum productivity in polysaccharides, protein content and biomass production, (0.23, 0.86 and 2.65 gm/100ml) respectively. At the same time 0.4% Ammon. Phoph. showed highest productivity in polysaccharides production (0.235 gm/100ml) while 0.6% of the same nitrogen source gave maximum growth and protein content, (2.8 & 1.1 gm/100ml) respectively.

Repellent effect of some plant powders in three types of stored grains beetles

Moneif Abed Mostafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 204-211
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57698

This study aimed to test the repellent effect powders of Solanum nigrum L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Nerium olender L., Ammi majus L., Pimpinela anisum L., Cinamomum zylanicum L., Olivera decumbence and Azadirachta excelsa Jack, at four concentrations 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 % as flour or rice grains or wheat grains treatment against the adults of Tribolium confusum L., Oryzeaphillus surinamensis L. and the third instar larvae of Trogoderma granarium Everts. Results indicated that powders of all plants showed repellent effect to the adults of O. surinamensis, except the powder of N. olender, the powder of A. majus causing high repellent to adults (- 0.952) at 4% concentration. Results showed that S. nigrum, C. zylanicum and N. olender powders had high effective repellent for T. confusum , the repellent proportion ranging between (- 0.529 to - 0.714) at 2 and 4 % concentraions. The results clearly indicated that S. nigrum was the most effective repellent (- 0.714) at 2 % concentration for the third instar larvae of T. granarium than other powders, the C. zylanicum, A. excelsa and N. olender powders were least effective repellent, while the P. anisum, A. majus, C. sempervirens and O. decumbence which attracted larvae.

Isolation and diagnosis of bacteria found in frozen beef imported in the city of Mosul

Walaa AbdulWahed Aljowady; Saba Abdulrahem Hassan; Hithem Abdulalla Rjab

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 212-222
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57700

The aim of this study was isolation and identification of the bacterial presence in imported beef frozen meat. The study included examination of (60) beef frozen meat samples in the period between Feb.-Jun. 2007. The samples were collected from the shops in Mosul city. A total of 1(1.66%) Corynbacterium ranle isolates was obtained. 2 (3.33%) Corynhacterium pyogenis was obtained. 5(8.33%) E. coli was obtained, 10(16%) Proteus vulgaris was obtained, 1(1.66%) Proteus mirabilis, was obtained, 9(15%) Budvicia aquatica was obtained, 1(1.66%) Citrobacter diversns, 2(3.33%) Salmonella enteritidis, 1(1.66%) Arizona, 1(1.66%) Serratia marcescens, 1(1.66%) Edwardsiella tarda. 2(3.33%) Edwardsiella ictaluri, 2(3.33%) Pasteurella muttocdia, 1(1.66%) Pasteurella acrogenes 3(5%) Morganella, 2(3.33%) Staphylococcus aureus, 2(3.33%) Bacillus cerus, 1(1.66%) Pseudomonas, 1(1.66%) Yersinia enterocoli 2(3.33%) Klebsilla pneumonia was obtained. The samples transported to lab. and each sample was put in 15 ml of buffer peptone water and shaked for five minutes then (1-2) ml of each sample was transported to 10 ml of the (2) type of enrichment broth. The first Tetrathionate broth which contained iodine solution and incubated in 42 C for 48 hours. The second broth was Brain heart infusion broth and the samples incubated in (37 C) for 24 hours, and then the sampls transported inculated in Tetrathionate broth to Salmonella-Shigella agar and incubated in 37 C for (24) hours and the samples which were inculated in brain heart broth transported to Macconcy agar, blood agar and Nutrient agar and incubated in 37 for 24 hours, the study conducted several biochemical tests including citrate, urea, methyl red, indol, Voges-Proskaure, Triple iron sugar. Coagulation test, and incubated the tubes in 37 C for 24 hours, except Voges-Proskaure which incubated in 37 C for 48 h. The antibiotics sensitivity test was also carried out for many types of antibiotics such as (Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, amoxcycillin, Gentamycin, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxcin).

Effect of two aqueoua extracts of Myrtus communis and Thuja orientalis in growth and development of Musca domestica L. ovary

Najem Shalmoon; Safa Mohammed Mahmoud

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 223-241
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57693

Several preliminary experiments were carried out to detect the effects of eight aqueous plant extracts on the growth and development of the ovaries and their follicles. The two best extracts were chosen and used in this study. The results of the microscopical preparations and statistical analysis clearly show that the sublethal concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, %20) of the leaves extract of Myrtus communis and of the fruits extract of Thuja orientalis, which were chosen and used against the second instars of housefly, have shown a highly significant inhibitory effect on the growth and development of the ovaries and ovarian follicles when compared with those of control specimens. Not only this, but some concentrations have reduced the number of the follicles and have sometimes led to their degradation and disappearance either partially or completely. Therefore, the aqueous plant extracts are preferred on those of alcoholic and acetonic ones because the former are easy to prepare, cheep, with highly significant effects.

studying stages of embryonic development and histological structure of aural organ in Nueregus crocatus crocatus L.

Shereen Yaseen Kasim; Ismael Salo Hassan; Hani Malalla Hamodi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 242-268
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57699

The present study is carried out to investigate the development of the auditory organ in the embryos, Larvae and adults of urodele amphibians Salamander Neurergus crocatus crocatus cope. The study includes the morphology, anatomy and histological structures at the level of light microscope. The development of auditory organ of Neurergus crocatus crocatus initiated at early stages of embryogenesis. The first signals were the appearance of two ectodermal thickenings opposite to the rhombencephalon. These two thickenings were auditory placodes at (24) stage of embryo. The ontogeny of auditory organ continued until at stage (30) at which the auditory pits formed the auditory vesicles and the endolymphatic duct primordium appeared. At late embryonic stages (31-39) characterized by the appearance of endolymphatic sac and elongation of auditory vesicle into tubal form and differentiation of saccules at ventral side and utricle of dorsal side. In addition, the membranous labyrinth is more developed and the horizontal semicircular canal is well identified. At the larval stages (40-49) the macula sacculi and macula utriculi in addition to the anterior, posterior,horizontal, semicircular canals were obvious and their epithelium well developed . At stage 47 the posterior and anterior ampulla,the prospective ear drum,the cochlear primordium well differentiated the metamorphic stage characterized by the differentiation of middle ear from phargngeal pouch and well developed cochlear epithelium.The auditory organ of adult stage includes circumferential cartillagenous capsule envelopes the inner ear, well developed membranous labyrinth, Eustachian tube, ear drum, and columella middle ear very obvious.

Effect of polluted soil with cadmium and lead in growth, yield and chemical structure in Carthamus tinctorius L. under nitrogen nutrition

Hanan Amir Abdulalla; Faiza Aziz Mahmoud

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 269-288
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57695

This study aims to investigate the effect of soil pollution with lead, cadmium and their interference in the levels of (0, 125, 250) ppm and (0, 2.5, 5.0) ppm respectively on growth, yield and some physiological changes in the plant (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under nitrogen nutrition condition.
The results of the study showed that the addition of lead and cadmium incrementally to the soil separately or jointly leads to decrease in the growth, yield, seed production and its content of protein, carbohydrate and oil .while the addition of nitrogen to the soil lead to increase the growth, yield and increased the tolerance of plants to the lead and cadmium elements when compared with the plants growing in soil containing lead and cadmium but with the absence of nitrogen nutrition.

Comparative histological study of eye cornea in three fresh water bone fishes

Ekhlas Khaleefa Hamed; Ali Ashqer Abed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 289-315
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57694

The present study carried out to investigate the comparative histological structure of the eye cornea for three species of fresh water teleosts fishes at the level of light microscope. The three species belong to two different families .The species studied were Garra lamta, Acanthobrama marmid and Mastacembelus simach. These species live in different photic aquatic environments, as well as differ in feeding nature.
The results reveald that the cornea, of the three species, comprises two different structural regions: the peripheral and the central. Generally the histological structure of the cornea include a layer of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The epithelium was settled on a thin membrane called Bowman's membrane. Alternative to Bowman's membrane the corneal stroma, which differs in number, nature and thickness of the collagenous fibres among the three species and intraocularly.The stroma settled on a thin Descemet membrane which lining with a single layer of endothelium.
The peripheral cornea reveald wide different structural specializations among the three species and also differ in various ocular regions in the same species. The first specialization was the appearance of mucous (goblet) cells which presents in the corneal epithelium of G. lamta and A. marmid only .The second specialization was the annular ligament which appeared in the three species and differ in shape, thickness and stain among the three species as well as intraocularly. On the other hand, the annular ligament may be reduced or absent. The annular ligament of the M. Simach only comprise the blood capillaries.
The third specialization was the appearance of autochthonous layer in the cornea of A. marmid only, which differ in the thickness and stain in the different regions of the eye ball.

*البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستیر للباحث الثانی وبإشراف الباحث الأول.
The stroma showed wide variations in it'sthickness and components among the three species and in the eye ball of the same species. The stroma of G. lamta was composed of dermal and scleral portions. The scleral one more dense in staining than the dermal. In the A. Marmid the stroma very thick and the scleral portion more lucident. The stroma of A. marmid showed atransverse sutures in the dermal and in some parts of scleral. In M. simach, there were wider variations in the inner layers of peripheral cornea. The dorsotemporal region was very thickness and consists of additional layers, in that the sclera composed of dermal portion and the scleral stoma was divided into posterior and anterior portions. In addition mucoid lucident layer and iridescent layer added in the dorsotemporal region as well as a melanophores (colour filter) and a muscle inserted in the iris root. One of the most important specializations were the presence of primary spectacles in M. simach and secondary spectacles in the A. marmid but not in G. lamta.

Effect of alcohol on some physiological and biochemicall varies in the blood of alcoholics

Mahmoud Ismael Aljbouri

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 316-323
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57697

This study was conducted to determine the effect of alcohol dduct on some of blood parameters and biochemical activities. there for fourty blood samples from anormal and alcohol addicted healthy males Then they were compared with (20) blood samples collected from anon-alcohclic healthy persons as a contral group.
Results show a significent increase in the concentration of Hb and PCV in all (3) groups as compared with control group. There were a significent decrease in the concentration of total protein in (3) groups acompared with the a control group, while the blood urea increased significantly as compared with the control group and the results revealed also significent increase in the enzyme of transaminases (Alanine amino transferase ALT and aspartate aminotransferase AST) as compared with the control group.

Production of Gladiolus grandiflorus by tissue culture technique

Khazel Ali Ameen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 324-332
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57687

We achieved an economical conclusion for Laboratory propagation of gladiolus bulbs Gladiolus grandiflorus using tissue culture techniques. This method include the use of corm slices with 8-10 millimeters thickness which were lied in contact with Murashige and Skoog solid medium supported with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L of NAA or 2,4-D interaction with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L) of BA and Kinetin. The number of shoots obtained at the level of 4.0 mg/L BA combined with 1.0 mg/L of NAA was 5.1 folds while the largest number of shoots 4.9 folds were found with the kin at 4.0 mg/L with 1.0 mg/L of NAA. The later has more impact on vegetative growth and the number of shoots formed than 2,4-D.
The sucrose and NAA had a great effect on the rooting of shoots and formation of corms, through the best periods of time for each of them. Rooting were 100% when used 60 g/L sucrose within 14 days, and took 56 days to produce corms.
When 90 g/L of sucrose were used with 10 mg/L NAA for rooting, shoots were rooted within 11 days and corm formation 7.0 corm/shoot were accomplished after 42 days. The corms were ready for planting in the filed.

Effect of microwave irradiation on optical properties of Barium Oxide thin films

Mohammed Mahmoud Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 333-338
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57696

Barium oxide (BaO) is a transparent conducting oxides, it was deposited on glass substrates using a chemical bath deposition which contain barium chlorid (BaCl2) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The optical properties of the films including the transmittance and absorbance was studied and the energy gap was calculated. The optical properties of the films studied after radiation by microwaves with power range (360W) for a time range (1-3) min. the result show an increase in the film transmittance.

surface orientation analysis of spatial data with the application

Dena Adonia Odeshoo; Mohammed Natheer Ismael

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 339-353
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57691

This paper investigates the problem concerning the analysis of trend surface of spatially correlated data, we have got the model of trend surface based on an assumed covariance function. This function contains parameters called variance components, these parameters are estimated by maximum likelihood estimation that depends on Newten-Raphson algorithms to obtain the convergent solutions.
The applied representation includes the analysis of real spatial data which represent the level of ground water in Al-Qaaim west of Iraq, the results is very encouraging.
All algorithms are programmed by MATLAB.

Kinds of crossed modules

Loma Ahmed Khalel; Abdulalee Jasim Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 354-369
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57689

This investigate concerned with some kinds of crossed module like pre cross modules, partially crossed module and crossed squares and it relations with semi-direct products of crossed module.

Minimum template groups in PG(2,q) and finding minimum template groups size 16&17 in PG(2,9)

Chanar Abdulkareem Ahmed; AbdulKhlaq Lazem Yaseen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 370-384
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57688

A t – blocking set B in a projective plane PG(2, q) is a set of points such that each line in PG(2, q) contains at least t points of B and some line contains exactly t points of B.
A t – blocking set B is minimal or irreducible when no proper subset of it is a t – blocking set. In particular when t = 1 then B is called a blocking set.
In this paper, we find the lower bounds of the 5 – blocking set and the 6–blocking set In the projective plane PG(2, q), where q square, Then we improved the lower bound of 5– blocking set when in the same plane.
Specially in the projective plane PG(2, 9):
First: We show that the minimal blocking set of size 16 with a 6 – secant and the minimal blocking set of the same size of Rédei-type exist.
Second: We classify the minimal blocking sets of size 17.