Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 22, Issue 3

Volume 22, Issue 3, Summer 2009, Page 1-177


Synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles from 2-(2,3-dimethylphenyl amino) benzoic acid

Khalid Daoud; Shereen R. Mohamed; Nagham M. Z. Al-Niami

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57764

ABSTRACT
In this paper the synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles was achieved. 2-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino) benzoic acid was esterified to its ethyl ester by its reaction with absolute ethanol in presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. The ethyl ester was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give the corresponding hydrazide. The hydrazide was converted to substituted thiosemicarbazide by its reaction with ammonium thiocyanate. The thiosemicarbazide was treated with sodium hydroxide solution and with sulfuric acid to give 5-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino phenyl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 2-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino phenyl)-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole respectively. The acid hydrazide was treated with substituted benzaldehyde to give hydrazones which cyclized to disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole, while the reaction of hydrazide with formic acid followed by cyclization of formyl hydrazine by PbO2 to give monosubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Finally, treatment of hydrazide with carbon disulfite in alcoholic potassium hydroxide gave 2-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-thiol. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral means.

Synthesis of Some Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles from Hydrazones

Khalid M. Daoud; A. K. Ahmad; Amal N. Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 11-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57755

ABSTRACT
In this paper the synthesis of some 2-(3-pyridyl)-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles from hydrazones is reported. Nicotinic acid was converted to ethyl nicotinate (1) by its reaction with thionyl chloride and the resultant acid chloride was treated with absolute ethanol, the ethyl nicotinates was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give the corresponding acid hydrazide (2). The acid hydrazide was treated with benzaldehyde or substituted benzaldehyde to give the hydrazones (3-8). The hydrazones were cyclized to 2-(3-pyridyl)-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (4-14) by their reaction with lead oxide.
The structure of the synthesised compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral methods.

A study on Aromatic Amino acid Auxotrophs of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii

Raad Hassani Sultan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 19-29
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57750

Abstract
Local Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii isolate was treated with nitrous acid for mutagenesis. Out of 66 auxotrophic mutants, seven aromatic amino acid auxotrophs were isolated. According to their requirements were classified into three auxotrophic mutants which considered as trp- mutants (RH57, RH114 and RH70), one (RH53) for phenyalanine, two (RH61 and RH84) for tyrosine and one (RH99) for all these amino acids. According to biochemical and intermediates accumulation studies tryptophan auxotrophic mutants could classified into two trpE mutants (RH57 and RH114) and one trp auxotroph (RH70), was tryptophan synthase mutant. Normal symbiotic activity as indicated by mean dry shoot weight, was observed in the tryptophan synthase mutant (RH70). The plants inoculated with aro and trpE mutants fixed nitrogen but significantly less than that of the RH49 inoculated plants, whereas the tyrosine and phenylalanine auxotrophic mutants inoculated clover plants were completely ineffective in nitrogen fixation. The clover plant host seems to provide tryptophan but not tyrosine and phenylalanine to bacteroids in nodules.

Protective effect of injectable iron on cadmium-induced anemia in rats

Ghada A. Taqa; Jawnaa K. Mamdoh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 30-35
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57752

Abstract
The current paper studied, the protective effect of iron on anemia induced by Cadmium (Cd). Fifteen male albino rats selected in this study divided into three groups, first group as control, 2nd and 3rd groups received oral CdCl2 25mg /L mixed with drinking water for one month. Third group treated four dosage of injected iron (iron Dextran) at 50 mg/kg intraperitonially in addition to cadmium drinking water. The result of this study showed a significant decreased of iron concentration in plasma of Cd treated group but there is a significant increase in iron concentration in 3rd group compared to 2nd group p < 0.05 while there is a significant elevated with alanine aminotransferase enzyme in 2nd and 3rd group in comparing to control group. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme no change. Conclusions: this study concluded that iron supplement is prevent anemia induced by long exposure to cadmium.

An Ecological Study On Water To Some Thermal Springs In Koya-Erbil Province, Iraq

Yadi O. M. Al-Barzingy; Siraj M. Goran; Janan J. Toma

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 36-48
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57762

Abstract
In spite of existing a number of thermal springs in Iraq. A limited studies were observed to be found concerning it. Where there are a little information concerning their types of organisms. The present study is an attempt to expand springs water characteristics and algal occurrences.
Monthly variations in physico-chemicals variables and algae were studied in Mersaid and a Jale springs from July-2007 to February-2008. It was found that water temperature ranged from 24 to 35C°. Minimum value of pH was 6.9 and maximum value of electrical conductivity is 1350µs.cm-1.Oxygen concentration was zero. No significant variations are found in the alkalinity and total hardness during the period of study. Calcium and sulfate ions are the dominant cations and anions respectively. It was found 22 taxa of algae identified, dominant by cyanophyta.

Variation of Bulk Etch Rate and some other Etching Parameters with Etching Temperature for Cellulose Nitrate LR-115 Detector

Ali Kh. Hussain

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 49-60
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57749

Abstract
In the present work, the variation of the bulk etch rate and some other etching parameters, such as removed active-layer thickness, track growing rate, track etch rate with etching temperature is measured for the solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) LR-115 type 2. The mass difference method is used to measure the bulk etch rate and then the removed active-layer thickness during etching with 2.5 N aqueous solution of NaOH as the etchant at etching temperatures 70, 60 and 50°C. Two empirical relationships are derived to calculate the removed active-layer thicknesses and the tracks diameters at any etching time with temperatures as a parameter between (50-70°C), [i.e. h(T,t) and D(T,t)]. The V function (sensitivity), etching efficiency η, critical angle θcrt, and the corresponding activation energies for both the bulk etch rate Vb and the track etch rate Vt are also calculated. The measured and calculated results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

Biometrics Identification based Face Image Authentication

Israa Mohamed Khidher; Thamir Abdul Hafidh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 61-74
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57761

Abstract
In recent year biometric technology has received a great attention. One of the newest area in biometric technologies is the automatic face recognition. Face recognition has developed over last decades and still a rapidly growing research area. Although, face recognition systems have reached a level of practical success but still remains a challenging problem due to large variation in face images. The aim of the proposed work is to build an efficient automatic face recognition. Data base of gray-level images for the proposed system are selected from the Face Recognition Technology FERET. Then primary processing to these images are performed through the downsampled to each face by bilinear method. Then these images were masked by a rectangle that include face region only.
Wavelets transformation is based for face recognition in this experiment due to their powerful efficiency in face recognition area. Face features were extracted through the use of the 2D 2-level wavelets decomposition. The 2D Vertical and Horizontal subimages are selected. These subimages are selected due to their less sensitivity to image variations. As well as their components form the most informative subimage equipped with the highest discriminating power. Then the images are segmented blocks, the Statistical moment is used to extract features per block. The proposed work used accurate techniques to analysis the recognition which reflects significant enhancement results. These results are represented by accurate measures varied from 75% to more than 100% compared with other system on the same area.

Spatial Georeferencing of the AutoCAD Map by Using GIS Software

Sabah Hussein Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 75-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57759

ABSTRACT
With the ever increasing need for design and GIS professionals to share data, it is critical that GIS users understand and are able to make use of data created with Autodesk's Computer Aided Drafting (AutoCAD) software. In GIS applications, it can be display and query the data as it exists in its native CAD file format, or it can convert it to a geodatabase feature class or shapefile if you want to edit the spatial features or attribute table.
This paper presents a procedures to using AutoCAD Data in ArcGIS by applying (.dwg) format and integrating it into standard ESRI data formats (shapefiles). The final output results of this study are a files in a GIS shapefile format that spatial georeferencing with respect to UTM WGS84_38N projected coordinate systems (metric). Spatially displacement process was applied to align the final reprojected shapefile with the reference image satellite acquired by IKONOS satellite. The satellite image covered the same area of CAD drawing (represented Mosul University Campus).
The results show, perfect coincidence between the new polygon shapefile with the closed buildings appears in the IKONOS image satellite of the study area. The output map layer was ready to be fully usable in all GIS operations and can be help in making important management decisions.

License Plate Recognition for Security Places

Hanan Zeki Hamdey

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 92-108
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57754

Abstract
The vehicle license plate recognition system is consider as the best aspects of applying computer techniques in the intelligent systems field.The goal of this research is suggest a new suitable and simply algorithm to do this work. This algorithm concentrate on the following steps:
Pre-processing the Iraqi vehicle image, cutting the registration plate image from the origin one, detection about the exact region of plate from the produced image (which is considered as the important step in the automatic recognition system), separation and cutting the words that existent in the registration plate, at last recognition the whole number by separating to its digits (which allocated in the right side of plate) by suggestion subroutine for every digit according to its attributes and Recognition the state name by the same way.

Estimation of fatty components and study the composition of fatty acids in serum for fatty liver disease patients

Mohammed A. Jasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57779

ِAbstract
The study was designed to estimate the effect of fatty liver disease on the level of some biochemical parameters, percentage of fatty acids in serum lipids. the study includes (25) fatty liver patients as verified by ultrasonography of the liver, the age ranged between (50-70) year and (25) apparently healthy subjects of matched age group. The some biochemical parameters were measured as well as analysis and measurement of Percentage and level of fatty acids in serum lipids, lipids extraction from serum and separation of serum lipids (Cholesterol ester, Triglyceride, Phospholipids) by TLC, and then esterification of fatty acids and measurement of percentage of fatty acids by Capillary Gas Chromatography (CGC). the result showed that there was large effect of fatty liver disease on the biochemical parameters and the percentage of fatty acids comparison with control group

Histological study of the nervous system of chicken Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) Freeman, 1923

Sajida S. Alzako; Zuhir I. Rahemo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 11-25
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57770

Abstract
The histological sections of the nervous system of Ascaridia galli stained with toludine blue, showed that it consists of a nerve ring surrounding the oesophagus known as circumenteric ring which in turn connected with a number of ganglia namely: pair of lateral ganglia, ventral ganglia, small dorsal ganglion, pair of subdorsal ganglia, pair of post–lateral ganglia and a pair of postero–ventral ganglia. This ring situated obliquely at a distance of 0.7 (0.65- 0.8) mm from the anterior tip of the worm and formed mainly from fibers and small number of gangliotic cells. From the cephalic ganglia 6 papillary nerves arise in the anterior region to innervate the sense organs situated at the anterior region.
From this circumenteric ring also a number of main nerves arise and extend posteriorly namely :mid dorsal, two pairs of lateral and a mid -ventral. The two ventrals end in the posterior region of the body in a pair of large ganglia near the anus known as lumbral ganglia. The mid– ventral nerve cord considered the most prominent and has a number of ganglia arise from the ganglia ventral side.
Furthermore there is two enteric or sympathetic systems, one is anterior near the esophagus and the other near the rectum. There are three types of sense organs: cephalic, cuticular and caudal. Cephalic sense organs include 12 structures in the anterior region, cuticular include those situated between the head and the tail ,and the caudal include two types of caudal sense organs and a pair of phasmids.

Isolation and diagnosis of bacteria from cases of nasal cavity inflammation and healthy people in the city of Mosul.

Shaker GHazie; Subhi H. Khalaf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 26-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57773

ABSTRACT
One hundered samples of rhinitis and another 50 samples of apparently healthy individuals were collected a control then inoculated in culture media (Nutrient agar, Mac Conkey agar, Blood agar and Choclate agar). The biochemical, morphological, cultural tests were done on grown bacterial colonies.
The following bacteria were isolated Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Corynebactrium diphtheriae, Corynebactrium pseudodiphtheriticum. The results showed the predominance of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae that were isolated in percentage of (44%), (20%) respectively from patients.
The results in healthy individuals showed the predominance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in noses of healthy people which were isolated in (66%) of cases.

Morphological abnormalities and tissue lesions of some parts of the central nervous system updated with Pyrazinamide in the Embryo of the white mice Mus Musculus.

Raya G. Sadullah; Hane M. Hamody

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 34-49
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57781

ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pyrazinamide drug to induce morphological and histological defects during the embryonic development in some division of central nervous system of Swiss albino mice Mus musculus at the level of light microscope. The pregnant females ingested of pyrazinamide orally as ascending concentrations 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000mg/kg body weight daily, which started at the 7th day of pregnancy until delivery of neonate. The result revealed at 1000and 1500mg/kg no morphological and histological malformation. At 2000mg/kg no morphological malformations were observed, while histological degeneration and necrosis in the gray matter of spinal cord appears. The ratio of malformes embryos at 2500mg/kg were 22%represented by hypodactylia of left hind limb, swelling trunk, opthalmoptosis, bleeding in head region and some embryos were miniatures. The histological injuries as vaculation of mantle layer in metencephalon, disturbances in size and shape of spinal cord as well as necrosis and vaculation in telencephalon and ventricle diencephalons laterally. At 3000mg/kg of pyrazinamide the malformed embryos. were 33%.The morphological defects were Apex loss of cranium which leads to brain emergence, eye and ear displacement, embryo mongolism, dactylosymphysis, external brain and caudal reduction. Histopthologically many injures appeared as exencephaly, vaculation and necrosis of epindymal and mantle layer of brain are noted. The spinal cord appears for the first time as in fundibular, and lacks the central canal with other malformation, generally sever and wide damages appeared in the CNS in contrast with the control group

A laboratory study to estimate the effectiveness of a number of pyrethroid pesticides as wheat grain protectors against three types of store pests.

Lubna Yaseen Abbas

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 50-58
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57775

Abstract
In laboratory evaluation of the parathyroid insecticides ALPHACHEM® ( %5 EC), DECIS® ( %20 EC) and TRUST® (%25 WP) as protestants for wheat against adults of red Tribalism castaneum, confused Tribalism confusum and longheaded Latheticus oryzae flour beetles, and the relative response to toxicities of the these insecticides were evaluated, according to The LC50 and LC95 values. Mortality was recorded at 24, 48 and 72 hrs. after exposure to wheat Triticum aestivum treated with different concentrations of the three insecticides. The LC50 and LC95 values varied with species and exposure period. The toxicity data obtained against the three species showed that, the adults of longheaded were generally more susceptible to the three insecticides than these of red and confused flour beetles. But, the adults of confused Tribalism confusum flour beetles were more tolerant to ALPHACEM at 24 hour post-exposure, and ALPHACEM and DECIS were more effective than TRUST. The toxicity of the three insecticides in general, increased as the exposure period increased.

Isolation and diagnosis of Veillonella bacteria from dental root caries.

Shaker GHaze

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 59-73
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57772

ABSTRACT The present study was coducted to isolate and charactrize the bacterium Veillonella from dental root caries. Fifty (50) samples were collected from caries areas inside the oral cavity from patients with denal root caries visiting teaching hospital of college of dentistry in mosul university. The samples were cultured directly on selective medium (Rogosa agar) which inhibit growth of streptococci & diphtheroids present within the sample because the medium contains the two different antibiotics (Vancomycin & Streptomycin) also the medium support the growth of Veillonella because it contains Sodium Lactate which considered the substrate used for Obtaining energy & growth. fifteen isolates is a rate of (30%) was idenitified as Veillonella Spp. According to morphological features using Gram stain and colony morphology on selective medium when grown under obligate anaerobic condition and was found negative to cytochrome oxidase test, benzidene test and carbohydrate fermentation. The identification of bacterium was verified by exposing the bacterium to UV radiation (365nm) which resulted in a red flouresence. The isolates were not identified to the species level because it require modern genetic techniques not available to us like PCR-P and DNA-RNA sequence analysis.
 

Detection of light transmittance of liquids using an electronic circuit.

Sanaa F. Alnajjar; Jameel M. Sulaiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 74-81
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57765

Abstract
Transmissivity detections of the light for liquids by using electronic circuit which consists in the main part, detector type (CdS: cadmium Sulphide). The principle operation of this detector depends on the quantity of incident light on it, where its resistance decreases while the incident light increases, and its resistance increases when there is no light [7]. The test operation obtained through the use of electronic circuit. It is found that the resistance value of the detector is (11441.6) Ohm, when there is no light (Dark), and for the sample of mercury in its path detector (11415.5) Ohm, while the resistance detector for the transparency liquid such as glycerin and kerosene is denoted to (11210.7) Ohms. So, this is a clear sign to prove the transmissivity of light in liquids by using electronic circuit.

Determination of radon concentrations in a number of materials used in the field of dentistry.

Hanaa N. Aziz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 82-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57782

Abstract
This paper aims to find the Radon concentration in some materials used in dentistry field such as temporal and germinant composites, impression materials, bridges as well as the crowns. The measurement have been carried out by using the nuclear track detector CR-39. The results have showed that the Radon content in the irradiation chambers were about (5.208-14.260) Bq. m-3, while the Radon contend within the samples themselves were (0.0513-0.174) Bq.kg-1. Morever, the concentration of Uranium and Radium have also been determined and they ranged between (415.5-1409.4) ppb and (1.403 x10-6-4.759 x10-6) ppb subsequently. The emission rate or the mass inhalation of Radon is found to be about (0.061x10-7-1.074x10-7) Bqkg-1.d-1

The role of some heavy metals in the effect of both Rhizobium leguminosarum and Bacillus subtilis bacteria in the growth of some fungi.

Mohammed I. Altai

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 92-105
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57778

Abstract
The effect of growth of two bacterial species Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar vicia and Bacillus subtilis upon growth of five soil species, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Stemphylum sp., Rhizoctonia solani, was investigated here in rather than the influence of growth of either bacterial species on the other.
Both B. subtilis and R. leguminosarum have inhibited growth of total five fungal species with high percentages, on the other hand B. subtilis inhibited R. leguminosarum growth and dominated it.
We've obtained different results than those above after adding heavy metals represented with compounds FeCl3, ZnCl2 and CuSO4 with two concentrations each, though some fungi have grown better with the presence of CuSO4, whereas ZnCl2 has inhibited growth of all microorganism species included within this study.
Presence of heavy metal in culture medium is not toxic in small quantities, rather it may induce growth and rate of some bioactivities

Effect of Fluorescent Condensation Plates (CaWO4) on Radiation Dose Received at X-Ray.

Qusay K. Aldulayme; Muhsin Albadrane

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 105-114
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57777

Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the effect of using (CaWO4) as intensifying screen on radiation dose received by patients exposed to dental investigation by x-ray. It was found that intensifying screen increases, the radiation dose from )4-6( times according to the properties of the intensifying materials used. The optical density of the x-ray film was measured by using densitometer. According to our measurements, a decrease in radiation dose was approximately 24% for the same condition .Am241 was used because its energy (59.5keV) is close to the energy of x-ray in dental radiography.

Determination of the optimum thickness of some moderators for fast neutrons.

Rasheed M. Yousif; Khalid Ali Ismaeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 115-126
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57766

Abstract
The study aims to determine the optimum thickness for some moderators which are used for obtaining thermal neutrons and for wide range of neutron energy (0.03 – 15 × 106) eV. The study involves two groups of materials: the first group consisted of H2O, D2O, Be, & C), while the second one are made of hydrocarbon materials (C25H52, C6H10O5, C6H12O6, C28H48O2, C18H34O2, C5H10O2, & Tissue equivalent material). The results revealed that the best moderator in the first group was water as it has a large scattering macroscopic cross section ∑)s), absorption macroscopic cross section (∑a) and it contains a high percentage of Hydrogen and that the lowest moderator within the same group is Graphite (c) since it has a higher diffusion coefficient (D), and also has a higher diffusion length (L). In the second group, it was found the best moderator was (C25H52), and the lowest one is (C6H10O5), for the same reasons mentioned above. Besides, that a lot of physical parameters are calculated which are related to neutron diffusion in the second group materials, such as (∑a), (∑s), (D), (L), (H%), (ξ), and molecular weight (M) for the hydrocarbon compounds.

Determination of hydrodynamic parameters of the compressive shock wave in the plasma containment process.

Hazim F. Mahmood; Nabhan A. Hamdoon; Salah A. Sheet

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 127-142
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57767

Abstract:
Determination of hydrodynamic parameters of shock wave were performed in the inertial plasma confinement which includes: Pressure, Speed, Mach number, Density of the two region(up stream and down stream) for the assumed fuel pellet. The shock wave created via the ablation of the outer shell of fuel pellet, through exposed it the laser and consequently caused to compressed the liquid fuel material (D-T) to moved directed to the center of pellet. Coding of numerical solutions (finite difference technique) of hydrodynamic equations by using a scientific language Matlab version (R2006a) in the smoothing and drawing of the data.

Maintenance Administration System of Electrical Instruments

Layla Jasim Mohammed; Firas M. Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 150-161
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57774

Abstract
The research presented a maintenance administration of electrical instruments system to study principal information for instruments maintenance works including repair observation of instruments activities the minute the instruments enter the maintenance center and giving maintenance orders, observing the maintenance works, replacing, fixing the new spare parts and diagnosing the technicians who carried out the job until the end of maintenance process.
The system provides the maintenance center with a collection of reports that arrange all the jobs through which one can know the type of daily jobs and monitoring the execution maintenance plan in order to make a unify work the system observe the nature of cooperation between maintenance departments, colleges, centers, and directorates within the university framework in addition to compliance with the future maintenance works itself.
A (foxpro 6) language was used for programming the system due to the facilities that can be gained from this language in the field of processing the folders and forming the required screens needed for the achievement the system. the system be operated with any type of personal computer available.

The effect of the basic variables on the movement of railway transport and Processed using ridge regression approach.

Riyad Murtada; Fareed Ismaeel Alsefo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 162-174
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57769

Abstract
The movement of travelers represents a good induction to the train transference efficiency with the existence of another indications. So the research aims to recognize, the impact of one of the basic variables was (transference technique) which is represented with (Travelers vehicle and locomotive) and its relationship with the dependent variable which is (The travelers transference) during the years (1970-2000). This period was divided to two periods. that is represent qualitative shift in this filed and in another hand represent a big negligence for this field and these findings are expressed by mathematical models by using the ridge regression approach.