Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 22, Issue 37

Volume 22, Issue 37, Summer 2009, Page 1-177


Synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles from 2-(2,3-dimethylphenyl amino) benzoic acid

Khalid M. Daoud; Shereen R. Mohamed; Nagham M. Z. Al-Niami

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 1-10

ABSTRACT
In this paper the synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles was achieved. 2-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino) benzoic acid was esterified to its ethyl ester by its reaction with absolute ethanol in presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. The ethyl ester was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give the corresponding hydrazide. The hydrazide was converted to substituted thiosemicarbazide by its reaction with ammonium thiocyanate. The thiosemicarbazide was treated with sodium hydroxide solution and with sulfuric acid to give 5-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino phenyl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 2-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino phenyl)-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole respectively. The acid hydrazide was treated with substituted benzaldehyde to give hydrazones which cyclized to disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole, while the reaction of hydrazide with formic acid followed by cyclization of formyl hydrazine by PbO2 to give monosubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Finally, treatment of hydrazide with carbon disulfite in alcoholic potassium hydroxide gave 2-(2,3-dimethyl phenyl amino phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-thiol. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral means.

Synthesis of Some Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles from Hydrazones

Amal N. Ali; A. Kh. Ahmad; Khalid M. Daoud

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 11-19

ABSTRACT
In this paper the synthesis of some 2-(3-pyridyl)-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles from hydrazones is reported. Nicotinic acid was converted to ethyl nicotinate (1) by its reaction with thionyl chloride and the resultant acid chloride was treated with absolute ethanol, the ethyl nicotinates was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give the corresponding acid hydrazide (2). The acid hydrazide was treated with benzaldehyde or substituted benzaldehyde to give the hydrazones (3-8). The hydrazones were cyclized to 2-(3-pyridyl)-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (4-14) by their reaction with lead oxide.
The structure of the synthesised compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral methods.

A study on Aromatic Amino acid Auxotrophs of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii

Raad Hassani Sultan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 19-29

Abstract
Local Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii isolate was treated with nitrous acid for mutagenesis. Out of 66 auxotrophic mutants, seven aromatic amino acid auxotrophs were isolated. According to their requirements were classified into three auxotrophic mutants which considered as trp- mutants (RH57, RH114 and RH70), one (RH53) for phenyalanine, two (RH61 and RH84) for tyrosine and one (RH99) for all these amino acids. According to biochemical and intermediates accumulation studies tryptophan auxotrophic mutants could classified into two trpE mutants (RH57 and RH114) and one trp auxotroph (RH70), was tryptophan synthase mutant. Normal symbiotic activity as indicated by mean dry shoot weight, was observed in the tryptophan synthase mutant (RH70). The plants inoculated with aro and trpE mutants fixed nitrogen but significantly less than that of the RH49 inoculated plants, whereas the tyrosine and phenylalanine auxotrophic mutants inoculated clover plants were completely ineffective in nitrogen fixation. The clover plant host seems to provide tryptophan but not tyrosine and phenylalanine to bacteroids in nodules.

Protective effect of injectable iron on cadmium-induced anemia in rats

Jawnaa K. Mamdoh; Ghada A. Taqa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 30-35

Abstract
The current paper studied, the protective effect of iron on anemia induced by Cadmium (Cd). Fifteen male albino rats selected in this study divided into three groups, first group as control, 2nd and 3rd groups received oral CdCl2 25mg /L mixed with drinking water for one month. Third group treated four dosage of injected iron (iron Dextran) at 50 mg/kg intraperitonially in addition to cadmium drinking water. The result of this study showed a significant decreased of iron concentration in plasma of Cd treated group but there is a significant increase in iron concentration in 3rd group compared to 2nd group p < 0.05 while there is a significant elevated with alanine aminotransferase enzyme in 2nd and 3rd group in comparing to control group. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme no change. Conclusions: this study concluded that iron supplement is prevent anemia induced by long exposure to cadmium.

An Ecological Study On Water To Some Thermal Springs In Koya-Erbil Province, Iraq

Janan J. Toma; Siraj M. Goran; Yadi O. M. Al-Barzingy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 36-48

Abstract
In spite of existing a number of thermal springs in Iraq. A limited studies were observed to be found concerning it. Where there are a little information concerning their types of organisms. The present study is an attempt to expand springs water characteristics and algal occurrences.
Monthly variations in physico-chemicals variables and algae were studied in Mersaid and a Jale springs from July-2007 to February-2008. It was found that water temperature ranged from 24 to 35C°. Minimum value of pH was 6.9 and maximum value of electrical conductivity is 1350µs.cm-1.Oxygen concentration was zero. No significant variations are found in the alkalinity and total hardness during the period of study. Calcium and sulfate ions are the dominant cations and anions respectively. It was found 22 taxa of algae identified, dominant by cyanophyta.

Variation of Bulk Etch Rate and some other Etching Parameters with Etching Temperature for Cellulose Nitrate LR-115 Detector

Ali Kh. Hussain

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 49-60

Abstract
In the present work, the variation of the bulk etch rate and some other etching parameters, such as removed active-layer thickness, track growing rate, track etch rate with etching temperature is measured for the solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) LR-115 type 2. The mass difference method is used to measure the bulk etch rate and then the removed active-layer thickness during etching with 2.5 N aqueous solution of NaOH as the etchant at etching temperatures 70, 60 and 50°C. Two empirical relationships are derived to calculate the removed active-layer thicknesses and the tracks diameters at any etching time with temperatures as a parameter between (50-70°C), [i.e. h(T,t) and D(T,t)]. The V function (sensitivity), etching efficiency η, critical angle θcrt, and the corresponding activation energies for both the bulk etch rate Vb and the track etch rate Vt are also calculated. The measured and calculated results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

Biometrics Identification based Face Image Authentication

Israa Mohamed Khidher; Thamir Abdul Hafidh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 61-74

Abstract
In recent year biometric technology has received a great attention. One of the newest area in biometric technologies is the automatic face recognition. Face recognition has developed over last decades and still a rapidly growing research area. Although, face recognition systems have reached a level of practical success but still remains a challenging problem due to large variation in face images. The aim of the proposed work is to build an efficient automatic face recognition. Data base of gray-level images for the proposed system are selected from the Face Recognition Technology FERET. Then primary processing to these images are performed through the downsampled to each face by bilinear method. Then these images were masked by a rectangle that include face region only.
Wavelets transformation is based for face recognition in this experiment due to their powerful efficiency in face recognition area. Face features were extracted through the use of the 2D 2-level wavelets decomposition. The 2D Vertical and Horizontal subimages are selected. These subimages are selected due to their less sensitivity to image variations. As well as their components form the most informative subimage equipped with the highest discriminating power. Then the images are segmented blocks, the Statistical moment is used to extract features per block. The proposed work used accurate techniques to analysis the recognition which reflects significant enhancement results. These results are represented by accurate measures varied from 75% to more than 100% compared with other system on the same area.

Spatial Georeferencing of the AutoCAD Map by Using GIS Software

Sabah Hussein Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 75-91

ABSTRACT
With the ever increasing need for design and GIS professionals to share data, it is critical that GIS users understand and are able to make use of data created with Autodesk's Computer Aided Drafting (AutoCAD) software. In GIS applications, it can be display and query the data as it exists in its native CAD file format, or it can convert it to a geodatabase feature class or shapefile if you want to edit the spatial features or attribute table.
This paper presents a procedures to using AutoCAD Data in ArcGIS by applying (.dwg) format and integrating it into standard ESRI data formats (shapefiles). The final output results of this study are a files in a GIS shapefile format that spatial georeferencing with respect to UTM WGS84_38N projected coordinate systems (metric). Spatially displacement process was applied to align the final reprojected shapefile with the reference image satellite acquired by IKONOS satellite. The satellite image covered the same area of CAD drawing (represented Mosul University Campus).
The results show, perfect coincidence between the new polygon shapefile with the closed buildings appears in the IKONOS image satellite of the study area. The output map layer was ready to be fully usable in all GIS operations and can be help in making important management decisions.

License Plate Recognition for Security Places

Hanan Zeki Hamdey

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 92-108

Abstract
The vehicle license plate recognition system is consider as the best aspects of applying computer techniques in the intelligent systems field.The goal of this research is suggest a new suitable and simply algorithm to do this work. This algorithm concentrate on the following steps:
Pre-processing the Iraqi vehicle image, cutting the registration plate image from the origin one, detection about the exact region of plate from the produced image (which is considered as the important step in the automatic recognition system), separation and cutting the words that existent in the registration plate, at last recognition the whole number by separating to its digits (which allocated in the right side of plate) by suggestion subroutine for every digit according to its attributes and Recognition the state name by the same way.