Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 22, Issue 4

Volume 22, Issue 4, Autumn 2009, Page 1-194

Synthesis of Some of Azo, Triazines and Schiff Bases Compounds from 4-Aminohippuric Acid

Mohammed A. Sheat; Zenab F. Saeed; Mohammed J. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57930

Three new series of 4-aminohippuric acid ester derivatives have been prepared. The azo (4a-f) and azoamino (5a-e) compounds were prepared from electrophilic addition reaction of 4-diazonium chloride hippuric acid ester with phenols, aniline and secondary aliphatic amines, while Schiff bases(6a-g) were prepared from the condensation of 4-aminohippuric acid ester with aldehydes. The structural formula of the prepared compounds were confirmed by physical and spectral methods.

The role of extracellular proteases enzyme in bacterial adherence

Sarab D. Alshamaa; Muna M. Isaam; Adeeba Y. Shreef

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57932

Abstract :
Extracellular proteases with caseinolytic activities were identified in culture supernatant of several pathogenic bacterial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specific activities of these enzymes ranged from 0.27 to 3.89 unit/min/mg protein. The most virulent isolates with high level of proteases production revealed great adherence ability to epithelial cells isolated from mouth and adherence to the tubes surface while others without any level of production of these enzymes didn't posses adherence ability. This proved the correlation between the production of these enzymes and bacterial adherence ability. Extracellular proteases considered very important virulence factors because it was important invasion factors related to bacterial nutrition and metabolism.

Spectrophotometric determination of thymol in pharmaceuticals with Gibb's reagent

Usra. I. S. Al-Neaimy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 17-26
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57933

A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of thymol in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations is described .The method is based on the color reaction between thymol and 2,6-dichloroquinone-4- chloroimide (Gibb's reagent) in borate buffer medium (pH 10) to form a blue indophenol dye with maximum absorption 605 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.04–16 μg. ml−1with a molar absorptivity of 18430 l.−1and sandell sensitivity index of 0.008 μ The results obtained were both precise (RSD) better than 1% and accurate (average recovery) 100.50%. The method does not resort to temperature control or to solvent extraction .The method has been applied further, successfully to the determination of thymol in mouthwashes and the results obtained are comparable with those given by the standard 4-aminoantipyrine method.

Effect of Aluminium Chloride on Sexual Efficiency in Adult Male Rats

Entissar M. Abdul-Rasoul; Nathem H. Hassan; Karam H. Al-Mallah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 27-44
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57928

The study was conducted to reveal the effect of oral administration of aluminium chloride on spermatogenesis and accessory sex organs in adult male rats. Aluminium chloride was administrated by oral intubation daily with two doses 40 and 80 mg/kg. body weight for periods 30 and 60 days for each. The results showed that aluminium chloride at both doses caused a significant reduction in sperm counts and the percentage of live sperm, with a significant increased in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm, and a significant reduction in averages of body weights, head epididymis, testis and prostate gland weights in rats treated with aluminium chloride at dose 80 mg/kg. body weight during the experimental period. While aluminium chloride at dose 40 mg/kg. body weight had no changes in the percentage of the morphologically abnormal sperm and in the body weight, testis and accessory reproductive organs weights. Synchronized with the physiological changes, histological alterations represented by vascular hyperemia, interstitial edema, multiplication of Leydig cells, coagulative necrosis, hyperplasia and sloughing of seminiferous tubular epithelium. The results concluded that administration of aluminium chloride to adult male rats would cause adverse effects on sexual efficiency.

Effects Of Different Doses Of Probiotic (Biomin)® On Some Hematological And Biochemical Parameters In Chicken

N. G. Mustafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 45-55
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57931

This study was carried out to evaluate effects of probiotic (BIOMIN)® at different doses (0.15, 0.3, 1.5, 7.5, 15 g/kg diet) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in chickens. The number of broiler chickens are 48 at one day old Ross kind were used . Results show that body weight increased significantly (p≤0.05) as probiotic dose, while both Hb concentration and PCV% are not changed in relation to probiotic doses. Reduction of serum cholesterol level was clear and dependent on the contrary changes in both serum protein and urea, which inceased with dose elevation, on the other hand, serum glucose level changes unclearly in different dose groups. Finally results show very high dose (15 g/kg diet) of probiotic (BIOMIN)® lead to death of all chickens in this group at the 3rd day of experiment.

Wind Speed Distribution in Ninava Governorate

Waleed I. Al-Rijabo; Lamia M. fayik; Bashar Basim Jaro

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 56-74
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57927

Wind speed was studied in four locations in Ninava Governorate which are Mosul, Rabea, Sinjar and Talafar for the period (1980–2002).
The mean monthly values, the standard deviation, the coefficient of variation and the time series for the wind speeds was studied during this period in all locations.
Wind power density and Weibull distribution were found in the different locations. The results were shown in tabulated and graphical form. The results indicate in Mosul, Rabea and Sinjar slightly downward trend in the time series of wind speed while in Talafar no trend was observed also a reasonable agreement was obtain between actual data of wind speed and that calculated by Weibull distribution.

Effect of microwave on some electrical properties of wet bones

Ayman A. Alhashmee; Qusay Kh. Omer Al-Dulamey; Tymaa Noori Alglami

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57926

In this research we have to study the effect of microwave radiation on some electrical properties of the wet bone, it is included to measure the electrical current and potential in bones before and after exposure to microwave radiation. The microwave uses a near-field focused energy (90-180 watts at 2.45 GHz frequency). Its found that the value of electrical current and potential produced in the bone exposed to microwave radiation are more than the value of electrical current and potential for unexposure bones, while the resistance is less under the same conditions. These differences in current and potential may be attributed for bioelectrical sources such as blood which contains electrically charged ions and the separation of ionic charges will produce an electromotive force, which is a voltage between points in fresh bone.
The generated ionic current in blood which regarded carrier of the basic elements to buildup of bone will stimulate and increase the callus material around the fractures in bones and hence improves and speeds its healing.

Classification of some arcs of type (m,n) in PG(2,19)

Makbola. J. Mohamed; Ban. A. Qassim; Layla Jasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57929

This paper conclude the study of the weights of points and lines of (k,n)-arcs from until , since the number of points and lines of this plane is very large, so we divide this search in to three parts.
The first part contained the existence of these arcs from to and we show that when the (210,39;f)-arc of type (20,39) exist and all the other cases from to does not exist.
In the second part we studied these arcs from to and we saw that there are two types of these arcs when and which are respectively (39,21;f)- arc of type (2,21) and (20,20;f)- arc of type (1,20), then proved the theorem of these special cases are given.
Finally in the last step we prove that (k,n;f)- arc of type (n-19,n) does not exist in PG(2,19) for all values of from 362 to 381.

Investigation of the virulence factors of Kpneumoniae isolated from cases of nasal cavity inflammation

Subhi H. Khalaf; Shaker Ghaze

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57913

Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated in a percentage of (20%) of rhinitis which the identification tests were carried done.
The tests for virulence factors that could be produced by these spesies were also done and resugts showed that all spesies have the ability of serum resistance, successful adhesion on respiratory epithelial surfaces, heamagglutination of RBCof human, rabbit, sheep, capsule production, and the Lipopolysaccharides which isolated from bacteria have toxic effect on laboratory mice when injected in peritoneum

investigate the development of the olfactory organ and its histological structure of the amphibians Salamander Neurergus crocatus crocatus cope

Hane M. Hammode; Ismaeel S. Hasan; Shereen Y. Qasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 10-36
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57923

The present study is carried out to investigate the development of the olfactory organ and it`s histological structure in the embryos, Larvae and adults of urodele amphibians Salamander Neurergus crocatus crocatus cope. The study includes the morphology of the developmental stages at so the level of light microscope. The first sign of olfactory organ development in the Neurergus crocatus crocatus was the appearance of olfactory placode as one thickening on each side of the ectoderm opposite to prosencephalon at 28 stage. At early embryonic stages the olfactory placode appeared in the form of horse shoe. Progressively the olfactory pits appeared and become more deep. At late embryonic stage cells of olfactory placode more differentiated and appeared in multitypes. Some cells more packed and formed pyramids mass at the olfactory pit axis. The olfactory pit became V- shape. The axons of bipolar neurons differentiate, as well as the supporting cells and it's sensory tricheae well obvious. As the development progressed the two edges of olfactory pit approximate to each other anteriorly. While at the embryonic stage 39 the olfactory sac appeared. In addition the internal canal primordium of the external naris also differentiated. At the larval stage, the supporting spindle cells with their surface cilia well developed. In addition the main olfactory cavity differentiated as protruded chamber and several invagintions appeared in it's internal epithelium, as well as the vestibule and olfactory canal well developed. At stage 45 the vomeronasal organ differentiated as adiverticulum from the main olfactory cavity.

The final larval stage characterized by the differentiation of receptor epithelium of vomeronasal organ and the olfactory organ flattened. At the olfactory organ of metamorphic stage the vistibule contacted with thick olfactory epithelium of the main olfactory cavity and the epithelium of cavity differentiate into serial transversed olfactory ridges with olfactory valleys in between. The number of ridge was 2 dorsally and 4 ventrally and appeared in radial pattern. In the adult mature stage several changes occurred, which include differentiation of protruded chamberes of main olfactory cavity, differentiation of vomeronasal organ the conduction of main olfactory cavity with external and internal naris. The vomeronasal epithelium extends to about 30% of the olfactory cavity, the large olfactory ridges decreased into miniridges and the cavity of lining epithelium appeared some- what smooth, the supporting ciliated cells were well obvious. The middle cavity of olfactory organ disappeared at all developmental stages.

Evaluation of Salmonella typhi sensitivity towards some antibiotics used for treatment typhoid fever in Nenavah province

Muhsin A. Essa; Bushra D. Hamad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57917

This search was conducted to evaluate Salmonella typhi sensitivity towards some antibiotics used for treatment typhoid fever in Nenavah province, the results showed that there is a clear differences in sensitivity of local isolates towards the used antibiotics compared with standard isolate. these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin, but effect of Tetracycline on both local and standard isolates was intermediate, as for Chloramphenicol there was a differences in sensitivity towards it, where the local isolates were sensitive, whereas, the standard isolate was resistant. One of the important that the three local isolates were resistant to the rest of other antibiotics Trimethoprim, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Rifampin in spite of the importance of this antibiotics prescribed by the physicians of Nenavah province for Typhoid fever Treatment.

Effect of the alcohol extract of the Lipidium sativum and Bacillus cereus bacteria in the growth of fungi causing sesame root rot

Nadeem Ahmed Ramadan; Najwa B. Allashe; Hiba Dawod

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 47-61
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57922

The effect of the concentrations 0,1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/ml of alcoholic extracts of cress seeds) Lipidium sativum (on the growth and dry weight of root–rot fungi of sesame plants, Pythium aphanidermatum, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina indicated high significant inhibitory affect as compared to the control. M.phaseolina was mostly inhibited than other fungi when 4mg/ml w, 86.66 and 78.26% respectively. Antagonistic test of the bacterial biocontrol agent Bacillus cereus showed high inhibiting effect on all tested pathogens with the maximum inhibition 80.8% on M. phaseolina. Culture filterate of B. cereus also showed a highly inhibiting efficiency to the growth and dry wieght of the biomass of all pathogenic fungi with the increase of concentrations 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (v l v), With the 40% was mostly effective on M. phaseolina by the ratio of 72.22% and 83.90% respectively.
The best inhibition was achieved with the use of combination of 4 mg/ml of alcoholic extract of Cress seeds and 40% of culture filterate of Bacillus cereus. It showed synergistic inhibitory effect on all pathogenic fungi used, that exceeded the effect of each of the plant extract or culture filterate of the bacteria separtely.

Effect of aqueous extracts of the leaves of Teucrium polium; the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Capsicum annum on the viability of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin in vitro

Ibrahem A. Alhubayti; Aseel E. Alnoori

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 62-74
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57910

Results of the present study revealed significant effect of aqueous extracts of the leaves of Teucrium polium; the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Capsicum annum at the concentrations 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/ml for T. polium ; the concentrations 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 mg/ml, for C. aurantifolia and the concentrations 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2 and 2.25 mg/ml, for C. annum on the viability of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin in vitro. Hence, the concentration 30 mg/ml for T. polium causes death of all protoscoleces in 30 minutes, by the same token, the concentration 15 mg/ml of C. aurantifolia causes the same effect in 45 minutes, while the concentration 2.5 mg/ml of C. annum reduces the viability of the protoscoleces to 4.0% in 60 minutes.

Effect of zinc and copper on some biochemical parameters induced by alloxan in rats

Mutaa A. Abd

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57919

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with zinc and copper on some biochemical parameters in rats and susceptability to induction of diabetes by alloxan, and there effect to delay diabetes induced by alloxan. Albino male rats divided randomly into several one served as control. Group two and three given diet contain 15, 25 mg zinc /kg diet respectively, group four and five recieved 1,3 mg copper /kg diet respectively, for two weeks of treatment. Other group induced diabetes and let without treatment and considered as a diabetic control group. Results Showed a significant decrease in both serum glucose and cholesterol levels in comparing with control group, with an a significant increase in levels of both malondialdehyde and glutathione, the results also showed that both zinc and copper treatment delayed the induction of diabetes by alloxan. We conclude from this work that both zinc and copper have important effect on studied parameters and on susceptability of diabetes induced by alloxan.

Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Electrical Characteristics of the soft ferrite Ni0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 within Different Temperatures.

Raad A. Rasool; Huthama A. Mohammed; Layla A. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 86-94
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57912

Abstract :
Electrical conductivity and seeback effect studies of soft ferrite Ni0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 as a function of annealing temperatures range (800 – 1200)oC. The electrical conductivity and seeback effect measurements are studied from different temperatures between 23oC to 323oC. So the seeback effect measurements show that the most carrier charges for this material are positively charges (i.e at p-type material). Also the electrical conductivity measurements increased with increasing annealing temperature tilled to 1100 oC which means the predominantly due to the hopping of electrons and holes between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions at the octahedral sites and Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions at the tetrahedral sites. Therefore the above results of these measurements strengthened through expense bulk density and activation energies, reached at maximum annealing temperature at 1100 oC degree.

The effect of the magnetic field on the rotation of the plane of polarization of the helium-neon laser in the optically activated water.

Uday F. Ameen; Evan B. Karromy; Abdulghafoor I. Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 95-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57915

The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the magnetization of water on the rotation of the plane of polarization of He-Ne laser in optical active water. Firstly the magnetic water is prepared and several properties such as refractive index, absorbance, transmittance, pH and ppm are studied and compared with natural water.
The effect of the magnetization of water on the rotation of the plane of polarization of laser light in optical active water is also investigated. Three samples of optical active water are prepared; optical active water, activated water and then magnetized and magnetized water and then activated by adding glucose to the water with different concentration. Verdet constant of the samples are also determined.
The results of this paper show that all the properties of the magnetic water are affected by the magnetic field.
The main conclusion, which is the first time to our knowledge, indicates that the sample (magnetized water and then activated) gives 18% more in the rotation of the plane of polarization of He-Ne laser in low concentration compared with activated water.

Effect of deposition Conditions on Electrical Conductivity of ZnO Deposits by chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

Yaser H. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 108-115
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57924

ZnO thin films on glass substrate were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using zinc acetate as a starting material. Electrical properties of the films deposited at various substrate temperatures and sample position inside the chamber were investigated. Maximum conductivity is obtained for the film deposited at 550C and at a position 16 cm far from the inlet side of the gases.

Determination of the rock layers of the earth using the adaptive resonance theory network ART1

Maha A. Albadrani

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 116-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57920

The focus of the present research is on the issue of specified of the earth rocky geologic layers through the use of a Artificial Neural Network called the Adaptive Resonance Theory Network (ART1).
The research discuss the ability of the Artificial Neural Network to specified the stratum rocky geologic to the earth through to enter specifications and characteristic of spring layer, since the network of adaptive Resonance Theory Network (ART1) have property to work style to make similar to human Brain work wherever in keeping the old A knowledge of data when a new information added to any field.
The result show the capability the Adaptive Resonance Theory Network (ART1) to make the limitation the earth rocky geologic layers in fast and qualified Technique.

An approximate numerical solution of some of the stiff linear boundary values problems of the second order using the method of matching with multiple shooting and interpolation.

Mohammed A. Altai; Suhaib A. Abdulbaqi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 141-154
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57918

The purpose of this research combining the algorithm of superposition with multiple shooting and interpolation designing for solving Stiff linear boundary value problems in ordinary differential equations. The new Technique is used for solving Stiff linear problems with very high efficiency.

The negative effects of electronic games on children.

Muadda M. Sulayman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57921

The object of the research is explaining the negative effects of computer games on boys, and the research sample had been chose from schools pupils in the range of age between (12 to 20) years by using questionnaire which had been distributed on (100) pupils in different levels. The results of statistic analysis were referred to economical, educational, health and behavioral adverse effect.
The researcher suggests two prophylactic programs to cut down the prolonged hours that the boys spend to play in front of the screens. The researcher had also got certain approaches and results to avoid the effects of these games which fill boys 'life without feeling behavioral, economical and health danger and loss of money and time.

Use satellite images properties to hide text information.

Knar M. Mustafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 171-187
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57916

The research deals with the concept of hiding information in one of the media where the 'Least Significant bit' which is one of the methods of steganography is used. Satellite images were chosen as a means of hiding because they have certain features and characteristics which make them an effective method for hiding. The satellite data have more than one taken image of the same land with different spectra, and each image is called 'band'.
Distributing the text on these bands and combining them to form the false colour composite image make the possibility of getting a sequential complete text complex. If hackers could get such images, it would raise suspicion about the area captured by the satellite while this area has nothing to do with required hidden information and transforming them to the second part.
The research aims at developing the hiding process by using satellite image features which depend on the method of distributing texts on spectral bands of the satellite image rather than hiding it in one image.

Quadratic root law (one of the store models) to change the rent of the houses

Khula K. Ismaeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 188-194
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2009.57911

Most of houses' owners try to increase the houses' rental prices from time to time. However this increase will be taken place, but the real income of the owners declines, that is because of many different costs that the owner will carry out.
This research includes the following question "How long should the houses' owners rise the houses' rental prices?"
The Economic Optimal Quantity size (EOQ) formula used to derive two equations, first for houses have constant value, second for houses have increasing market value during the time. Moreover, these two equations determine the increase rate of houses' rental price and the optimal period of changing the rental price for both situations.