Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 23, Issue 1

Volume 23, Issue 1, Winter 2010, Page 1-180


Chromatographic Identification of Some Flavonoids of Matricaria Chamomilla Growing in Iraq

Moayed J. Mohamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-5

ABSTRACT
Ethanolic extract of the flower-head of matricaria chamomilla which growing in Iraq showed the presence at last of two new flavonoids quercetin (III) and isorhamnetin (IV), which gave a bright yellow colour during TLC separating under U.V light. These compounds were investigated on the basis of the comparison of their Rf-values in tables and using quercetin as authentic sample for comparison.

Spectrophotometric determination of trifluoperazine via oxidative coupling reaction with sulfanilic acid

a N. Al-Sabha; Omar A. Al-Taee; Maha T. Al-Obidi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 6-14

Abstract
A simple spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trifluoperazine hydrochloride in pure and in dosage forms. The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction with sulfanilic acid in the presence of sodium hypochlorite in acetic acid medium to give an red coloured product with absorption maximum at 510 nm. The product is stable for more than 6 h. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.2–7.0 µg ml-1 with molar absorptivity of 5.15×103 l.mol-1cm-1. Different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the formed coloured product were carefully studied and optimized and a proposal of the reaction pathway was presented. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of trifluoperazine hydrochloride in tablets and compared favorably with the official method. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere in the proposed method.

The Effect of Protoscoleces Treated With Direct Electrical Current on the Cellular Immune Response in Mice Infected With Secondary Hydatid Disease

Sadam Salim Yaseen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 15-23

Abstract
This study investigates the cellular immune response in BALB/c mice immunized with protoscoleces (PSC) of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin, treated with direct electrical current, depending on some immunological criteria including delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and mitotic activity of cells obtained from lymphoid organs, spleen and bone marrow. The results revealed an increase in cellular immune response in immunized groups compared with the control group infected for 3 months.
An obvious significant increase (P < 0.01) occurred in rate of foot pad thickness 1.83 mm. in immunized group with PSC treated with direct electrical current with potential 5.77mA/cm2 for 2 min. whereas, mice immunized with PSC treated with direct current potential 11.82 mA/cm2 for 2min. too, led to significant increases (P <0.01) in rate of mitotic activity of spleen and bone marrow cells, 61.8%, 70.1% for each, respectively.

Demonstration Of Altered Colony Morphology Of Mutans Streptococci and their Role in Cariogenicity

Shababa A. Shawkat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 24-32

Different colonial variants of Mutans Streptococci are observed on sucrose containing media such as Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA). Variation in colony morphology seems to be related to synthesizing cell surface materials, namely; the glucan capsule. Saliva samples from 100 subjects of both sexes aged from 7-52 years old were enrolled. Mutans Streptococci (MS) with various colony morphology and various degrees of adherence were demonstrated in the present study. The incidence of rough colony morphology was shown to be 38% of the local isolates, in addition to that 56% of the saliva samples harbored one strain of Mutans Streptococci, 40% of them had more than one and 4% were negative. The mean DMFT/dmft (Decayed teeth + Missed teeth + Filled teeth) value was 4, 5 respectively. The mean decayed teeth for samples with one strain was 2.8 while samples with two or more strains had an average of decayed teeth 3.6. which indicates that subjects harboring more than one strain have a higher incidence of dental caries than those with one strain. Eight Streptococcus mutans isolates (Mannitol and 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride positive.) showed various degrees of adherence which is known to be an important virulence factor of this microorganism.

Variation of Rainfall with Space and Time in Duhok Government

Waleed I. Al- Rijabo; Diyar A. Bleej

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 32-43

Abstract
Rainfall analysis is important in different domains such as: agricultural planning, water resources plannings, runoff prediction, climatological studies, environmental studies, stream flow estimation and human life activities. Variation of rainfall with space and time were studied in Duhok Governorate, Mean monthly, seasonal and annual values of rainfall were found in different weather stations (Duhok, Zakho, Semel, Zawaite, Sersing, Amedy and Akre station). Winter months represent about 45-55% of the total annual rainfall. The annual variability of rainfall in all these stations are high. Isoheytal method was used to estimate the mean monthly values and mean annual values of rainfall over Duhok Governorate. Simple and Multiple Regression Equation were found between rainfall and different meteorological elements.

A new self –scaling VM-algorithm with an adaptive line search

Abbas. Al-Baiati; Salah G. Shareef; Hamsa Th. Chilmerane

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 44-53

Abstract
In this study, a new self-scaling VM algorithm for solving large-scale nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems is proposed. The new algorithm is a kind of line search procedure .The local convergence theory for the BFGS matrix implementation of this variable metric is applied to achieve a globally convergent property.Numerical experiments have been done with the standard BFGS algorithm with very promising results.

Investigation of solvability conditions of certain boundary value problem by perturbation method

Akram Hassan Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 54-63

Abstract
In this paper we study the solvability conditions under which certain partial differential equation with homogenous boundary conditions containing small parameter has a solution by using perturbation technique.
Here we deal with the following partial differential equation

with boundary conditions

and

where are constants and is small parameter.
According to this method, the solution of the problem is represented by the first few terms of a perturbation expansion.

Demosaicing of True Color Images Using Adaptive Interpolation Algorithms

Nadia Tarik Saleh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 64-83

ABSTRACT
In an electronic color-imaging device, such as a digital camera, using a single CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor, the color information is usually acquired in sub-sampled patterns of Red (R), Green (G) and Blue (B) pixels. The methodology to recover or interpolate the missing color components is known as color demosaicing, a type of image interpolation.
This paper introduces and compares some of the most popularly demosaicing algorithms of adaptive type applied on true color images. Another comparison is done between these methods and the non-adaptive traditional methods. Also, a new method is invented, which depends on both types.
The used images are of Bitmap type. Signal to noise ratio measure is used as an objective quality metric. The results of comparison are presented with some sampled images. Programming has been applied using Visual C++ 6.0 programming language.

Constructing Pornographic Images Detector based on naïve Bayesian classifier

Alaa Y. Taqa; Bayez K. AL-Sulaifanie

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 84-107

Abstract
Detection of pornographic images can effectively prevent pornographic images from spreading on the Internet. This research proposes a new approach of pornographic images detector. Naive Bayesian classifier is used by the proposed detector to identify potential pornographic images. Skin and non-skin color models are constructed and exploited by constructing a Bayesian decision rule based skin detector. Several features are extracted from the output of skin detector which forms the features vector. The naive Bayesian classifier is trained on these features for both porn and non-porn classes. An experiment used (136) images for training the pornographic images detector and (154) images for testing it. The pornographic images detector is evaluated by using sensitivity, precision, specificity and accuracy metrics. It achieves a detective rate of (91.48%) with (6.67%) false positive rate.

Human Iris Recognition using Elman Neural Networks

Shaymaa M. Al-mashahadany

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 108-123

ABSTRACT
The human iris is one of the best biometric features in the human body for pattern recognition. In this paper, the iris recognition system is described that consist of two main parts: image processing and its recognition.
Image processing follows the capture of image, then followed by image segmentation, then localization of iris region by determining the inner and outer boundaries of the iris region and by removing the eyelashes and eyelids.
To overcome the discrepancies in the iris region, a rectangular shape with constant dimensions is proposed, which is represented by a set of data following the normalization procedure.

Epidemiological study and treatment and prevention of Scabies disease in Nineveh governorate

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 97-110

ABSTRACT
Scabies occurrence was investigated in Nineveh governorate consultancies. The percentages of scabies in Nineveh consulting hospitals were 4.3% (in 2000), 7.5% (in 2001), 7.7% (in 2002), 35.5% (in 2003), 36.6% (in2004), 22.5% (in 2005), 28.6% (in 2006). The highest percentage of infection was in 2003 and 2004, while the lowest was in 2000. The percentage of infection with scabies varied according to sex and environment, inadition to seasons. The results revealed that highest percentage of infection was in hot months, males and urban regions. These results were discussed and compared with the relevant researches in this perspective. Furthermore, diagnostic, prevention and therapeutic fundamentals were explained.

Effect of radio frequency with different temperatures in histologic structure of Garra rufa eye

Ali ashkeer Abdul; Sanabel Abdel Moneim Abdel Majeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 1-20

Abstract
The present study carried out to investigate the injuries caused by 50KHz radiofrequency at 1200 V on the histological components of the eye of Garra rufa fish. The exposure to the radiofrequency completed at tow different temperature degree 20  1 C, 24  1 C subsequenthy, for tow weeks and one month three hours daily. The results showed that the radiofrequency caused injuries on the structure of the eye. The injuries appeared at 20  1 C less than injuries at 24  1 C. On the other hand the injuries more severe at one month than at two weeks.
The injuries that appeared at 20  1 C for two weeks includes: Necrosis and damage of corneal epithelium and stroma, as well as, necrosis and atrophy of annular ligament. The injuries of iris appeared as coagulation of some blood vessels and destruction of others, as well as, bleeding occurred and degeneration of pigment and cilliary cells. In the lens necrosis and anterior cortical cataract appeared. The injuries of the choroid and retina varied at central and peripheral regions of the eye globe. In the central choroid region bleeding and hyperplasia in tapetum lucidum appeared, as well as, destruction of blood vessels occurred. In the central retina the Bruch's membrane destroyed and the pigment epithelium necrositized with odema. The rods necrositized and compacted as groups. On the other, hand the numbers of cones reduced and its myoids pyknoted. The nuclear of outer nuclear layer also pyknoted and odema, necrosis and swelling of inner nuclear layer occurred.
After one month of exposure at 20  1 C the injuries more severe in all eye components, as well as, injuries variation appeared at central and peripheral parts of eye globe. The injuries appeared at 24  1 C were more wide than at 20  1 C. After two weeks necrosis and pyknosis appeared in the corneal epithelium and stroma as well as pyknoted of Bowman's membrane, atrophy and pyknosis of annular ligament also appeared. The iris components reduced and coagulation, necrosis and hyperplasia also appeared.
In the lens, destruction and anterior cataract occurred. The injuries occurred in the all components of choroids and retina. The exposure for one month caused wide injuries in the corneal, iris, lens,choroid and retinal components. These injuries include damage of most corneal components and atrophy of iris and complete cataract of the lens. Variations in the injuries appeared at the central and peripheral region of the choroids. These injuries was wide damage of choroidal components. On the other hand, the retinal pigment epithelium completely damaged. The rods mostly damaged and the cones compacted, pyknoted and appeared very thin. The outer nuclear layer damaged and reduced. The other layers: Outer plexiform, ganglion cells, nerve fibers and optic nerve pycnoted and odema appeaed in the optic nerve. Some of the blood vessels in the choroids showed neoevascularization and some destroyed. The peripheral retina showed destruction of pigment epithelium and the most of the rods damaged and the cones reduced in number with damaged of many of them. The outer nuclear layer pyknositized and its rows redusced.

Growth and development of hydatid cysts in BALB/c mic immunised with lipopolysaccharide extracted from Klebsiella pneumoniae

Asmaa Abdulaziz Ali; Ibrahim Fares Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 21-40

ABSTRACT
The study investigated the effect of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which was extracted from Klebsiella pneumoniae on immune response of BALB/c mice infected with secondary hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus.
The immunopathological changes accompanied with secondary hydatid disease in mice were followed in comparison with the positive control group (mice infected with hydatid disease but not activated with LPS) and negative control group (mice neither activated with LPS nor infected with hydatid disease) throughout (3-5) months period of the experiments.
Criteria taken into consideration included the changes in numbers, weights and diameters of the hydatid cysts and the percentage of their reduction .In addition, changes in the weights of liver and spleen and their organ index. The results revealed an obvious decrease in numbers, weights and diameters of hydatid cysts grown in mice activated with LPS in comparison with the positive control group, in all experiments, supported by the reduction of the cyst number in activated mice. A decrease in weight and organic index of the liver and variation in the weight and organ index of spleen in activated mice.
Therefore, it may be concluded that the lipopolysaccharide extracted from Klebsiella pneumoniae can be used as a non-toxic activator (stimulator) of the immune response against infection with secondary hydatid disease.

Effect of Pistacia vera on Listeria monocytogenes and protein extraction by electrophoresis

Elham Mohammed Al Khashab; Ekbal Ali Sultan; Ammerh Ahmed Hamdoun

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 41-49

ABSTRACT
Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 50 samples of minced red meat, which was collected randomly from Mosul city then it was diagnosed using selective media and biochemical test, the inhibitory ackivity of extracts of seeds of pistacia vera which was protein. oil and steroid test of this extracts was done on Listeria monocytogenes and compared with bacterial standard antibioties. The Proteinous extract of Pistacia vera showed a high inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes compared with oil and steroids extracts.
Eleotrophorosis was used in order to separate the Protein of Porteinous extracts, the molecular weight of these Proteins were determined. (20) ,(48), (54), (63), (130). Killodaltone, respectivly.

ٍStudy of the effect of Cyperus rotundus acqueous extract in histopathological changes resulted by experimental infection with Echinococcus granulosus in mice

Srai Salem Aghwan; Intissar Rahim Kanani; Nazeha Sultan Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 50-61

Summary
This study conducted to explore the effect of Cyperus rotundus L. on growth and development of protoscolces in the liver tissue of swiss white mices infected with protoscolces of Echinococcus granulosus collected from hydatid cysts of sheep.
Study include four groups (n = 10 each) 1 st group considered control negative, 2nd control positive (infected with protoscolces only) 3rd & 4th group treated with Cyperus rotundus L. dose (0.5 mg / kg body weight) + protoscolces of Echinococcus granulosus.
Results of this study showed presence of histopathological changes in liver tissue represented by granuloma with presence of structureless hydatid cysts in some sections, on the other hand sever fatty changes, vacuoler degeneration focci, cuffening of mononuclear inflammatory cells, focal area of coagulative necrosis in addition to hemosiderine & bilirubine pigmentation have been seen.

Pathological lesions of kidney in experimentally infected mice with Toxoplasma gondii isolated from placenta of goats and ewes

Entissar Rahim Kanani; Ridha Nazem Hamo; Nabil eunad alnueaymi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 62-73

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to follow up the histopathological changes in kidney of mice experimentally infected with tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii, isolated from placenta of women, ewes, and does naturally infected at 3-120 days via inoculation 1 ml suspension intraperitoneally (i.p).
Results of this study showed presence of pathological lesions from the third day up to 120 days post infection depending on period of infection. In kidney cortex pathological lesions were characterized by vacuolar degeneration in epithelial lining of convoluted tubules associated with acute cell swelling, congestion of blood vessels accompanied with the presence of focal area of coagulative necrosis mixed with tachyzoites, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells (lymphocytes), also invasion of tachyzoites into epithelial cell lining tubules has been seen.
Hypertrophy of glomerula has been seen, dilation of bowman spaces, congestion of capillaries in glomerular tuft as well as accumulation of tachyzoites, and infiltration of inflammatory with lymphocytes in and around the glomerula, also has been seen. Tissue cysts appeared at 7 days post infection in kidney of mice infected with does isolates, while tissue cysts appears after 14 days post infection in kidneys of mice infected with women and ewes isolates.
Histopathological lesion that mentioned above observed in kidney of mice infected with does isolate was more intensive, concomitant, with pelvis arteriosclerosis invasion of tachyzoites into arterial wall, granulomatous lesion appeared in nephron tissue of kidney 40-120 days post infection.

Study of Pathological lesions and histochemistry of placenta in hypertension cases

Entissar Rahim Kanani; Luqman Mohamed Yousif; eawatif Abdul Latif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 74-82

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to investigate the histopathological and histochemical changes in hypertensive placentae as compared with normotensive placentae. The result showed presence of histopathologic lesions in hypertensive placentae represented by necrosis, fibrine deposition and desquamation of Cyncytiotrophobl asts as well as changes in maternal and fetal blood vessels.
Also, the result showed histochemical changes represented by highly positive reaction with periodic acid schiffs (PAS) as compared with normotensive Placenta, and moderate positive with A.B at ph 2.5, and positive reaction with best carmine in hypertensive placentae.
In concoulosion, this study showed presence of histopathological and histochemical changes in hypertensive placentae as compared with normotensive.

Polyamine oxidase activity in blood of children infected with thalassemia in Nineveh governorate

lana Abdul Mansour

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 83-96

Abstract
Polyamine Oxidase (PAO) )EC: 1.5.3.11( activity in serum of (20) cases of Untreated Thalaessamia, aged Six month to one year of both sexes, and (50) children of treated thalassmia, aged 1.5 to 15 years of Both sexes, and (50) normal children, aged six month to 15 years of both sexes also.
In the Present investigation the activity of PAO in blood of untreated and treated cases of thalaessmia was compared with in normal children.
The results obtained showed PAO specific activity in haemolysate of red blood corpuselus and serum of untreated children was (0.641  0.320) and (0.101  0.005) respectively, while the mean value of activity in treated children was (7.574  0.929) and (1.900  0.648) in the haemolysate and serum respectively Compared with (3.019  0.2041) and (0.352  0.120) in the haemolysate and serum respectively, statistical analysis showed a significant of activity in normal child, treated and untreated children (P  0.05), there is no sex significant in (PAO) activity, while age have significant effect in (PAO) activity.

Comparative study of resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from human and broilers to different antibiotics

eamira Ali Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 111-117

ABSTRACT
Twenty Escherichia coli strains from faecal samples of broiler chickens and blood, urine and diarrhea samples from humans were isolated and it’s sensitivity to (13) antibiotics were studied, they showed absolute resistance to two antibiotics, including, Cephalothin and Vancomycin.
It also showed high resistance (50%) for Gentamicin, Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers chickens showed higher resistance for five antibiotics: Nitrofurantion, Nalidixic acid, Chloramphenicol, Kanamycin and Ciprotfloxacin than human isolates.
While Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers chickens faecal samples showed lower resistance than those isolated from humans for other five antibiotics: Tetracycline, Cefixime, Trimethoprim, Cefotaxime, Cephalexin

study of the effect of laser (helium - neon) on the properties and performance of solar cell

taghrid Mahmoud Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 118-129

ABSTRACT
The present study tackles the effect of He – Ne laser light on the electric characteristics and the performance of Si - solar cell. A He – Ne laser light of (λ = 632.8 nm) wavelength and (1mW) power has been used to irradiate the solar cells in two modes: continuous wave (cw) and discontinuous at chopper frequency (25 Hz) at different periods of time of irradiation. Measurements of I–V at experimental solar radiation intensity of (40.6 mW/cm2) have been made at room temperature. In these measurements the short circuit current (Isc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) have been studied, then the efficiency of the solar cell has been found. The results have shown that the solar cells irradiation by the continuous laser light led to inconsistent increase in the values of cell performance parameters, i.e. the value of Isc is higher than its original value before irradiation, in addition to the increase in the cell efficiency as the time of irradiation increases. On the contrary, we have noticed that these values have increased when the cells are irradiated by the discontinuous laser light.

Mexican Hat Net used to increase the security of encoded text

Maha Abdul Ilah Mohammed Al-Badrani

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 137-151

ABSTRACT
The interactive with information considers a large problem specially in transformation of information that need a top security and storage.
Therefore, it was necessary using the artificial neural network ,that consider from the modern application in artificial intelligent, if it dependent on biological bases in simulation human behavior.
This search dependent on the idea of cipher by the use of decimated alphabet cipher and for the purpose of increasing the security of cipher data ,the feed is done on the artificial neural network, which is the (Mexican Hat Net) to enter the cipher text for the purpose of increasing the security of the text and then decipher.
The result provide the ability of ciphering by using the decimated alphabet cipher method with Mexican Hat Net and then decipher and checked the correct of the results in the operation of decipher keeping on the security of these cipher data from hackers by this algorithm.

Calculation of phononic images of ionic super lattice crystals

Manal Ali Khalil; mumtaz Mohammed Saleh Hussein; Khalil Ibrahim AL-saif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 152-171

Abstract
A theoretical study has been presented for the calculation of phonon focusing for the ballistic phonons in multi layer superlattice. The calculated image has been discussed on the base of the slowness and group velocity surfaces. The phonon group velocity is calculated from the dispersion relation. The shell model and Sangster and Atwood potential which prove its success with alkali hailed crystals had been used to calculate the dispersion relation for the crystals in this study. The zone folding has been observed, which occurs as a result of the periodic structure of the superlattice crystal. in the present study it appear in one choices of the unit cell. An efficient algorithm has been used for the calculation of the slowness and group velocity surfaces, which is the fast and more precise in accumulated necessary points to draw the surfaces and phonon images. This algorithm depends on an iterative calculations for finding the position of the given point of the wave vector on the slowness surface. To calculate the phonon images in the dispersion region for the superlattice crystal, an algorithm for the branch separation has been modified depending on the continuity properties of the eigen values and eigen vectors. To present the images of the phonon focusing inside the crystal without any losses of any information and give a full description of gray level of the image, code has been constructed based on the histogram equalization algorithm has been written for process and enhancement the images.

Use the Bayesian inference in the classification with the application of the discriminatory analysis method

Zanoun Younis al-Shukriji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 172-180

Summary
Bayesian Inference depends in general on the use of prior information about the unknown parameters to be estimated as such parameter random variables rather than constant quantities and add that prior information the sample information which is the information in the form of a prior information function and could we know that it is symptomatic of all the information And experiences on parameters and features to be reached in advance through analysis or control of those features. The distribution function of observations of the current sample (Y) depends on the parameters and denoted by , in this research Bayesian Inference in the classification has been used with application on discriminant analysis approach for sample of students Technical Institute (Nineveh) the accounting department where the study included (85) students Two of the morning and evening study also included eight variables representative of school materials and taught in the accounting department (second stage), the results of the analysis showed that there are (17) observation was wrongly classified among (85) observation, and the proportion of misclassification (20%).