Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 23, Issue 4

Volume 23, Issue 4, Autumn 2010, Page 1-169


Physico-Chemical Studies of Reactions of Alkalytion of Schiff,s Bases

Mowafaq Y. Shandala; Abdul-Wahab J. Al-Hamdany; Zaynab W.Majeed; Omar A.Shareef

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 1-18

Abstract
The Schiff’s Bases (N-arylidene benzylamines) (1-29) have been alkylated with different alkyl halides by applying solid-liquid phase-transfer catalysis system (solid K2CO3, CH3CN, TBAB). The products were identified as the corresponding alkylated Schiff’s bases, by analyses of their spectral data (UV, IR, NMR, MS). The mechanism of the reaction was investigated on the basis of theoretical approach using semi-empirical AM1 module in the CS ChemOffice molecular modeling package.

Synthesis of 2-(3-chloro-4-nitro-1-benzothien-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-1,3,4-thiadiazole and 5-(3-chloro-4-nitro-1-benzothien-2-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol

Khalid M. Daoud; Amal N. Ali; Amina A. Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 19-26

ABSTRACT
In this paper the synthesis of some substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole is reported. 3-chloro-4-nitro-2-chloro carbonyl benzo [b] thiophene(1) was synthesized from 2-nitrocinnamic acid by its reaction with thionyl chloride/dimethyl formamide in pyridine. Acid chloride(1) was converted to acid hydrazide(2) by its reaction with hydrazine hydrate in chloroform. The hydrazide (2) was treated with formic acid to give 3-chloro-4-nitro-2-[N-formyl acid hydrazide] benzo [b] thiophene (3), which was converted to substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole (4,5) by its reaction with phosphorus pentoxide and phosphorus pentasulfide respectively. Treatment of acid hydrazide (2) with phenyl isothiocyanate gave substituted thiosemicabazide (6), which cyclized with sodium hydroxide solution to substituted 1,2,4-triazole (7). Compound (1) was treated with thiosemicarbzide in dry benzene to give substituted thiosemicarbazide (8), the substituted thiosemicarbazide (8) was cyclized with sodium hydroxide solution to give 5-substituted 1,2,4-triazole 3-thiol (9), alkylation of 1,2,4- triazole (9) with propyl / butyl chloride in ethanol gave 5-(3-chloro-4-nitro-1-benzothien-2-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-propyl/butyl thiol (10,11) respectively. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral and physical methods.

Synthesis of Substituted Cyclohexenones from the Condensation of Acetone with 1,3-Diaryl-2-propen-1-one

Abdul-Wahab J. Al-Hamdany

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 27-35

Abstract
Claisen-Schmidt condensation had been used to prepare a series of 1,3-Diaryl-2-propen-1-one (1-10), under strong basic condations. The prepared chalcones (1-10) were condensed with acetone to afford the corresponding cyclohexenones (11-20). The structures of the final products had been identified in the light of valid spectral methods (U.V.,I.R.) as well as the typical identification tests .In addition, to the theoretical calculations of heat of formation H.F. and Steric energy S.E. were used to support the suggested reaction mechanism.

Preparation, Charaterization and Study of Cobalt (II), Nickel (II), Copper (II) and Zinc (II) Complexes of Some Schiff Bases

Zuhoor W. Al-Tuhafy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 36-43

ABSTRACT
Some complexes having the general formula [ML]X2, [MLX2], where (M= Co+2, Ni+2, Cu+2 and Zn+2, L= the ligand) obtained by the condensation of o-hydroxy acetophenone with o-amino phenol, ethyl amine and 1,3-propane diamine and X= chloride ion) where prepared by the reaction of the metal salt with the ligand in ethanolic solution. The complexes have the molar ratio 1:2, 1:1. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, infrared and UV. spectral measurements. The studies revealed that the neutral ligands and giving the most expected octahedral and tetrahedral structures for all complexes.

Comparative studies on Effect of Cations and Anions on controlled Release of Centchroman From Chitosan Microspheres

Loay Mohmmad Fadil AL-Emam

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 44-51

Abstract
The Chitosan is a non-toxic, biocompatibale ploysacchride produced by deacetyltion of naturally occurring chitin. The mucoadhesitivity and biodegradability of chitosan have made chitosan as a choice material for developing various dosage forms for controlled delivery systems which are intended to deliver drugs at a controlled rate within a specified period of drug delivery. A comparative study on the degree of swelling and maximum loading and controlled drug released behavior were investigated for glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan microspheres in presence of different anions and cations and in the absence of these ions on burst and control release of centchroman. The addition of high charge density cations have reduced the amount of centchroman released in controlled manner, where as addition of anions has delayed the inception of controlled step of centchroman release and also decreased the amount centchroman released in this step.

Bioactive coating on 321AISI stainless steel alloy and used for biomedical Implants

Ayman A. Ahmmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 52-57

Abstract :
Bioactive coating on composite implants facilitates biological fixation between the prosthesis and the hard tissue, and increases the long-term stability and integrity of the implants. It produces an intermediate region between bone and implant. Hydroxyapatite coating Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2 was carried out on stainless steel 321 AISI substrate by chemical method, this coating can forms strong chemical bonds with bone in vivo because it has the same mineral component of bone.
The x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique were employed to investigate formed phases on the specimen surface. The coating formed is pure hydroxyapatite free from other phases like tri- or tetra calcium phosphate. Electrochemical study involving cyclic polarization experiment was carried out to assess the corrosion resistance behaviour of Hydroxyapatite coated 321 SS comparing with uncoated specimen in Ringer's solution. The results of cyclic polarization have indicated the efficiency of coated specimen which showed high stability Compared with the uncoated specimen.

Evaluation Of Ifraz Water Treatment Plants In Erbil City-Iraq

Siraj M. A. Goran

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 58-79

ABSTRACT
With the increasing interest and care to Erbil province related with the priority for producing and supplying of potable water, three water treatment plants (WTP) were constructed during the last decades. Water quality for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters were monitored in 15 sampling sites of three WTPs (Ifraz 1, 2 and 3) in Erbil governorate from May 2008 to Jan. 2009 at monthly interval period, each WTPs were divided in to five sampling sites according to treatment units. Results of water sample analysis were as follow: Turbidity values ranged between 0.2 to 29NTU, while pH values ranged from 7 to 8.3, and electrical conductivity were ranged from 340 to 773 µS.cm-1, total alkalinity and chloride ion were ranged from 92 to 181mg. CaCO3.l-1 and 8 to 28 mg.l-1 respectively. Total hardness for the studied sites were 128 to 308 mg.CaCO3.l-1, magnesium hardness is sure asses on calcium hardness. Dissolved oxygen (DO) values were ranged from 3.2 to 11.6 mg.l-¹. High BOD5 values were recorded in raw water and sedimentation units in all WTPs, while the low values were recorded in filtration and storage units of all WTPs at different times. Nitrite concentrations at the major treatment units estimated to be between (0.006 to 2.96 g at.N-NO2.l –1). Generally, potassium concentrations were lower than sodium. Sulphate concentration showed a range of 191 to 541 mg.l-1. The range of reactive phosphorus was between 0.15 to 10.5 µg.at.P-PO4.l-1, and Jar test results was between 4 and 28ppm. Bacteriologically, MPN for coliform.100ml-1 in treated waters were safe for drinking purposes according to WHO reports.

Isolation and Identification of Antibacterial Compound from Punica granatum L. Fruit Peels Grown in Iraq

Mohammed Taha Mahmood; Muthanna J. Mohammed; Firas Abbas Al-Bayati

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 80-89

Abstract
The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the substance responsible for the pharmacological activities of Punica granatum L. fruit peels. Tannic acid (ellagitannins, gallotannins) was isolated from pomegranate fruit husk and detected on Thin layer chromatography TLC plates in comparison with standard tannic acid that, served as a positive control. Moreover, infrared FTIR spectrometer and High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC analysis were used to confirm the purity and characterization of tannic acid. The isolated material was investigated for its antibacterial activity against six different pathogenic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacteria were; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes; and Gram-negative bacteria included; Brucella melitensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tannic acid at different concentrations (50.0, 25.0, 12.5, 6.2 mg/ml) was active against all tested bacteria and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against K. pneumoniae (zone of inhibition: 22.6 mm) using the disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration MIC for tannic acid was determined using a broth microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. MIC values ranged from 31.2–250.0 μg/ml, and the most promising result was observed against K. pneumoniae.

Picosecond X-Ray Generation Through Thomson Scattering

Lubna H. Ismail; Muzahim I. Azawi; Salim H. Al-Shamma

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 90-99

Abstract
Short pulse x-ray generation which is produced through Thomson scattering is of interest not only to the basic collision physics, but also used in various research fields. In this work, some theoretical results have been obtained on Thomson scattering between (16MeV) relativistic electron energy and laser pulse energy (2J) of pulse duration (10ns). The differential cross sections of Thomson scattering have been determined between 0.1c up to 0.99c electron energies through different x-ray emitting angles. A relation between the differential cross sections and incident electron energies is established at an x-ray emitting angle equal to zero. In addition, x-ray pulse length over different scattering angles have been determined. To our work knowledge, no experimental data available of this work for comparison.

Existence and uniqueness of the solution of an integro-differential equation of the second order with boundary conditions

Azzam S. Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 100-110

Abstract
In this paper we investigate the existence and approximation solution for nonlinear system of an integro-differential equation of the second order with boundary conditions by using the numerical-analytic method for investigating a system of nonlinear differential equation with boundary conditions which is given by Samoilenko A. M. And also these investigations lead us to generalized the above method.

A new Parallel VM algorithm for solving large scale optimizations problems

Abbas Y. Al-Bayati; Muna M. Mohammed Ali; Omar B. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 111-119

Abstract
In this paper, a new optimal parallel line search step-size is designed to improve the parallel VM algorithm and satisfies Wolf's-Powell condition by using thirty-two non-linear test problems. The new proposed algorithm has been worked well on our selected test problems, and it has a superiority on the standard algorithm.

Image Noise Suppression Using Color Morphological Filter

Samia Shamaon Lazar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 120-129

Abstract
Morphological filtering is a useful technique for processing and analyzing binary and grayscale images. These filters are effective in impulsive noise filtering, feature extracting, and images enhancing. So it is important to find out method for applying morphological technique on color image and keep the colors unchanged at the same time. This paper deals with the use of morphological filters for suppression "salt & pepper" noise in color images. We have used "component-wise approach", in which grayscale morphological operations are applied to each of the three colors image components independently. We present experimental results of applying this approach for the application of noise suppression in color images.

Study of the effect of eclampsia on some biochemical varieties

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 1-9

ABSTRACT
The research included a clinical study of 150 Pregnant women, 120 suffering from Toxemia of pregnancy and 30 women were normal Pregnant considered as control group. All subjects their ages range from 17-43 years. The Patients were divided according to severity of disease. The estimated biochemical parameters included uric acid, urea, the activity of Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase GOT, Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase GPT and Alkaline Phosphatase ALP,total bilirubin, total protein, albumin in the serum,in addition to protein in urine.
The results showed a significant increase in the levels of uric acid, urea and a significant increase in the activity of GOT, ALP while there was no significant change in the activity of GPT and no significant change of total bilirubin level. In addition there was a significant decrease in the levels of total protein and albumin as compared with the control group.
The severity of the disease had a significant effect on the assayed biochemical parameters.

Effect of fruit alcoholic extract of Myrtus communis Myrtle in growth of some pathogenic bacteria

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 10-19

Abstract
This study was effectuate to evaluate the effect of the alcoholic extract of the Myruts communis myrtle fruits on the growth of eight pathogenic bacteria, by used eight different concentrations (3.1, 6.2, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400) mg/cm3. Seven from these bacteria were sensitive to the alcoholic extract these are: (Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus), whereas Proteus vulgaris were resistant, The results showed an increase in the sensitivity of these genus with the increasing the concentrations of the extract from (6.2) mg/cm3 which is considered the minimum inhibitory concentration M I C, Moreover the other concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400) mg/cm3 showed increase which are (18.7%, 138.3%, 514%, 826%, 1081.5%, 1428%) Respectively when compared to the MIC (6.2) mg/cm3 The sensitivity of the examined genus were variable since the diameter inhibition zone (DIZ) were (1.75, 5.4, 5.54, 8.83, 9.08, 11.29, 17.5) respectively.

effect of seeds alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa in some blood biochemical varieties of male rats exposed to oxidative stress

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 20-30

ABSTRACT
This work designed to determine the effect of watery extract of Nijella sativa in induced oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (0.5%) in male rats on some biochemical parameters of blood. The results showed giving male (0.5%) hydrogen peroxide with drinking water lead to increase in level of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins significantly (P<0.05) comparing with control group and decreases in level of high density lipoprotein significantly (P<0.05) with compare of control group also. Treating male rats that have oxidative stress by watery extract of N. sativa 100 mg/kg of B.W showed significant decrease in level of Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglyceride comparing with hydrogen peroxide group. We conclude from the result of this study that the watery extract of N. sativa have important role in restricting the effects of free radical inside the body.

inhibitory effect of vinegar and its mixture with honey on some pathogenic bacteria

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 31-41

Abstract
This research aim to study antibacterial activity of vinegar only and a mixture of vinegar and honey against some pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that mixture of vinegar and honey was more active than the vinegar only, and it was found that there were differences in sensitivity of studied bacteria towards that different lightening. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most sensitive to both concentrated 50/50, 25/75 it was shown the superiority of that mixture of vinegar and honey activity upon some of those antibiotics according to the type of studied bacteria, which may indicate the capability of using this mixture of vinegar and honey to control pathogens which are sensitive to it.

Study of combination capability and hybrid power and estimation of the dominance degree and inheritance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L)

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 42-53

ABSTRACT
Five varieties of bread wheat along with their (10) hybrids from half diallel crosses were used to study combining ability, heterosis, heritability and average degree of dominance for biological yield, five spike weight, resistant to lodging, harvesting index and straw weight. The result showed that the (GCA) and (SCA) variances were significant for the studied characters. The ratio between the variance component of (GCA) and (SCA) was less than one for all studied characters, which indicates the presence of additive and non-additive gene effects on all the studied characters and the non additive gene effect is more important for determining these characters. Desirable and significant heterosis was observed for some hybrids. Were the broad sense heritability and narrow sense heritability low for all characters? There were over dominance for spike weight, harvesting index, resistant to lodging and straw weight and partial dominance for biological yield.

Effect of the addition of silicic acid in the medium of callus stimulates the tolerance of pea plants Pisum sativum L. The toxic effects of Rhizoctonia solani

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 54-64

Abstract
Callus was stimulated from leaves explants of pea seedlings on agar solidified MS medium containing 1.5 mg/L of BA and 2.0 mg/L NAA. Selection of tolerant callus culture virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani by using the concentration of 12.0 % from callus culture added to it the concentrations of 0.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 % of fungal filtrates.Treating callus of using concentrations (10, 102, 103 and 104) µm from salicylic acid over periods (4, 8, 12 and 24) hours followed by callus treated with concentration 12% of filterat fungus for 15 days showed gradual increase in aquiring the callus of brown colour which is compatible to concentrations of salicylic acid in medium and period of treatment. It was also noticed that the best activity of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and concentration proline was in callus extraction treated with 104µm salicylic acid for 24 hours by using concentration of 12%.

A biological study of some blood varieties in children infected with leukemia

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 65-74

Abstract
This study included several tests, and laboratory analysis to explore the presence of tumer cell and its classification of the tumer type, by the unit of blood tumer in Ibn-Alather hospital for children in Mosul.
The study involved (50) child serum trevisoly suffering leukemia and their age among (5-12) years with both gender. The results compared with another (50) healthy child of both gender and the same age. The analysis involved in accordions to tumer type which included WBC count and differential cells count, platelets count with the measurements of total heamoglobin in the blood in addition to determination the activity of adenosine deaminase in blood serum and corpusles cell hydrolysis.
The results revealed that adenosine deaminase activity was increased in comparison with the control group. Haemoglobin level, platelets count, total number of WBC, neutrophil cells were decreased. While lymphocyte cells increased however other types were within normal range.

Effect of Apis mellifera toxin in the nervous system of healthy adult male rats treated with hydrogen peroxide

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 75-92

Abstract
The study was designed to demonstrate the effects of honey bee
(Apis mellifera) venom on the nervous system of normal and hydrogen peroxide treated male rats. Twenty four male rats were randomly divided to 4 groups, with 6 animals for each group: group 1 (control), group 2 (treated with 1% hydrogen peroxide with drinking water), group 3 (exposed to bee venom by normal stings according to 155 sting program) and group 4 (treated with hydrogen peroxide and exposed to stings). The groups treated for 49 days included 4 stinging periods, central nervous system and autonomic nervous system activities were monitored at the end of each period. The animals were sacrificed at the end of experiment period, Gross and histopathological examinations of the brain were performed. The result of the tests (moving oncet, open field, negative geotaxis) showed a significant decrease of central nervous system activities at the 3 treated groups from control with the progression of the experiment, lower levels were recorded at group 4. At the same time there were no expressional significant deferences appeared at sensomobilary stimulatory response tests including (approach, touch, sound, tail pinching) tests reflecting activity of autonomic nervous system. The histopathological examination of brain revealed pathological changes at treated groups represented by vaculation of brain nervous cells, infiltration of microgelial cells, congestion of capillaries with lymphocytic infilteration, demylination in neuronal axons. These changes were more sever at group 4 with presence of different stages of apoptosis in some neurons at group 4. Conclusion: bee venom cannot reduce the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide on nervous system beside that bee venom it self was harmful on the nervous system of adult male rats at the density of stings used in this study.

Effect of anodic oxidation voltage and superconductivity on the electrical properties of the metal / p-Si / SiO2 device

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 93-100

Abstract
A device of metal-oxide –semiconductor (MOS) structure fabricated from p-Si of )100( direction by tow electrodes anodic oxidation system using HCl aqueous solution at oxidation voltage 0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0) Volt. From C-V measurements the results of the samples show clear and different variation in C-V results, this led to different behaviors when changing the oxide thickness over the oxidation voltage range for different metallic contact. From the I-V measurements in dark for all samples shows large dependence of the current on the voltage in forward bias where it was independent in the reveres biases, this is the usual characteristics of shottky diode from this the barrier high is calculated, which show different values due to different metal work function. (I-V) measurements during illumination of MOS device as a solar cells the efficiency for p-Si (100) with Al- contact is η=5% at 1.5V oxidation volt, whereas at same voltage and by using the Au-contact is η=9%.

Effect of chemical treatment of silicon surface on solar cell ZnO/p-Si

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 101-114

Abstract
In this work solar cells of (ZnO/p-Si) prepared by depositing ZnO thin films by electrochemical deposition method (using aqueous solution of ZnCl2 & KCl) on silicon(111) wafer samples. The samples then annealed at (550°C, 1h), to study the effects of annealing and chemical etching by (HCl, HF), optical microscope, SEM-EDAX, X-Ray used as analysis techniques. The optical properties of prepared ZnO on glass substrate also studied. An optical band gab of (3.15eV) calculated. The transmittance of 80% found for the sample before annealing where it became 85% after annealing. Solar cells conversion efficiency of 2.4% were obtained for the cells etched with HCl, where it was 4.337% for HF etching. Where for solar cells samples prepared under texture treatment gave an increase in the efficiency to the 4.7%.

preparation and study of mehanical and physical properties of utectic alloy (Pb-Sn-Zn)

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 115-129

Abstract
In this research, we prepared a eutectic ternary alloy from (Pb-Sn-Zn) metals under normal pressure. We investigated some of the physical properties of the alloy and their elements, which are thermal properties (melting point by using a thermal analysis system, specific heat by using mixed method, thermal expansion by using a system made in our laboroutary, mechanical properties (hardness test by using Rockwell manner depending on (E18-84) standard from ASTM ,fatigue strength by using (BS 3518) standard, also we examined specific gravity depending on (C20-83) standard from ASTM. the result of alloy melting point are approximately similar to that issued in the literary with a little difference because of the alloy suffering from high cooling rate in the thermal analysis system. The result of specific heat is high somewhat because of the many problems in the mixing method. The result of thermal expansion is approximately identical to the standard value in the literary because of the high resolution of the system which are (1 µm). The result of mechanical properties showed the hardness value similar to binary eutectic alloy(Pb-Sn),and increases in the hardness value after the heat treatment in the (57-90) and decreases with increasing heat treatment duration and temperature. The result of fatigue strength showed the absence of fatigue limits and we can't get a precise result because of synergistic many variables in the test which are geometrical shape of the specimen, frequency and the residual stress. specific gravity results show approximately identical with standard value in the literary which lead to the perfect alloy casting and absence of casting defect.

morpho-lexical analysis for printed Arabic words using c

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 130-141

ABSTRACT
In this research we propose a statistical method and morpho-lexical analysis for correcting Arabic words as a post processor for Arabic words output from OCR systems. Dictionaries of words were built for the comparison to the attached word.
The present research uses multiple knowledge sources and basing on the Arabic language properties, statistical method, morpho-lexical analysis and dictionary look-up for error detection and correction. Correction of errors in this research depends on the type of possible error, which can be: transposing two adjacent letters, rejection, replacing an incorrect letter, inserting a missing letter, substitution errors, which are most frequently committed by the OCR systems.

Diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using neural networks

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 142-156

Abstract
The main purpose of this research is to give high accuracy result in pulmonary diseases diagnosis and attaining real medications that corresponds with the decisions of the pulmonary disease specialist. The neural network (perception network) which has ability of giving stable results in medical fields, was used for this purpose. Thirty samples were taken from infected patients with pulmonary diseases (Asthma, tuberculosis) and the network was trained of the symptoms of these diseases and samples. Good diagnostics results were attained corresponding with the symptoms of diseases.

Linear function in case of more than two sets

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 23, Issue 4, Pages 157-169

Abstract
This research dealt with new manner to distinguish among digital photos through Wilks Lambda test. In this way we will know the distinguishing function i.e. its ability to distinguish among digital photos. Then there will be a move to the second stage which represents finding the distinguishing function, which will be used to distinguish among digital photos. After that Mohalanobis scale will be used to know the distance between any communities (i.e. two photos). And in the final stage we will catch the classification mistakes resulted from distinguishing function.