Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 24, Issue 2

Volume 24, Issue 2, Spring 2011, Page 1-188

Spectrophotometric determination of trimethoprim using 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene reagent

Theia'a N. Al-Sabha; Intesar A. Hamody

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 1-11

A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of trimethoprim (TMP) in pure form and in its pharmaceutical formulation has been described. The method is based on the reaction of TMP with 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene reagent (DNFB) in acetone medium to give a highly rosy red colored product with maximum absorption at 538 nm with a molar ratio of 1:1. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 10-75 μg/ml with molar absorptivity of 1.917x103 and Sandell's sensitivity of 0.1514 µg/cm2. Precision (RSD) better than 1.7 % and accuracy (average recovery %) is 100.76 %. The suggested method has been applied to dosage forms as tablets and compared with the pharmacopoeial method, t-test is evaluated and found 1.828 at 95% confidence limit. The results show that there is no interference are present in commercial dosage forms.

Enzymatic Study in Sera of Chronic Renal Failure Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

Azzam Abdulsattar Mosa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 12-21

This study involved an estimation of the activity of some enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (X.O), acidic and alkaline deoxyribonuclease (DNase), peroxidase and pepsinogen in sera of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) which treated with hemodialysis. Blood samples of 32 patients with chronic renal failure from both sexes were compared with (63) samples taken from healthy individuals as a control group.
The results showed a significant increase in the activity of xanthine oxidase, acidic and alkaline DNase and pepsinogen enzyme i Enzymatic Study in Sera of Chronic Renal Failure Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis n serum of patients with CRF before and after hemodialysis compared with control for both sexes. A significant decrease was noted in activity of peroxidase in sera of patients with CRF before and after hemodialysis compared to control group for both sexes.
The results also demonstrated that the hemodialysis process caused a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the activity of xanthinoxidase and pepsinogen. No significant effect (P<0.05) for hemodialysis on the reduction of acid DNase and elevation of alkaline DNase levels was noted. Hemodialysis had a significant increase (P<0.001) on peroxidae activity.
Furthermore, correlation coefficient between the levels of enzymes in sera of patients before and after hemodialysis were determined.

Investigation of New Tetra Dentate Macrocyclic [N4] Ligand and it's Complexes with Transition Metal's

Saad K. Dawood; Sahbaa A. Al-Sabaawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 22-27

Abstract :
This paper describes the preparation and study of a number of transition metal Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with the ligand (2,9-diamin-5,7,12,14-tetraazo-1,4,8,11-tetra oxo-6,13-dithiacyclotetra-decane)L1 .
These complexes also reacted with 4-methyl pyridine (γ-picoline) L2 to form 1:2 adducts in which the ligand act as a monodentate ligand. All these complexes and the adduct characterized by microanalytical (M%), molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, and electronic spectral.

Using The Interaction of Sodium Nitroprusside With Modecate And Tegretol, As an Indirect Method For Their Determination Using S.W.V. Technique

Janan Hazim Abdul-Razzak

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 28-37

A square wave voltammetric (S.W.V.) method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sodium nitroprusside gives a peak at (-0.592) volt against the reference electrode (Ag/AgCl/sat KCl) in phosphate buffer (pH= 7.0). A calibration curve was constructed for the range [(0.99 x 10-7-(14.77 x 10-7)]M the method was applied for indirect determination of medicate and tegretol individually via the interaction of SNP with these drugs. So, a calibration curve was constructed by adding appropriate amounts of modecate of the range [(9.84 x 10-11 – 1.360 x 10-9)] M in the presence of (14.77 x 10-6)M SNP. An other calibration curve was constructed by adding appropriate amounts of tegretol of the range [(9.89 x 10-11 – 9.8 x 10-10)] M in the presence of (9.9 x 10-6)M of SNP.

Effect of Folic Acid, N-acetyl Cysteine and Insulin and Their Combinations on Uterine Histology Alloxan Induced Diabetic Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses

Lana Sardar Salih; Kusai A Al-Chaladi; Hamad Jandari Jamma

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 38-47

This study has been carried out to assess the effect of folic acid, N-acetyl Cysteine and insulin on some histological parameters in the uterus of alloxan induced diabetic rats and their fetuses.
In this study, 192 healthy pregnant rat, whose weight was about 200-350grams were used. The animals were housed under standard laboratory condition (12 h light; 12 h dark at 20-24 C). The animals were given standard rat pellets and tap water ad libtium.
Normal female rats mated with normal males, then the first day of gestation were detected through vaginal plug. Diabetes mellitus were induced by a single subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg of alloxan. After four days, rats which showed blood glucose of more than 200 mg/dl were considered as alloxan induced diabetic pregnant, and they were distributed to three periods (1-7, 8-14 and 15-22 days) of gestation. Diabetic pregnant rats at each period were divided into eight subgroups groups. First subgroup supplemented with standard diet which represent the negative control, while the rest subgroups were treated with 100mg/kg alloxan. In addition to alloxan, the third subgroup were treated with 250mg/kg folate and 4 I.U. insulin, the subgroup four was daily injected with 7.5mg/kg folate and 4 I.U. insulin, the subgroup five was supplemented with 250mg/kg folate, subgroup six was daily injected with 4 I.U. insulin, subgroup seven was supplemented with 0.1% N-acetyl cysteine and 4 I.U. insulin and the rats of the last group were supplemented with 0.1% N-acetyl cysteine

Deviations of the Light Distribution from the Sersic's model in Elliptical galaxies

Omar Basil Mohammad Saleh; Saad Mahmood Youins

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 48-56

The surface brightness profiles of 46 elliptical galaxies, belong to Coma Cluster of galaxies have been fitted by the generalized Sersic r1/n – law for the intermediate radius range . The mean deviations between the adopted model and the surface brightness profiles of the galaxies found to be less than (0.03) mag arcsec-2. The deviation profiles between the observations and the adopted models show that the maximum negative deviation found to be around the reduced radius of 0.86, while the maximum positive deviation were found to be around the reduced radius of 0.96. The crossing points between the adopted models and the observed surface brightness profiles were found to be around the reduced radius 0.65, 0.83 and 1.0.

Electron-Electron Scattering In Single Quantum Well GaAs Laser With And Without Screening

Ragheed M. Ibrahim; Erada A. Al-Dabbagh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 57-65

In this paper we have studied the electron-electron scattering rates in an infinitely deep single quantum well with width (400 ) and for both carrier densities (1  1010 cm-2 and 100  1010 cm-2), we have considered the electron-electron scattering as a function of the initial electron energy with and without screening at all subband carrier-carrier scattering mechanisms.

Development of the Adomian's Method for Solving non-linear Fredholm-Fredholm Integral Equations

Junaid Idrees Mustafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 66-78

A new and effective direct method to determine the numerical solution of non- linear Fredholm-Fredholm integral equations is proposed.
The method is based on a series solution for the unknown quantity by Adomian's method. We obtained very good results compared with classic Adomian's method Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate accuracy and computational efficiency of the method.

A new pair conjugate algorithm with an adaptive optimal step size

Muna M. Mohammed Ali; Maha S. Y. Al-Salih; Abbas Y. Al-Bayati

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 79-88

In this paper, a new adapted optimal step-size is designed to improve the efficiency of pair conjugate method. At each linear search an acceptable step- size is estimated during quadratic interpolation and this estimate is used as an initial trial step-size. The technique needs only additional gradient evaluation at each search direction. Also we have improved Armijo line search technique to be used together with the new optimal stepsize.
The numerical results are more efficient than the results of the same method using the classical scheme for the linear search technique.

Design A System For Image Matching By Using Fuzzy C-Means Clusters

Ali A. Yassin; Essam Z. Ebady; Aqeel A. Yassin

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 89-102

This research aims to take advantage of the possibility of an Fuzzy cluster means (FCM) algorithm with a cluster fuzzy groupings in matching images as a result of carrying fuzzy logic specification who enjoys high potential and strength in dealing with complex issues as well as being able to manage uncertainty and ambiguity effectively high. And also enjoy the possibility of clusters dealing with a range of data across the block selected data dealing with it and thus give accurate results and reduce the volume of data that will deal with this data in the area of research will be moving toward a data image that will choose a set of formal statements by representatives of the photos that are subject to the system of matching and then That it implemented the policy in the process of matching to get results as well as the fact that we merger process between the method of election to choose a fuzzy cluster data model of pixels located on the edges of the image and not the image data is essential and this is what will discuss it later.

Determination and Testing the Domination Numbers of Helm Graph, Web Graph and Levi Graph Using MATLAB

Ayhan A. khalil

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 103-116

A set is dominating set of a graph G, if every vertex in V-S is adjacent to at least one vertex in S . The domination number denoted by is defined to be the minimum cardinality of dominating set in G.
We investigate the domination numbers of Helm graph, web graph and Levi graph. Also we testing our theoretical results in computer by introduce a matlab procedure to calculate the domination numbers , dominating set S and draw this graphs that illustrated the vertices of domination this graphs. It is proved that:

Effect of some protein compounds isolated from the plant (Fragaria Vesca) on some of the biochemical variables of the rats exposed to experimental oxidative stress

Lama AbdulMoneim Bakr

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 1-16

This study was concerned with preparation of cold aqueous extract of Fragaria Vesca. the proteinous compound (from cold proteinous precipitate) has been isolated and studied by using the gel filtration chromatography technique where the molecular weight of the compound was (7226) Dalton.
The study also concerned with the effect of crud aqueous proteinous and non protienous extracts, protienous precipitate and compound which was isolated from it in serum glucose, total cholesterol (T.C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and uric acid in females mice which was exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, in addition glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyed (MDA) levels was determined in liver, heart and kidney tissues for thase mice.
The results of injection intraperitoneal of mice and after one week of a treatment with proteinous compound, crud aqueous precipitate proteine and proteinous precipitate, indicated significant decrease the levels of serum total cholesterol, serum uric acid, and serum glucose when treated with proteinous precipitate and aqueous extracts proteine, whereas the results indicated that significant increase level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) when treating with (proteinous precipitate, aqueous proteinous, non proteinous (which caused asignificant increase in glucose level)) extracts, the level of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyed (MDA) has also been increased for some tissues when treating with the above mentioned extracts. Finally, it can be concluded that most extracts of (Fragaria Vesca) plant have a decreased effects for total cholesterol and have an increased effect for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level and as antioxidants.

Effect of Cu (II) ion on the decomposition of organic peroxides produced from the γ-radiolysis of oxygenated threonine

Azhar Abdullateef Alobaidy; Rana H. A. Alhayali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 17-28

The effect of Cu(II) ions on the decomposition of organic peroxides produced in the γ-radiolysis of threonine aqueous oxygenated solutions have been studied under various experimental conditions including different pH,s and temperatures.
The results obtained indicated that in general, increasing the metal ions lead to increase the decay of organic peroxides. Similar results were observed by increasing temperature.
From the observed results, it has been concluded that different types of organic peroxides can be formed depending on the pH of irradiated solutions. i.e, the pattern of.OH radical reactions with threonine are pH dependens.
Mechanisims of the decay of formed threonine organic peroxides at different pH conditions were suggested.

Estimation of kinetics varieties for activation of azo dyes derived from the reaction of ortho-2 substituents,4-dihydroxy benzylidine anilin with diazotized sulphanilic acid sodium salt

Mohammed M. H Alnaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 29-44

The kinetics of formation of azo dyes formed by reactions of Schiffs, bases, with various ortho substituents on the primary amine parts of imines with diazotized sulphanilic acid sodium salt at pH7.
The optimum ratio of concentrations of dyes, reactants were
(1: 10: 2.5) for (Schiff,s base: reagent: base) respectively. Experimentally, it was proved that, dyes formation followed a pseudo first order kinetic with respect to imines.
The kinetics of dyes formation were studied at optimal conditions for the dyes and at a range of temperatures (10-50 ○C). This investigation included contains the evaluations of rate constants (k), half lives (t1/2) and thermodynamic parameters of activation, namely, (Ea, ∆H*, ∆S* and ∆G*). The values of these parameters were discussed and interpreted.

Effect of aqueous extracts of ficus carica fig leaves and fruits on the growth of Rhizobia bacterium and lipolysaccharide production

Omar Abdulaziz Al-Zuhairi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 45-56

The study aims to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves and fruits of the fig plant Ficus carica after and before ripping period when adding it to YEM media on rhizobia bacteria growth, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii ANU 536, Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium parasponia CP283 and Bradyrhizobium sp. 101/U and their production of Lipopolysaccharides (LPS),as an indirect indication of influence of fig plant remains on the plant that have symbiosis relationship with the studied bacteria when planting these plants abreastly.
The result showed the positive effect for aqueous extract of ripping fruits at concentration of 25 mg/ml on the growth of different bacteria and their production of LPS. The concentrations 25,50 and 100 mg/ ml of the extract after ripping period inhibit growth of bacteria, while the other concentrations varied positively and negatively according to their effect on bacteria growth and their production of LPS.

Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa, Azadirachta indica, and Myrtus communis leaves in the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces of human and sheep origin in vitro

Ibrahim Ahmed Abdullah; Arqam Mohammed Azhar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 57-71

Results of the present study revealed significant inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of the fruits of capparis spinosa, Melia azadrach and the leaves of Myrtus communis at concentrations 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/ml for each of these plants on the viability of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of human and sheep origin in vitro.The concentration of 300 mg/ml and sometimes the concentration 200 mg/ml of these plants causes the death of all protoscoleces in 45 and 60 minutes.

Biological study of pomegranate fruits and their active components for some types of isolated bacteria from diarrhea cases in the city of Mosul

Khader D. Suleiman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 72-84

The study involved isolation and identification of the bacteria types which cause effection to the stomach from peoples having dieria-200 saples of diaria patients male and female of different ages were used in this study during aperiod of sepetemlar 2006-march 2007. The isolated microorganisms were as follows. Entero pathogenic, E.coli O126 in percent of 38.88% Which y the most popular percent then Sal. Typyimurium with apercent of 27%in so 1% typh and Sh.flexneri, Apercent of 16-11%. The result of the above study revailed that aquous extract of punica granatum has medium activity agaius all types of bacteria studied compaired with antibiotic cephalexin and showed weak activity comparied to the Gentamycin, Trimethoprim antibiotics. The alcohole extract showed higher activity against all types of bacteria compaired with antibiotics (Gentamycin, cephalexin). Moderate activity was shown compaired with Trimethoprim. The study also revailed that the extract of punica granatum showed higher tow and all types of bacteria comparied with the commercial antibiotic mentioned above. The diometer of inhibition one of Sh.flexneri was found 23mm While for S. Typhi y 22mm. The determination of minimum concentration activity (MIC) of the aquous extracts was found 1mg/ml. For Sh.flexneri, S. Typhi and S.Typyimurium, while for E.coli was 0.5 mg/ml. The (MIC) of alcoholic extracts for all studied bacteria was found 0.25 mg/ml. The punica granatum extract was found equd in activity for Sh.flexneri, S. Typhi and S.Typyimurium whoch y 0.125mg/ml. While in E.coli the minimum activity (MIC) was found 0.25 mg/ml. The minimum Killer concentration (MBC) was also determined in this study for the studied organisms. The aquous extract for Sh.flexneri, S.Typyimurium was found 2 mg/ml. For E.coli it was found 1 mg/ml. Alcoholic of all types of organisms as (MBC) was found 0.5 mg/ml. The punica granatum extract was found 0.5 mg/ml. for all types of bacteria studied. The detection of the inhibitory effect for the separated tannin in the growth of the (EPEC O126 in vivo using the ILLeaL rabbit Loop test Showed that the Tannin has an inhibitory effect in the (EPEC) O126 though the measurement of the dilatation indicator Wich was showed to be (0.37) and in comparison with the other dilatation in dicator measurement.

Mutation of the genetic content of Proteus mirabilis

Diana N. Mostafa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 85-92

Four isolates of P.mirabilis previuosly identified from urine were obtained from the laboratory of microbiology in the college of education. The isolates were tested for their resistance to the antibiotics Ampicillin (Amp), Tettracycline (Tc), Chloramphenicol (Cm), Gentamycin(Gm) and Ciprofloxacin(Cip). There were differences in the antibiotic pattern of the isolates.These isolates were mutagenized by nitrous acid (0.05M) for 5 and 10 minutes.It was found that the percentage of removing the antibiotic resistance at 5 minutes was (0-76) but the 10 minutes treatment caused death to all cells. The bacterial isolates showed variation in losing their ability to hydrolize urea.Swarmming phenomenon was not affected by the process of mutagenesis and retained in the all mutagenized colonies of the isolates.

The use of Chalcon in inhibiting types of Erwinia bacteria isolated from plants

Zahra S. Al Mashhadani

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 93-101

Samples collected from different plants (Potato, Carrot, Pear) from many sources shown signs of infection with bacteria. The isolated bacteria causing each disease were identified seven isolates of Erwinia carotovoa var. carotovora and five isolates belong to E.chrysanthemi that isolated of potato and fore isolates of E.c.c that isolated of carrot and fore isolates of E.amylovora isolated of Pear E.c.c. and caused black stem disease in potato and E.c.c. caused Rut Root for carrot and E.a. caused fire Blight.Chalcon used as a method for resisting these diseases and have shown that chalcon (acetophenon benzayl dehyde) better than chalcon (aceto phenon para methoxy benzayl dehyde) in resisting thes diseases except E.amylovora which have better result in chalcon (aceto phenon Paramethoxy benzayl dehyde) in 5% concentration.

Effect of different doses of sodium fluoride for female suckled albino rats on the reproductive efficiency of male infants and puberty

Hiba Mohammed Jassim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 102-111

This experiment was designed to study the effect treatment with sodium fluoride (200,400 ppm) with drinking water to mother rats during lactation on reproductive efficiency of their male pups at age of 21 days and to know the remaining of these effects on male rats at age of 50 and 90 days. Sodium fluoride (200 & 400 ppm) administration to mother rats with drinking water during lactation caused significant decrease in weights of body, testes, epididymal head, body, tail, prostate and seminal vesicle in their pups at 21 days old. Treatment with sodium floride to mother rats caused significant decrease in weights of the body, epididymal head, body, tail, seminal vesicle, number of sperm, with no significant changes in weights of testes and prostate in male rats at 50 days age. The study showed significant decrease in number of sperm, percentage of live sperm and significant increase in percentage of dead sperm and sperm abnormalities, with non significant changes in weights of body, testes, epididymal head, body, tail, prostate, seminal vesicle in adult male rat at 90 days age from mothers treated with sodium fluoride during lactation. Its concluded from this study that sodium fluoride has negative effects on reproductive efficiency of rat pups at 21 and 50 days age and this effect is less in male rats at 90 days age when their mothers treated with it during lactation.

Effect of palm pollen on the reproductive fertility of adult male rats Rattus norvegicus

Inas O. H. Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 112-129

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Phoenix dactylifera on reproductive system in male white albino rats Rattus norvegicus. 24 adult male albino rats were used, 18 were treated orally with Phoenix dactylifera at dose 100, 200, 300 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks, 6 rats were treated with distal water served as control group. The results show that relative weights of epidydimous, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and rate of body weight, are significantly none changed. The result showed increased significantly in the weight of the testes for group treated at dose 200 mg/kg body weight.Increased sperm count and life sperm %, while decreased in dead sperm % and non change in the abnormal sperm %significantly. The result show increased in serum blood level of testosterone hormone in treated rat with Phoenix dactylifera at dose 300mg/lg body weight for 6 weeks, and there is no change in serum blood level of testosterone hormone in treated rats with Phoenix dactylifera at doses 100, 200 mg/kg body weight.

Study of the impact of diesel generator sites on the local climate change of the city of Mosul using geographic information systems

Sabah H. Ali; Daoud H. Mohamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 130-147

Since the mid of 1990th, Mosul city over all Iraq cities, is used widely the local power diesel generators. The generators exhaust emits a large amounts of hydrocarbon gases, including, of course, carbon dioxide. In most cases, the Purity of the fuel (gas oil) is below the accepted standard purity. Certainly, the emission of large quantities of such hydrocarbon gases to the atmosphere, play an important role in contributing to global warming. Therefore, a significant bad side-effects influence Mosul city thermal balance and climate changes.
Because the studied area is surrounded by Hills and highlands, therefore this topographic terrain leads to the precipitation of the exhaust generator output pollutants within the city air space, and leads to increase climate change which is reduce the green area proportion (i. e.; increasing the dryland spaces).
Unfortunately, large proportions of local forest trees in the studied area, have been subjected to logging operations by citizens under the current circumstances for use as fuel.
In this study, some treatments have been suggested to reduce further pollution emitting from the diesel generators. The aim is to reduce their negative effects on the environment, human health and land use. GIS software have been adopted in the current study (Global Mapper9, ArcGIS9.1) process and analyze the DEM data of the studied area with respect to satellite image to show the topographical features of the area and the location of the generators. GIS software also have been applied in the georeferncing process of the adopted remote sensing data.
The descriptive approach has been adopted in the completion stages of the study in addition to the available data

Optical properties: A comparative study of Zamzam water, magnetized water, normal water and distilled water

Ivan B, Karumi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 148-158

This paper construed to study the important optical properties of Zamzam water, optical absorption and transmission had been studied at different wavelengths (300 – 800) nm, the refraction index was determined at 589.8 nm, another important optical properties had been also calculated such as specific refraction, reflectance, finesse coefficient, permittivity and polarizability per unit volume, the paper also study important properties that is PH and ppm. All of these were compared with three samples of water which are; tap water, distilled water and magnetic water which has been prepared by an electrical coil of 200 Gausses.
The results show that the optical absorption of Zamzam water is the largest compared with other sample at different wavelengths, specially at 5000 nm, and the transmission is the smallest, on the other hand the refractive index of Zamzam water is 1.3345 at 589.8 nm that is the largest compared with other sample, the PH for Zamzam water is 6.55 and ppm
is 186.
It has been concluded that Zamzam water has special optical properties compared with other sample. This lead to the possibility to use Zamzam water as an optical liquid which has unusual properties.

Optimize the maximum values mr (2, q) for parentheses in (, k, r in PG (2, q)

Nada Y. Q Yahya; Heba S. N. Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 159-179

In this paper we finding the maximum(k,r)-arcs and minimum values for a complete(k,r)-arcs which are unknown at yet in projective plane PG(2,31), improvement some of the maximum value mr(2,q) for 3≤r≤10 by using conic equation, and for value 4≤r≤6 by using incidence matrix and we get new examples (68,4), (96,5), (128,6)-arcs that have not been obtained previously.
Also we prove that nonexists (k,3)-arcs when in PG(2,31) theorm (1.9.1).

Solve linear boundary values problems with infinity boundary conditions using finite differences corrective method

Ahmed I. ghathith; Sawsan S. Ismail

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 180-188

The purpose of the research is to solve second order linear boundary value problems in which one of the boundary condition is infinity (∞). The research aims at finding approximate value for these problems by using finite differences method, then the problems are solved by using finite deferred correction.