Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 24, Issue 4

Volume 24, Issue 4, Autumn 2011, Page 1-168

Spectrophotometic Determination of Isoniazid (INH) Using 2,4-dinitro-1-flourobenzene (DNFB) – Application to Tablet

Hayfa M. Jassim Al-Hammoshi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58950

A rapid, simple, reproducible and sensitive spectrohpotometric method for assay of (INH) was investigated. The method is based on the reaction of INH with 2,4-dinitro-1-flourobenzene reagent to give a highly colored species with maximum at λ 428 nm in aqueous medium of pH 10.3. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of (0.05 – 2.5) µg/ml with a molar absorptivity 2.7 x 104 l.mol l-1 cm-1 .The sandell index was 0.005 µ and the limit of detection was 0.00984 µg/ml. The accuracy (average recovery%) was 99.99% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was better than ±1.0%. Also it was found that the product formed was in a ratio of 1:1 with a stability constant of 5.9 x 103 l.mol-1. The method was applied successfully to assay INH in pharmaceutical formulations and agreed well with its certified value and the British pharmacopoeia method.

Kinetic and Thermodynamic study of The Adsorption Of Methylene Blue Over Magnetic Activated Carbon

Omar Mosa Ramadhan; Alaa Abd-ALazize Ahmed; Ibtisam Mohamood Hamid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.58948

The study involves preparation of magnetic activated carbon by treatment of the carbon with(0.25M) Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O Carbon prepared was used for the removal of methylene blue dyes from aqueous solution. The study involved calculation of heat of adsorption of the dyes over the magnetic carbon. The study assumes that the adsorption of dyes over activated carbon is pseudo second order. Investigation of the effects of concentration, temperature, time and pH of the media were studied in detail to choose the suitable conditions for the kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

Effect of Atomic Charge and Some Physical Properties on pKa of Substituted Pyridines

Mahmmoud S. Saieed; Zaheda A. Najim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 25-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58953

A number of different levels of theoretical calculations have been used for assigning the Mulliken charge to the atoms of mono-substituted pyridines, including both quantum chemical and empirical schemes. A reasonable acceptance for any successful theoretical scheme of calculation is that atomic charges produces should vary in a manner consistent with chemical intuition and more specifically, that these variation should be correlated in a sensible way with experimental observations. The Mulliken charge was calculated using six different theoretical levels (AM1, PM3, MNDO, HF, DFT, MP2). After that the Mulliken charges were tested for their ability to represent variation in the pKa values of 14 mono – substituted pyridines. In all cases the Mulliken charge at the nitrogen and the two α – carbon atoms were taken as a representative regression parameters. The Mulliken charge at nitrogen atoms calculated by AM1 and HF levels yielded the most successful correlations with pKa. Also using other theoretically calculated independent variable such as the heat of formation, leads to improve the correlation with values of pKa.

Some New Trinuclear Vanillin Schiff Base Complexes of Cobalt, Nickel and Copper

Issam J. Sallomi; Wijdan A. Al-Zeadan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 34-49
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58951

In this study homo and hetero trinuclear complexes of cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) were prepared by the reaction of their salts (chloride and nitrate) with a Schiff base ligand derived from vanillin and malonylhydrazide. Complexes of the general formulae: [M3(VMH4)2X6)], [M2M'(VMH4)2X6], [MM'M"(VMH4)2X6] and K2[M3(VM)2], K2[M2M'(VM)2], K2[MM'M''(VM)2] (where M, M', M" are the dipositive ions of cobalt, nickel and copper, respectively, VMH4, VM are the neutral and tetra basic forms of the ligand and X= Cl, NO3) were isolated from both neutral and basic media, respectively. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by using analytical, physical and spectral methods. The studies revealed the hexadentate nature of the ligand which gave hexacoordinated and tetracoordinated metal complexes with the most probable octahedral and tetrahedral or square planar structures in neutral and basic media, respectively. The stability period and the stability constants of some of these complexes in neutral solution have been studied spectrophotometrically. The compositions of the complexes were determined by the use of Job method. The results indicate the formation of only 1:1 metal: ligand complexes with similar stability constants.

2-Phenylchroman-4-one as Synthone in Synthesis of New Five and Six Membered Rings Heterocyclic Compounds

Moneera Y. Raoof; Shakir M. Saied; Moayed S. AL. Gawady

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 50-59
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58954

Chroman-4-one derivatives 1(a-i) were prepared by Pechman condensation of phenol or its substitutions with cinnamic acid by using polyphosphoric acid. These derivatives were reacted with hydrazine hydrate in refluxing ethanol to yield pyrazoline derivatives (2). The utility of the Claisen-Schmidt condensation in the synthesis of -3-arylidene- substituted 2-phenyl chroman-4-one 3(a-e) by reaction of proper 4-chromanone (1) with aromatic aldehydes in presence of KOH. Pyrazolines 4(a-c) were synthesized by the reaction of proper arylidenes 2 with hydrazine hydrate in presence of pyridine. Finally, the condensation of arylidines with urea gave pyrimidin-2-ones 5(a-d).
The structures of these compounds were confirmed by their physical properties in addition to the IR and UV Spectra.

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Hexa azamacrocyclic Ligands Derived from Thiosemicarbazide

Saad K. Dawood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 60-67
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58957

Some transition metal (II) complex are synthesized with thiosemicarbazide Ligands L1= dicyclohexen [1,6,7,9,14,15] hexaaza [2,5,10,3] tetra one [8,13] dithiacyclohexadecane and L2= dicyclohexyl [1,6,7,9,14,15] hexaaza [2,5, 10, 13] tetraone [8,13] dithiaCyclohexadecane. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of the complexes in DMSO correspond to non-electrolytic nature and the complexes may have octahedral geometry.

Study of Some Biochemical Parameters and Fatty Acids Composition in Blood Serum of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Abd-Alkream H. Ismail; Mohamed A. H. Jasim; Shaimaa Jasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58944

صممت هذه الدراسة لمقارنة مستویات بعض المتغیرات الکیموحیاتیة و المکونات الدهنیة وترکیب أحماضها الدهنیة فی مصل الدم النساء المصابات بتکیس المبایض المتعدد. تضمنت الدراسة (25) عینة من النساء اللاتی تم تشخیص الحالة لدیهن باستخدام جهاز الامواج فوق الصوتیة وتم جمع العینات من مستشفى البتول التعلیمی فی مدینة الموصل، تتراوح أعمار المرضى مابین (25-40) سنة، ومقارنتها مع (25) عینة سیطرة. وتم قیاس عدد من المتغیرات الکیموحیاتیة فی مصل الدم، إضافة الى تحلیل الأحماض الدهنیة وتقدیر نسبتها المئویة فی المکونات الدهنیة لمصل الدم (استر الکولیستیرول، الدهون الفوسفاتیة والکلیسیراید الثلاثی) وذلک باستخدام تقنیة کروماتوکرافیا الطبقة الرقیقة بعد ذلک تم إعادة أسترة الأحماض الدهنیة وقیاس النسبة المئویة لها باستخدام جهاز کروماتوکرافیا الغاز الشعری. أشارت النتائج إلى وجود اختلاف کبیر فی المکونات الدهنیة وترکیب أحماضها الدهنیة فی مصل الدم المرضى مقارنة مع مجموعة السیطرة.

Intestinal Parasites among Patients attending General Central Public Health Laboratory in Erbil City-Iraq during 1998-2004

Narmin Hamad; Rezan Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 79-86
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58955

The data of general stool examination of the patients attending the general central public health laboratory in Erbil city were collected during years 1998-2004 to estimate and determine the percentage of infections with parasitic species by direct method. Out of 5768 stool samples, examined 1380 were infected with intestinal parasites 23.9%. Statistically, there were high significant differences between infections and each of studied years and distribution of the parasitic species in relation to the sexes of the patients. Highest infection rate was 42.4% in the year 1998, while the lowest was 5% in 2004, and the males were infected with intestinal parasites more than females which were 60.2% and 39.8% respectively.
The following parasites were detected in the present study: Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba coli with infection rates 51.7%, 51.2% and 0.6%, 0.7% in males and females, respectively, and intestinal flagellates, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas hominis 40.3%, 39.9% and 3.1%, 5.1% in males and females, respectively. Taenia saginata 0.4% in each of males and females and Hymenolepis nana 3.4% in males and 2% in females, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, 0.5% in males and females, respectively. Only 57 cases with double infections were recorded.
High percentages of pus cells, red blood cells and Monilia fungi were present in the infected stools with pathogenic intestinal parasites like E. histolytica, G. lamblia, T. saginata, H. nana, A. lumbricoides and E. vermicularis.

Spatial Analysis of Jabal Bekhier Elevation by Using GIS and Remote Sensing

Sabah Hussein Ali; Waleed Younis Al-Ubide

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 87-100
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58958

The knowledge of the surface topography is of major importance to the earth sciences. It is essential in any discipline concerned with process modeling like hydrology, climatology, geomorphology and ecology.
The present study utilized Environmental Systems Research Institute’s (ESRI), ArcGIS 9.2 (with the spatial analyst extension) software, remote sensing data (DEM and IKONOS satellite image) of the study area (Jabal Bekhier lies in the north margin of Dohuk Province in the north of Iraq) to extract a different maps of exact geographical locations, like; Contour map, Slop map, Aspect map and Hillshade map.
By using these maps, the land surface of the study area could be realized on a detailed understanding of its terrain variation characteristics also to the natural surface features that including hills, valleys, rivers, lakes …etc. The landscape features of the study area are classified into seven geomophological units (terrain slop) which are give a detail description of the Jabal Bekhier. All the output maps were defined according to WGS84_UTM_Zone 38N system.

Effect of UV–radiation on physical properties for CR-39 detector

Qusay Kh. O. Al-dulamey

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 101-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58956

In this work, several pieces of CR-39 detector were irradiated by UV radiation in order to study their physical characteristics. A UV spectrometer was utilized to read radiation coming out of the CR-39 detectors., and obtain their optical absorption. It was realized that the optical absorption wave length range was between 190-1110 nm. Near 314-316 nm at the absorption peak, a UV spectrum change was oserved in which there was an energy gap (Eg) variation which was confirmed by the Urbach equation. It was interesting to notice that the indirect inergy gap value was less than that of the direct gap value. Both direct and indirect energy gaps do increase with increasing dose of UV radiation.The number of carbon atoms (N) was calculated depending on direct and indirect energy gaps return to the equation (4).It was also observed that the excitation electron, Urbach energy (Eu), do actually decrease when UV radiation dose is increased.

Structural and electrical properties of the high temperature superconducting system Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10+δ

Khalid Hamdi Razeg; Kareem D. Alazawi; Mahmood Ahmed Hmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 114-122
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58952

Samples of the high temperature superconducting system, Bi2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10, were prepared by solid state reaction method with different sintering temperatures (810, 830, 850, 870, 890) Co. X-ray diffraction technique was used to examine the structure of the compound and showed that the sample prepared with sintering temperature at 850 Co exhibits tetragonal phase with the lattice parameters a = b = 5.42 Ao, c = 34.13 Ao. The electrical resistivity measurements exhibited that the sample prepared at 850 Co its critical temperature was Tc=120K and decreases to 87K when prepared at 870Co. However when the same sample prepared at 890 Co it showed semiconducting behavior with two activation energies (8.593 - 3.456)meV. The effect of annealing on critical temperature has been investigated on the sample which was prepared at 850 Co. The best value of Tc was (132)K at the annealing temperature 400 Co, and rises to 140K with increasing the annealing time from 24 hrs to 72hrs and this increase might be caused by the increase of oxygen content or by intergrowths of a large number Cu-O layers in the cell.

An analytical expression for the K shell ionization cross section of some heavy atomic elements by electron impact

Salim H. Al-Shamma; Muzahim I. Azawi; Lubna H. Ismail

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 123-130
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58959

An analytical expression is proposed to describe the k shell ionization cross section by electron impact for some heavy atomic elements (Ho, Yb, W, Au, Pb, and U) had been presented. This study is based on the analysis of the calculated cross section using Sbell formalism. The proposed analytical expression had been found to be fitted very well with the shape of the calculated data for all atomic elements with an acceptable agreement in the values of the calculated cross section.

Suggested Algorithm For Speech Signal Coding

khalil Al saif; Saja Jasem Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 131-144
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58947

This paper discusses a suggested approach for new kind of Speech Signal Compression Algorithm based on KL transform (Karhunen-Loève transform) which normally used with digital image.
Speech signal (which is single sequence) rearranged in form of two dimension square matrix to be suitable for KL transformation. Then to be compressed using different no. of eigen values and eigenvectors. Measuring the performance of applied KL transformation (by evaluating the PSNR and SNR factors) with different numbers of eigen values and vectors studied.
High rate of compression with high SNR, PSNR got with so closed speech signal to the original one measured using correlation factor which gives values near to 1. In addition to short time needed for compression operation.

Biometric Identification Based on Iris Recognition

Hanaa Fathi Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 145-156
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58949

This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the automatic classification of iris images using a 2_D (two Dimension) Variation to estimate the fractal dimensions of the iris.
The new technique divided in to three main step. In the first step the segmentation process in iris recognition is used to localize the circular iris and pupil regions, excluding eyelids and eyelashes. The extracted iris region is normalized into a squares block with constant dimensions.
In the second step, the feature extraction techniques are improved and implemented. A new feature extraction technique based on a 2_D Variation to estimate the fractal dimensions is used. Finally The Normalized Correlation is used to classify the iris features. The techniques performed with perfect segmentation on a set of 995 iris images of greyscale eye images from MMU database. The as False Accept Rate (FAR) and False Reject Rate (FRR) and (RR) recognition rate are calculated for this technique. The results of the algorithm proved that. The a 2D (two Dimension) Variation to estimate the fractal dimensions method it is a good feature extraction technique. It gives FAR=(1.02) and FRR= (0.52) and a high recognition rate is 98.45%..

Effect of temperature and various solvents on ionization constant of phenolic and oxamic acids derived from aromatic and alephatic carbonate compounds

Adil S. Azooz; Maatther A. Alzobaidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58937

The study deals with the influence of temperatures and the percentage of ethanol in ethanol-water mixtures on the values of ionization constants of some oxime and phenolic acids derived from aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds. These mixtures having ethanol contents in the range (25-100) percent.
Determination of ionization constant values of acids under study at different temperatures facilitates the evaluation of thermodynamic parameters of acids ionization. The last prove that ionization processes of acids are nonspontaneous (+∆G), endothermic (∆+H) and accompanied by an increase of order (∆S = -). The variation of alcoholic – water ratios seen above, facilitates the a claculation of relative ionization constants (Krelative) of acid (2) as a representative compound. The study led to a conclusion of a decrease of ionization constants of acids by an increase of alcoholic contents as properly discussed.

Effect of aqua raw and non-protein extracts of Melia azedarach and Lactuca serriola on some biochemical variables in healthy rats and with dioxan-induced diabetes rats

Nahida S. Al-Chalaby; Khalid S. Almanaa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 18-36
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58935

The activity of hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypolipidemic of crude, non-proteinous cold aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach and Lactuca serriola plants and boiled non-proteinous extract of Melia azedarach have been studied after intraperitoneal injection in normal and alloxan- induced diabetic rats. After two hours of intraperitoneal injection of cold crude aqueous extract of the leaves of Lactuca serriola at a dose (50 mg/kg of body weight). The results indicated a significant decrease in glucose and total lipids levels and insignificant decrease in cholesterol level, hence, the effects of the cold crude aqueous extract are similar to those of the insulin in alloxan diabetic rats. In main time, the same extract has led to a significant decrease just in glucose level in non-diabetic rats. The cold crude aqueous extract of Melia azedarach, produced no significant changes in normal and alloxan diabetic rats, but a significant decrease in total lipids level for diabetic rats, whereas the non-proteinous extract of the same plant showed a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and total lipids levels in alloxan diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In conclusion, results indicated that cold crude aqueous extract of the leave of Lactuca serriola plant posses hypoglycemic and a decrease in total lipid effect, but non-proteinous cold extract for the leave of Melia azedarach posses hypoglycemic, decrease for the levels of cholesterol and total lipids in blood serum of diabetic rats and this extracts may be used for treating diabetes mellitus after sure that there is no side effects

Determination of the inhibitory effect of the extracts of the Euphorbia helioscopia and the pH effect of these extracts in the growth of Gram positive and negative bacteria

Thekra S. Altai

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 37-49
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58936

This research aim to study antibacterial activity of aqueous, alcoholic and methanolic extracts of aerial parts of Euphorbia helioscopia which belong to Euphorbiaceae family against some pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that aqueous extract was more active than alcoholic and methanolic extracts on growth of Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi, comparing with Amoxycillin as a typical antibiotic. Methanolic extract showed no antibacterial activity against all bacteria studied except in Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi.
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value ranged from (25 ــ 200) mg/cm³, The antibacterial activity of the extracts are enhanced under acidic condition at pH = 2 and basic condition at pH = 10.

The effect of congenital toxoplasmosis on some Biochemical levels of serum and blood contents of pregnant women infected in Mosul

Gasan F. Alobaydi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 50-55
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58939

The study included (45) samples of blood from pregnant women, which are positive to Toxoplasma gondii by latex agglutination test, and (10) sample of blood from pregnant women, which are negative to Toxoplasma gondii. All pregnant women in two groups are in the first three months of pregnancy and the age of both groups was the same.
Results show a significant decrease (p≤0.05) in glucose level and also in hemoglobin, platelets and red blood cells count with an increase in white blood cells count when compared with control group.
Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT), Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT) enzymes in serum of pregnant women, infected with toxoplasmosis, show a significant increase (p≤ 0.05) when compared with control group. On the other hand, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) show a significant increase (p≤ 0.05) when compared with control group.

Comparison of the efficiency of three methods of bacteriological analysis in the investigation of bacterial contamination of drinking water in Nineveh governorate

Muhsin A. Alagaidy; Angham J. Alagaidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 56-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58940

This research was performed to compare the efficiency of three methods for bacteriological analysis of drinking water, Most Probable Number (MPN), Membrane Filtration (MF) and Total Plate Count (TPC) in detection of microbial contamination of drinking water in Nineveh province for two months, result showed differences in the percentage contamination of drinking water samples taken from one part depending on the method type, and the higher average in failure percentage appeared by using (MF) method (%67.77) followed by (MPN) method (%58.88) and then (TPC) method (%50), also (MF) results changed (%43.2) of accepted results in (MPN) method into failure results, and country sides was the most higher in average of failure percentage (%73.3).

Isolation and diagnosis of Bacillus types of locally prepared juices in Mosul

May A. Abdulqadir; Adeba Y. Shareef

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 73-84
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58942

In this study genus Bacillus was isolated from locally prepared beverages in Mosul city, 64 samples of these juices were collected randomly from different places of the city. The results showed contamination of these juices by different species of the genus Bacillus. The most prevalent species was B. cereus followed by B. subtilis, other Bacillus spp. Were also isolated including B. mycoides , B. coagulans, B. megaterium, B. sphaericus , and the most contaminated type of juice were grapes and orange juices. The results also showed that the pH of the juices from which Bacillus spp. were isolated ranged between 1-5, this results declares the ability of the Bacillus isolates to grow at a acidic pH.

Effect of treatment with vitamin E and sodium selenate in some biochemical variables in the blood of male adult rats and treated with cadmium chloride

Afrah Y. Jasem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 85-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58931

This study designed to determine the effect of vitamine E and sodium selenite on the level of some biochemical parameters in serum of male rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by cadmium chloride.
The study showed that treatment with cadmium chloride (25 mg/liter of drinking water) for 30 days caused a significant decrease in the body weight, with a significant increase in the level of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by cadmium chloride with vitamin E (500 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days show a non significant change in the body weight, but there was a significant increase in the level of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Moreover treated rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by cadmium chloride (25 mg/liter drinking water) together with sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg diet) for 30 days showed a non significant changes in body weight and the level of triglyceride, but a significant decrease in levels of glucose & cholesterol. Treatment with vitamin E together with sodium selenite to rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by cadmium chloride for 30 days showed a significant decrease in the level of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides.
It was concluded that administration of vitamin E with sodium selenite as antioxidants produced a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels in rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by cadmium chloride.

Effect of diazepam on some blood parameters and some internal organs in healthy adult male rats

Hadel M. Hameed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 94-106
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58943

The present investigation was conducted to reveal the effect of administration of diazepam (2.5-5 mg/kg body weight orally) for 6weeks on some blood factors and weight of internal organs such as (heart, liver, lung, spleen and kidney) in adult male rats with age (2.5-3 months) and average weight (222±16.79 gm). The results showed that diazepam at dose 2.5-5 mg/kg body weight caused a significant decrease in hemoglobin estimation, packed cell volume, numbers of white blood cell and the percentage of lymphocyte and there was also a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophil compaired with control. Further more, there was no significant difference in the percentage of eosinophil, basophil, monocyte and average weight of heart, liver, lung, spleen and kidney. It is concluded from present study that diazepam in two doses (2.5-5 mg/kg body weight) have adverse effect on some blood factors in healthy adult male rats.

Effect of seed treatment with water extract of basil leaves and Trichoderma harzianum in resistance to the death of Okra seeds in the glass house

Isam D, Sulyman; Najwa B. Allashee; Anfal M. Jalal aldeen

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 107-118
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58938

Okra seeds were soaked in selected concentrations from a previous study in aqueous extracts (30%) of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum and culture filtrate of the biocontrol agent T.harzianum (30%) and their mixture which gave the highest inhibitory effect for the mycelium growth of fungi causing damping off fungi of Okra Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani. All seed treatments had gave significant effect on reduction of pre and post emergence damping-off. Treating the seeds with aqueous extract was better than culture filtrate of T.harzianum while the treatment with mixture of aqueous extract and culture filterate was the best in decreasing disease severity of infection by M. phaseolina which was 0.09 as compared to control 0.134 and gave the highest length of seedlings (23.06) followed by the treatment of F. solani and mixture of fungi which did not differ significantly from each other.Moreover, mixture treatment also gave the highest increase in shoot length and fresh weight of the seedlings in case of treatments with all pathogenic fungi.

Calculate weights for a numerical number image

Khalel I. Alsaif; Yahya Q. Alqathely; Nagham T. Chalmeran

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 119-131
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58934

In this research, the algorithm of 2-Dimension variation was achieved, to extract a feature of the numerical number image. Because number recognition is very important subject in practical fields of image processing.
The number will be segmented to its individual components (one image for each digit), Then preprocess will start by truncating all unused area from all the slides using the vertical and horizontal projection.
The applied algorithm to compute the digit weight, can stated as follow:-
- compute the distance geometry using 2-Dimension Variation algorithm which will be adopted as the digit feature.
- Searching for the computed value in the data base (which was already build).
- The weight of the digit will be computed depend upon the digit rank.
- collecting all the weight to get the total weight of digit.
When the algorithm applied on different numbers the result was with very low difference not more than 5 % when using numbers with single font and it rise little bit with numbers of mixed fonts.

Compression of speech using a hybrid method

Israa A. Abdlqader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 132-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58930

Voice compression is one of the important subject today specially in field of communication and application so in this paper, speech compression was adopted based on hybrid technique between wavelet and Huffman code. Wavelet in single dimension can reduce the signal size to half of the original in each level, then using Huffman code to store output the file.
Hybrid between the above two techniques give high rate of compression ratio, and closed returned signal from the original one, because of the coding technique from the lossless classification but the idea of sample down was achieved with the wavelet which produce little loss in the retrieved data, while the effected of the wavelet is positive effect due to the reduction of the high frequencies, which effect as noise in most application[specially in speech],in addition to that it give high redundancy in the component of the speech signal [in low-low components].
The practical application of the proposed algorithm give (30%) compression ratio plus stability when the file size growth up.
SNR&MSE show that retrieved speech quality is good.

Hide text in the WAV audio file

Iman F. Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 24, Issue 4, Pages 154-168
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.58933

Digital communications and information security has become one of the key issues to send data, there are two techniques available to achieve this goal: Encryption And concealment of information, the goal of this research is the application of technical system coverage within the audio file and the way is to change the cell bilateral least important (Low Bit Encoding) file that has been chosen here is the file named WAV used as a cover for the transfer of data, using three algorithms for this purpose, followed by a Testing Statistical and so on methods of measuring the minimum square error, in addition to measuring the proportion of noise to the original signal, was to illustrate the results within the practical side of using the MATLAB version of 10, tests showed that the concealment algorithm using the secret key to give the best results