Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 25, Issue 1

Volume 25, Issue 1, Winter 2012, Page 1-160

Spectrophotometric Assay of Iron (II) in Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Alizarin Red Sulphonate Reagent

Usra I. Al-Neaimy; Amal M. Saeed; Thabit S. Al-Ghabsha

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59009

A rapid, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of iron (II). The method was based on the reaction of iron (II) with alizarin red sulphonate reagent to form a brown chelating complex in an aqueous solution. The absorbance of the chelating complex was measured at 566 nm with a molar absorptivity of 7.8 x 103 The chelating complex conforms to Beer's law over the range (0.5-5)  the average recovery% was 100.06% and precision (RSD) was found to be less than 1%. The method was successfully employed for assay of iron (II) in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and capsules). The results have been compared with British pharmacopoeia method.

Synthesis and Characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) Complexes With Polydentate 14-Membered Macrocyclic Ligand

Najla H. Taher; Akram A. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 11-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59002

یعطی التفاعل التکثیفی [2+2] بین السمیکاربازید وبنزویل اسیتون (بنسبة مولاریة 1:1) فی المحلول المائی عند درجة حرارة المختبر لیکاند قاعدة شیف حلقی رباعی الایمین (L): 5، 12 –ثنائی مثیل – 7، 14 – ثنائی فنیل-1، 3، 4، 8، 10، 11- هکسا ازا سایکلو تیترا دیکان-2، 9-ثنائی ون. حضرت المعقدات الحلقیة ذات الصیغة العامة [ML]Cl2 [حیث ان M = کوبلت، نیکل، نحاس، خارصین او کادمیوم ثنائیة موجبة] من تفاعل اللیکاند الحلقی (L) مع کلوریدات الفلزات (بنسبة مولاریة 1:1) فی الایثانول وشخصت هذه المعقدات من خلال التحلیل الدقیق للفلز، أطیاف الأشعة تحت الحمراء، الطیف الالکترونی، القیاسات المغناطیسیة وقیاسات التوصیلیة المولاریة. أظهرت قیاسات الأشعة تحت الحمراء ارتباط ایون الفلز مع اللیکاند من خلال ذرات نتروجین الایمین وان لهذه المعقدات شکل مربع مستوی کما دلت قیاسات التوصیلیة الکهربائیة لهذه المعقدات بانها الیکترولیتیة بنسبة 1: 2.

Synthesis of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives from Ethyl-2-Piperidone-3-Carboxylate

M. A. Sheat; O. I. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 19-25
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58997

In the present work, some new 1,3,4- Oxadiazole derivatives have been synthesized from Ethyl-2-Piperidone-3-Carboxylate. The reaction of the ethyl ester with hydrazine hydrate afforded the corresponding hydrazide (I). Treatment of the latter compound with different aromatic aldehydes yielded a new hydrazones (II). Preparation of 1,3,4- Oxadiazoles (III) have been achieved by oxidative cyclization of hydrazones (II) by the use of lead dioxide in glacial acetic acid.
The structural formula of the synthesized compounds were established by physical and spectral methods.

Mineralogical, Crystal Structure and Chemical Composition Characterization of Iraqi Natural Rich-Montmorillonite Mineral Clays

Rejab A. Buker

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 26-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59004


This study provides the mineralogical and compositional characterization locally natural mineral clay deposits of Iraq and their parent and enclosing rocks. The mineral assemblage of the raw clays of these primary deposits has been determined to include disordered montmorillonite, quartz, gypsum, calcite, in addition to trace amounts of other mineral clays like feldspar and kaolinite. Such results have been investigated using powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, thermo gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and technical chemical analysis. Physical properties, crystal structure, and, chemical composition of this montmorillonite rich mineral clays also have been performed to attribute that influence the industrial usage of Iraqi natural mineral clays are high lighted.

Influence of some Trace Elements and Biochemical Parameters on Breast Cancer

Ameera Aziz Mahmood; Kinda Masood Bilal; Rana Talib Ibrahim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 34-43
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58994

The study investigates the levels of serum trace elements as well as total protein and cholesterol which may be regarded as biochemical markers in the case of breast cancer. Serum samples were collected from 25 healthy females and 25 females with breast cancer, 24 hours before mastectomy surgery. Serum Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe were measured by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Total protein, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were analyzed enzymatically. Compared with the healthy females, the females with breast cancer exhibited a significant increase in the level of Cu (p > 0.009), Pb (p > 0.03), Cu/Zn ratio (p > 0.001), total protein (p > 0.005), total cholesterol (p > 0.001) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p > 0.05). They also exhibited a significant decrease in the level of Zn (p > 0.002), but there was no significant change in the level of Fe, Cu/Fe ratio and HDL-cholesterol. It was concluded that the type and level of the elements and the level of protein and cholesterol might have a correlation with breast cancer; a high level of Cu, Pb, Cu/Zn ratio, total protein, total cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and a low level of Zn may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Study of the parameter affecting the adsorption of substiuted phenols by activated carbon which prepared by chemical treatment

Safwan A. Al-Dbone

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 44-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59005

In this research, the adsorption of substituted phenols on anewly synthesized a activated carbons has been investigated. The activated carbon is prepared from spent petroleum materials (Asphalt) and chemically activated by employing NaOH.
The work included studying the factors affecting the adsorption process such as initial concentration, pH and temperature. The results indicated that, the increase of initial concentration increases the efficiency of adsorbed phenols. The highest adsorption efficiency is observed in the neutral medium of the studied compound. Increasing the temperature decreases the amount of adsorbed phenols suggesting the physical nature of adsorption system under consideration.
Depending on the effect of temperature, the thermodynamic functions of adsorption were estimated. The obtained values showed that, the adsorption process is spontaneous, exothermic and controlled by entropy effect.
The application of Freundlich isotherm is good Fitted the experimental data of the adsorption system.
The overall results showed that, the adsorption of the investigated compounds are affected by the resonance and inductive effect of the concerned subsistent.

Microwave-assisted One-Pot Synthesis of 2-Aryl (1H) Benzimidazoles without Catalyst

Jassim Mohammed Abdullah; Mohammed Mahmood Sulaiman; Salim J. Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 58-63
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58996

We described a simple, fast and efficient procedure for solvent free Microwave-assisted one pot synthesis of a series of 2-aryl-H-bezimidazoles by condensation of o-Phenylenediamine with suitable aromatic aldehyde. The structures of the products were confirmed by physical and spectral data.

Protective effect of selenium against oxidative stress for biochemical and blood parameters in Ovariectomyzed and cadmium exposured female rats

Talib Hussen Ali; Ahmed Baker Ali; Heyam Natheer Matti

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 64-71
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59008

The present investigation was aimed the possibility protective effect of Se‌lenium chloride against oxidative stress during Ovariectomy and Ovariectomy – cadmium chloride exposure, (25) female rats Albino Wister type weighting (250- 300g). Rats were randomly divided to five experimental groups, including (5) animals each group. The first group gives normal chow diet (negative control). The second group gives normal chow diet with ovariectomized rat (positive control /Ovx). And three experimentally groups. Ovariectomized (Ovx) sexually mature adult female rats were exposed to sub chronic treatment of cadmium chloride (CdCl) at a dose of 6 mg/kg B.W/rat then, were orally gavaged daily with 2ml of the treatment for a period of 28 days, the results show that there was significant reduction in Erythrocytes count (RBCs), Hematocrit percentage P.C.V. (Hct%) and Hemoglobin value (Hb), While mean corpuscles hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was increased. More- over, hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes activities, peroxidase and Catalase (CAT) were decreased significantly in comparison with the control. The consequences of ovariectomy operation of female rats exhibited the same values for all of the above mentioned Ovx-Cd treatment parameters. Both the experimental rat groups (Ovx and Ovx-Cd) were gavaged orally with a 2 ml solution of the dietary supplementation (selenium chloride SeCl) individually or in combination with CdCl at a dose of6 mg/kg.B.W, resulting recovery effects for blood parameters and antioxidant enzymatic activities were almost restored to control level, except for peroxidase activity that was respond differently in both type of treatment. The present study revealed significant protective action of selenium on the toxicity induced by Ovx or Ovx-Cd in female rats, especially when selenium was subsequently supplemented to both treatments

Assessment of Periodontal Status among Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Mosul City

Aisha A. Qasim; Karama MT Al - Nuaimy; Alhan Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 72-78
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58993

To increase the understanding of oral health factors associated with menopause women, this research sought to examine the oral hygiene including clinical parameters (DMFT, gingival, calculus, plaque and pocket depth indices) and physical parameters (flow rate and pH) to show changes in postmenopausal women in Mosul City center in relation to premenopausal women.
The sample chosen included 123 women 47 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal women in age range from 30 – 61 years old. Clinical examination was carried out to detected DMFT, gingival, calculus, plaque and pocket depth indices, also measures physical parameters about flow rate and pH of saliva for each women.
There was significant changes in the clinical and physical parameters when compared with age 46 – 61 years old, at p< 0.05 and highly significant at p< 0.001.
Oral health in pre and post menopausal women should be considered as a separate problem from oral diseases. The clinical picture may vary from a localized to generalized inflammation would be of interest to physiologists and endocrinologists and might also prove to be value to the practicing dentists.

Determining Values of Some Optical Constants for Some Colorants

Soory A. Daher

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 79-86
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59007

For different dyes like methyl green, methyl orange, methyl red, malachite green, crystal violate, safranin, and methylene blue. We calculated their optical constants like wavelengths of maximum absorption, molar extinction coefficient (molar absorptivity), band width, mass attenuation coefficient, cut on and cut off wavelengths and absorption cross section which are very important in manufacturing the optical filters from these dyes. The calculated results are in good agreement with those values calculated by some specialist companies producing optical filters.

Simulation of Rutherford Backscattering Cross Section of Atoms

Salim H. Al-Shamma

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 87-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59006

Rutherford backscattering spectrometry is considered as a very powerful tool in surface analysis among other various techniques employed. In this work a computer program had been built for detailed study of the important parameters that influence Rutherford backscattering spectrometry including the kinematic factor or (k factor), mass resolution, Rutherford backscattering cross section, Andersen and L.Ecuyer correction factores.
The simulation had been carried out for different mass target atoms, scattering angles and ion energies. Most of the data obtained are not avaliable in the literature for comparison.

A Numerical Model for Computation the Optimum Value of Second Gruneisen Parameter (q) for Copper

Janan F. Ahmad; Mumtaz M. Salih hussien; Adnan M. Al-Sheihk

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 108-115
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58995

In the present work a numerical optimization model is constructed which is based on the experimental pressure (pexp) and experimental recoilless fraction ratio (rfexp=fp/f0) data in order to explain the pressure effect on Gruneisen parameters(, q) and Debye temperature.The model was able to compute the optimum q value for copper, the observed optimum value for q was used with Debye approximation at room temperature under pressure to calculate the recoilless fraction ratio rftheor=fp/fo for (Fe57-Cu), It has been found that the calculated results of (f-fraction) are in good agreement with the experimental data of recoilless fraction ratio.

A new self-scaling VM-algorithm for non-convex optimization, part 1

Abbas Y. AL-Bayati; Maha S.Y. AL-Salih

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 116-125
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59003

The self-scaling VM-algorithms solves an unconstrained non-linear optimization problems by scaling the Hessian approximation matrix before it is updated at each iteration to avoid the possible large eigen-values in the Hessian approximation matrices of the objective function f(x).It has been proved that these algorithms have a global and super-linear convergences when f(x)is non- convex.
In this paper we are going to propose a new self-scaling VM-algorithm with a new non-monotone line search procedure with a detailed study of the global and super-linear convergence property for the new proposed algorithm in non-convex optimization.
Keywords: VM-methods, non-monotone line searches, self-scaling AL-Bayati VM- method, global converge, super-linear convergence.

Adequate Models for Multiprocessor Stochastic Systems

Nadwa S. Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 126-135
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59001

In this paper, two models are presented for Multiprocessor Stochastic Systems (MSS). The first one is the Generalized Semi-Markov Process (GSMP), the second is the Generalized Stochastic Petri Net (GSPN). These models are used to study performance arbitrary parameters of (MSS). Our main result is by constructing an isomorphism mapping between (MSS) model and (GSPN) model. This isomorphism captures the essential dynamical structure of (MSS).

Hidden Messages in JPEG Image Using Steganography

Mafaz Mohsin Khalil; Sadoon Hussin Abdullha

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 136-149
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58999

علم الإخفاء هو عملیة إخفاء أحد أوساط الاتصال (نص، صوت، صور) ضمن الآخر.
نلاحظ فی السنین القلیلة الماضیة ظهور تقنیات لعلم الإخفاء وتحلیل الإخفاء موثقة فی محاضرات. تستخدم الطرق الحدیثة لعلم الإخفاء صفات الوسط نفسه لنقل الرسالة. طمر الرسائل رقمیا فی وسط آخر مثل النصوص المجردة، النصوص الفائقة، الصوت والفیدیو، الصور الثابتة، الشبکات المروریة.
تلقی هذه الدراسة الضوء على بعض المفاهیم العامة والأفکار التی تطبق فی مجال إخفاء الصور وتحلیلها. کذلک نستعرض ونناقش الأفکار العامة حول امنیة وسعة نظام الإخفاء الصوری. الهدف من هذا البحث هو تحدید قدرات نظام الإخفاء فی مجال صور الـ JPEG باستخدام صفات معاملات DCT ومن ثم تحلیل النتائج. و نوجز أیضا بعض تقنیات علم الإخفاء.

Comparison Study Of Packet Classification Algorithms In Wired Networks

Marwan Salim Mahmoud; Awos Khazal Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 150-160
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.59000

The packet classification technique play an important role for many internet advanced services that require the capability to distinguish traffic in different flows, such as routers and security services like firewalls and packet filters. This paper provide a brief introduction for packet classification process. Beside, the categorization of the algorithms that classify packets to different flow. Also, this paper give a brief description of two homogenous algorithms (algorithms that belongs to same category), these algorithms are Tuple Space Search (TSS) and Recursive Flow Classification (RFC). Furthermore, this paper provides a comparative evaluation of these two algorithms (TSS & RFC). The evaluation of these techniques are done under Linux REDHAT 5.0 platform in order to analyze and compare their performance between each other. In particular, the comparison focuses on achieving a good classification time in classification process and, low memory consumption rate.

A Comparative Study of the Values of Ionization Constants for Acid Compounds Derived from N-formyl pipyidines

Adel Azzouz; Heba Gamal El Mawla

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58987

The paper is concerned with the determination of pKa or pK′a values for a new fourteen imines by potentometric titration method. These imines are prepared from the mother compound the N- formyl pipyidines in a forms of oximes, phenolic Schiff bases, amino Schiff bases and others. Most of these imines are acids and their pKa values are determined by titration with 0.1M NaOH. The other imines are Schiff bases and their pK′a values for their nitrilium ions are similarly determined by titration with 0.1M HCl. Finally, the paper led to a comparison of pKa or pK′a values for the similar imines in the study, either in forms of oximes, phenolic Schiff bases, amino Schiff bases and others.

The level of antioxidants and oxidative stress of obese people (smokers and non-smokers) in the city of Mosul

Louay Helali; Eman Hadi; Noha Abdul Qadir Taleb

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 18-29
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58989

The study was included the determination of the antioxidants and oxidant levels of obese persons in Mosul city (Smoking and Non smoking). The investigated were: Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Celuroplasmin (Cp.), Glutathione (GSH), Total bilirubin, Uric acid and Malondialdehyde (MDA). 167 Obese individuals were divided into five classes according to Body Mass Index (BMI) (103) and smoking obese persons (29) beside of control group with the same BMI (35) were included in the research.
The results showed that there were significant decrease for all antioxidants levels except Cp. and there were significant increase in MDA for obese persons when compared to control group. Beside of according to Body Mass Index (BMI) classes showed significant decrease with increased BMI for all the measured antioxidants except Cp. and there were significant increase for MDA.
Moreover the antioxidants levels were decreased significantly in obese smokers in BMI (30 - 34.9) as compared with control group for all the measured antioxidants and there were significant increase for Cp. and MDA.
Conclusion drawn for the study, that high oxidative stress was occurred for the obesity leading to a significant decrease in the measured antioxidants and increased in oxidant levels. This might affect on the body human by producing several diseases, especially smoking persons.

Preparation of activated carbon from the decomposition products of coconut shell in basic medium with the presence of phenol and oxidizing bitumen's material from Hammam al-Alil

Mayada Mahmoud Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 30-37
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58990

The study involve preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell hydrolyzed in basic medium, The water removed from hydrolyzed products and the residual materials were treated with constant amount of phenol in presence potassium hydroxide, then bitumen's material was added with different ratio's, The amount of reactants carbonated material and bitumen's material were verified using different ratio's to obtain a better result of iodine number adsorption and methylene blue pigment adsorption, Also observation the rule of base in structural formula damage with converted to activated carbon.
The study showed that the reaction between oxidizing bitumen's, phenol products with decomposition material of coconut shell lead to formation of different types of activated carbons depend upon adsorption of Iodine and Methylene blue pigment and other factors.

Effect of Different Concentrations of the Growth Regulator (IAA) and the Nickel Element in the Growth of Two Types of Trigonella foenum - graecum L.

Hanan Al Rashedi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 38-54
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58979

This study is carried out the University of Mosul/ College of Education/ Department of Biology. It aims at indicating the effects of using the growth regulator Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) to decrease the harm of contamination with Nickel element in the soil in growing two types of Trigonella foenum – graecum L.. The study has showed that adding the heavy element (Ni) led to significant decrease in the growth due to decreasing in the dry weights of the shoot and root. The study has also showed a significant decrease in the relative water content, chlorophyll a, b, a+b in leaf, protein and carbohydrate, Furthermore a significant increase also noticed in the growth and physiological features of the above mentioned.
As for interaction effects between growth regulator and Ni, The addition of growth regulator with an average 200 ppm to Ni contained soil at two concentrations 100, 300 Mg / Kg soil respectively has led to a significant increase in growth. Similarly it has led to eliminating some negative effects of physiological aspects. There was an increase of the plant (fenugreek) resistance to high concentrations of Ni compared with those plants grown in soils contain Ni only.

Biological effects of external polysaccharide (EPS) isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria on tissue culture of Fenugreek plant

Najwa al-Barhawi; Arian Hamid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 55-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58983

External Polysacchariede has been extracted from Sinorhizobium meliloti which is known for its symbiotic relation with Legume plant Trigonella foenum-graecum. This (EPS) has been added with the following concentrations: 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/l to solidified Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium, to study its effect on callus initiation from roots, stems, and leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum. It has been shown that all these concentrations did not have any effect on callus induction from the roots of this plant. While the concentration (0.1) mg/l.; was the best one that stimulated callus formation from stems and leaves explants since the percentage of callus induction were 50 and 62.5% respectively. This concentration of EPS was added to the treatments that contain both auxin and cytokinin in MS medium.the results showed thata a white callus was formed from stems and leaves explants after two weeks of culture on solidified MS medium containing 0.1 mg /L of both EPS and NAA with differentiation of roots from leaves' callus. Moreover, there was an increase in the protein content of stem's callus and leaves to reach by 0.27, 0.35 mg/L respectively as compared to protein content (0.03, 0.11 and 0.02, 0.09 mg/ L) of callus initiated from stems and leaves explants which were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L EPS and 0.2 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L EPS, 0.2 mg/L BA, 0.1 mg/L NAA respectively after 3 and 5 weeks of culture.

Bacterial conjugation as a method for identifying the locations of genes involved in polysaccharide polymerization in Bacillus subtilis bacteria

Khaled Ahmed; Zainha Al Jader; Yousra Al-Rifai

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 66-76
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58981

The present study includes utilization of the bacterial conjugation between the local isolate Bacillus subtilis and the laboratory strain Escherichia coli K-12 JM83 in order to determine the location of genes involved in production of polysaccharides in B. subtilis. The results revealed that in presence of glucose and lactose in growing media as a carbon source separately, the bacteria B. subtilis yield polysaccharides of 9.38 g/l and 2,51g/l respectively. After conjugation, the JM83 trans conjugation isolate showed a remarkable reduction in polysaccharides yield (1.00 g/l) after growing in media containing lactose and no significant increase of polysaccharides yield in presence of glucose (3.00 g/l) these results may indicate that the genes sharing in polysaccharides production in B. subtilis, may be located on its chromosomal DNA and not on its plasmid DNA.

Production of plants from callus of Vigna radiata stem seedlings

Rasha Fawzi Abdul Razzaq

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58984

The present study include callus initiation from leaves and stems explants of Vigna radiata seedlings by using solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of Naphthalene acetic acide NAA (0.5,1.0,2.0)mg/L and benzyl adenin BA (0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0,2.0)mg/L. The results showed that Ms medium which contains 2.0 mg/l of NAA was the best one for callus initiation from leaves while solidified MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L BA was superior for callus induction from stem. The callus produced from stems and leaves has been maintained on solidified MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L Kin and 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D for shoot regeneration, MS media containing 0.5mg/L NAA and different concentration of BA (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0)mg/L were used. The results indicated that MS medium with 5.0 mg/L BA was the best one for shoot regeneration. Moreover, ther was a difficulty in rooting the regenerated shoots, Since they failed to produce roots in the rooting media which were used except solidified MS medium supplemented with 2mg/L NAA.

Effect of magnetic field and magnetized water on the growth and yield of white maize

Raad Rasool; Hind Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 85-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58985

This research shows that the white seeds agreement with the effect of magnetic flux density and magnetic water in most characteristics studies allowed by vegetative growth such as (The grew, plant height, number of leaf, leaf area's, number of roots, dry weight and wet weight).
On the other hand, they shown that when treated by magnetic water and the normal soil it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by normal water and normal (such that 46% to relative grown, 8.048 cm height, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.08 cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 5.78 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.457 gm). Also, they shown that when treated by magnetic soil and normal water it get the best in most characteristics studies from the treated by water and normal (such that 64% to relative grown, 8.048 average of leaf number, 4.91cm2 area's leaf, the number of roots 7.92 / any plants and the wet weight is 1.75 gm) unless the characteristics about the height which defeated the treated by magnetic soil and magnetic water at the treated by normal water magnetic soil.

Change in conjugated even-even molybdenum, isotopes, in different energy states

Emad Ahmed; ruaa alnaema

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 96-106
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58988

The properties of the different states of even-even isotopes have been established. The examination of the energy of state and the ratio for these isotopes show that the isotope has a vibration property but the others have -unstable property as approached from the rotation property. Drawing as a function of for these isotopes showed a variation of their property, and to confirm these variation the suitable equations for each limit have been used to calculate the energy of different states of these isotopes. The interacting boson model has been applied to calculate the energy of different states and a comparison with the experimental data showed good agreements.

Effect of storage on optimum scrapping conditions of the nuclear track detector CR-39

Hana Hassan; Rabih Khader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 107-119
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58992

The effect of store for along time away from the optimum store condition for solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 was studied in this work, after irradiated by α- particles emitted from 241Am(1µCi) source with 3.5 MeV energy for 3min. The detector pieces were etched in 4N-6.25N aqueous solution of NaOH maintained at temperature 70 Co for various times from 0.75 hr – 6 hr. The results showed that the optimum condition was 5 N for aqueous solution and 3 hr for etching time at temperature 70 Co. The bulk etch rate VB and track etch rate VT and efficiency, sensitivity and the critical angle were calculated.

Representation of standard Liebchtz functions under a microscope

Taher Ismail; Hind Saleh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 120-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58986

The aim of this paper is to provide a representation of a standard lipschitzian functions by mean of a microscope.
More precisely, under certain conditions, the following results have been obtained.
Let be a standard function, and be the shadow of its graph :
(i) If is s-continuous and limited, then is the graph of a continuous function on .
(ii) If is continuous and if is the graph of a function defined on , then is a continuous function.
The standard function is lipschitzian at a neighbourhood of a standard point if and only if is limited under every microscope of power centered at a point or at a point infinitely close to it.
If the standard function is lipschitzian at a neighbourhood of a standard point ,then it's representation under a microscopic of power centered at the point or at a point infinitely close to it, is a graph of a lipschitzian function.

Live and non-live tracking of a moving target using an MPEG video file

Mahi Hassou; Nadia Mohammed; Shahd Hassou

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 128-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58982

The process of diagnosis and classification of moving targets occupies a major place in applications that use a computer. Facts in our world is a visual moving objects deal with video scenes that contain an unspecified number of moving targets. Here, the idea was to cut and diagnosis and follow-up to these goals through sequential video images.
The idea of this paper is to take a video file (MPEG) and convert it to a set of images (JPG format) for the purpose of setting the goal of any moving object tracking, i.e. a moving target within a video file if it's a person, a car or a ball, etc. For Recognition the facility of subtracting between the frames is used. where Tracking is executed using Rectangle algorithm.
Programs have been written in "Visual C#" as it considered one of the most efficient visual languages.

Data hiding using parallel algorithms

niaghm Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 141-160
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2012.58991

In this research a simulation parallel algorithm for data hiding and data retrieval in gray digital image files were used.
A simulation for this algorithm was applied on star network type. The secret image and the covered image was segment in equal number of parts (four parts) then was applying the suggested algorithm on each part in synchronized form using Matlab Parallel Processing Tools.
The proposed algorithm was applied to retrieve the secret image from the covered one in synchronized form too. Measurement of time needed by the algorithm was compared with one used serial algorithm for hiding and retrieving by using substitution techniques.
The proposed algorithm shows higher performance than the serial type in consuming time.