Volume 26, Issue 2, Spring 2013, Page 1-320

Comparison Study of the Adsorption of Copper Ions By Activated Carbon and A Locally Collected Bentonite

Abraheem A. M; Emad A. S. AL-Hyali; Alaa A.Azeez

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89806

In this study, a locally collected bentonite and activated carbon (AC) synthesized from spent lubricant oils by chemical treatment were used as new non conventional and low cost adsorbents for the copper (Cu+2) ions adsorption in a batch mode at various initial concentrations and different temperatures. Systematic studies on Cu+2 ions adsorption equilibrium and kinetics by both adsorbents were carried out. The investigation were performed at different initial concentrations of Cu+2 ions (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 mg/L), contact time (10-90 min), and temperatures (25-55 °C).
Depending on the results of temperature effect, thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH and ΔS°) were estimated from two sources. First; from the adsorption distribution constant (Kd) which is represented by the ratio between the adsorbed and remained Cu+2 ions in solution at equilibrium and second, from Freundlich isotherm constant (Kf). Comparable results are obtained.
Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied to the adsorption data of the studied systems. The results obtained indicated that, the clay adsorbs Cu+2 ions more intense than AC, with higher maximum adsorption capacity. Langmuir isotherm is better fitted to the adsorption data of the study system than Freundlich isotherm.
The effect of contact time data of Cu+2 ions adsorption onto clay, conducted at various initial concentrations were applied to pseudo first and second order kinetic models. The rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo second order kinetic with good correlation (R2>0.99) and consistent values of the experimental (qe(exp)) and calculated (qe(cal)) adsorption capacities. The initial rate of adsorption was found to increase with initial concentration, where as the over all rate constant exhibited opposite variation. The employed adsorbents might be successfully used for the removal of other heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater.

Synthesis of Some 1, 3, 4- Oxadizole Derivatives from Naproxen and Acetyl Chloride

Alya A. Dawood

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 20-27
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89802

A seriers of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-thion were synthesized by the reaction of naproxen (or acetyl) amino acid hydrazides (glycine, valine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine) with carbon disulphide in alkaline medium. The reaction of naproxen (or acetyl) amino acid hydrazides were treated with p-chloro benzaldehyde to give hydrazone, the hydrazones were then cyclized with lead dioxide to give 1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-aryl. Naproxen amino acid esters were treated with ammonia gas to give naproxen amino acid amids. The synthesized compounds were characterized by physical and spectral analysis.

In the family of heterocyclic compounds, nitrogen containing heterocycles with an oxygen atom are considered to be an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry because of their interesting diversified biological application. The oxadiazole derivatives have been reported to have various biological activites including anti-microbal (1-3), anticancer (4, 5), anti inflammatory (6), anti-infective (7), and anti HIV (8). Substituted oxadiazole moiety has also been found to have other important activites such as antiviral (9), antifungal (10-12), antimycobacterial (13), anticouvulsant (14), antitumor (15), antimarlarial (16), and anti-hepatitis B viral activities (17). Substituted 1, 3, 4- oxadiazoles exhibit antibacterial (18-19), pesticidal (20) and analgesic activities (21-22). This paper describes the synthesis of new heterocyclic systems containing 1, 3, 4- oxadiazoles linked with naproxen.

Synthesis of Some Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles, Thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-Triazoles from Acid Chlorides

E. Q. Mahmood; O. Th. Ali; K. M. Daoud

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 28-35
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89812

The conversion of some acid chlorides to substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles is reported. Benzoyl chloride and 4- nitrobenzoyl chloride were treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give acid hydrazides (1,2), The acid hydrazides were converted to 1- substituted thiosemicarbazides (3,4) by this reaction with ammonium thiocyanate in ethanol. The later thiosemicarbazides were cyclized to substituted thiadiazoles (5,6) and triazoles (7,8) by their reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide solution respectively. The hydrazones (9-12) were synthesised from acid hydrazides (1,2) by their reaction with substituted benzaldehyde in dioxane. The cyclization of hydrazones (9-12) with acetic anhydride gave substituted 1,3,4- oxadiazole (13-16). The structures of synthesised compounds were confirmed by IR, UV spectral data and physical means.

Application of Ninivite Silica Rocks as a desiccant material in cooling systems

B. M. A Al-Ali; R. A. Buker; O. M. Hamdoon

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 36-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89815

The performance of a proposed air conditioning system under the weather of Mosul city / Iraq has been studied and compared with that of the vapour compression system operating at the same condition. For the purpose of reducing the cost of the proposed system, a local desiccant material called local silica gel was used as an alternative to the regular density silica gel which is usually used in the enthalpy wheels. This material was extracted from Ninivite rocks available at south of Mosul city / Iraq. Some of the Physical and thermal properties of this material were experimentally determined and compared with those of the regular density silica gel.

Sensitive Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Chloramphenicol in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using 7,7',8,8'-tetracyanoquinodimethane reagent

Hayfa M. Al-Hammoshi Department of Chemistry; Theiaa Najm Al-Sabha

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 43-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89817

A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of chloramphenicol in pure as well as in dosage form is described. The method is based on the reaction of reduced chloramphenicol with 7,7',8,8'-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) at pH10 to form an orange colored complex of maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 475 nm. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer’s law correlating the absorbance with chloramphenicol concentration was obeyed in the range of 0.05-5 μg ml-1. The molar absorptivity was 1.51×105 L. mol−1cm−1. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.028 and 0.323 μg ml-1, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the method were satisfactory; the average recovery was 100.12 % and relative standard deviation ≤0.7. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the reaction mechanism was postulated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of chloramphenicol in its pharmaceutical capsule, syrup and ointment with good accuracy and precisions. The results obtained by the proposed method are compared with those obtained by the official method and other reported methods.

Keywords: Spectrophotometry; Chloramphenicol; TCNQ; Pharmaceutical

Spectrophotometric determination of Salbutamol sulphate by coupling with diazotized 2,4-dinitroaniline

M. S. Saleem; S. M. AL-Mtwaiti; S. T. AL-Ramadhani

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 54-64
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89814

A quick, convenient and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of microgram amounts of salbutamol sulphate in its pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the coupling reaction of the drug with diazotized 2,4 - dinitroaniline reagent in an alkaline medium to produce an intense blue coloured Water soluble and stable azo dye which exhibits a maximum absorption at 558 nm. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range 0.2 - 6 µg/ml with a molar absorptivity of 9.33×104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.0061 g/cm2. The limit of detection is 0.0089 µg/ml while the limit of quantitation is 0.029 µg/ml. The method shows high accuracy (average recovery 99.75%) and precision (relative standard division (RSD) is less than 2.2%.The suggested procedure was applied for determination of salbutamol sulphate without any interference from common pharmaceutical excipients. The proposed method is successfully compared with the official method.

Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ganciclovir in Pharmaceutical Formulations using Alizarin Sulfonic Acid Sodium Salt Reagent

Usra I.S. AL-Neaimy

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 65-73
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89818

A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of antiviral drug (Ganciclovir) in a bulk sample and in its dosage forms. The method depends on the ion-pair formation reaction of the drug with alizarin sulfonic acid sodium salt reagent in aqueous solution to form a pinkish - red color product showing maximum absorbance at 525 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 2 – 100 µg.ml-1 with average recovery (accuracy) 99.80% and precision (RSD) is less than 1.0%. The molar absorptivity is 4.59x103 l.mol-1.cm-1 with LOD 0.17 µg.ml-1 and LOQ 0.56 µg.ml-1. The method is successfully employed for the determination of Ganciclovir in pharmaceutical formulations as an injection and capsule and the results are compatible with both certified values of pharmaceutical formulations and the standard addition method.
Keywords: ganciclovir; spectrophotometric; alizarin sulfonic acid sodium salt.

Synthesis, Characterization Of Various Coumarin Derivatives

Jamal M. Hamid

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 74-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89811

3-acetyl coumarin (1) was prepared by reacting salicyldehyde with ethylacetoacetate.3-(2-bromoacetyl coumarin (2) was also prepared by reacting 3-acetyl coumarin with bromine in chloroform solution. Reaction of compound (2) with imidazol in dioxan solution to gave 3-(1H-imidazol-1yl-acetyl) coumarin(3). Compounds (4,5,6) were synthesized by the reaction of compound (3) with hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine, 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazine respectively. Compound (7-15) were synthesized by the reaction of compound (3) with various aromatic and aliphatic amines. The structures of all the synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of physical, spectral )IR, U.V) data.

Key words: different coumarin, derived imidazole, schiffbase,phenyl hydrazine coumarin.


Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin produced by a local isolate of lactobacillus lactis

Enaam Jasim AL.hamdani; Reem Zuhair Shinashal

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 83-88
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89816

Bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria (lactobacillus lactis) isolated from fresh cow milk, showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram- positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and gram- negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium). Maximum Bacteriocin production was observed at 35c, pH 5.5 and 20h of incubation period.

Fitting Equation of K-Shell Cross Section of Mg and Fe Atoms

Zeyad T. Ahmed Department Physics

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 89-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89819

An analytical formalism is suggested to describe the K shell ionization cross section for two atomic elements Mg (z=12) and Fe (z=26) by electron impact.
This study is essentially based on the analysis of the calculated K ionization cross section given by Sbell. The proposed expression had been found to be fitted with the shape and behavior of Sbell expression

Thermal analysis of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of epoxy resin and N-2 phenyl maleamic acid

Nuaman Zeki Sulayman Al-Haleem

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89794

The present work deals with the preparation and thermal investigation of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of epoxy resin and N-2 phenyl maleamic acid the following monobasic amic acids was synthesized (2FMA), For this study.
After characterization by IR spectroscopy, the IPNs were studied thermally using Thermo Gravimetric Analysis )TGA (and Isothermal Gravimetric Analysis )IGA (techniques. For TGA measurements the following points were observed:
The comparison of weight percentages at 200 Cº (Wt%)200 with Initial Decomposition Temperature )IDT) and Complete Decomposition Temperature) CDT( values reveal its agreement with CDT more than Complete Decomposition Temperature values )IDT(. this observation indicate that Initial Decomposition Temperature values )IDT( are not suitable measure for thermal stability.
The values of Initial Decomposition Temperature )IDT) and Complete Decomposition Temperature )CDT( and weight percentages at 200 Cº (Wt%)200 are nearly almost the same in the range (25,50,80,120,180) Cº This behavior may be due to the inclusion of second polymer in the epoxy matrix
The higher weight percentages at 200 Cº (Wt%)200 value was observed in neutral medium.
As well The activation energy of activation (by using Fuoss equation) was also estimated.
Key words: Thermal gravimetric Analysis, epoxy resin, networks, Maleamic acid, activation energy, thermally stable Polymers, isothermal gravimetric Analysis

Preparation of activated carbon from sawdust using microwave radiation

Khalid Ahmad Uwayed; Ahmad Ali Hammadi

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 16-27
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89769

In this study, the activated carbon has been prepared from sawdust and this was done by carbonization of sawdust at temperature of 350º C for 3 hours, after that treated with KOH at various ratios ranging from (0.5:1), (1:1), (1:2), (KOH: Carbonized materials) using microwave radiation at power of (90, 180, 270, 360, 450, 540, 630, 720) watt and at period of (6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20) minutes, many tests have been conducted on of prepared activated carbon samples such as determining the activity of the samples through adsorption of iodine and methylene blue from aqueous media. The density, ash content and humidity were measured and all the properties were compared with commercial one from B.D.H.

Resistance of mice to infection with secondary hydatid disease by polyamine oxidase isomer

Wathba ُEdrees Tohala

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 28-40
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89796

Polyamine oxidase activity in cerebrospinal fluid of normal children was determined. The specific activity of crude PAO was found 64.16  8.18 enzyme unit/mg protein. Two main peaks of high PAO activities were obtained I and II with specific activity of 1201.9 and 1157.2 enzyme unit/mg protein, and with purification folds of 18.2 and 17.5 respectively.
The resistance to infection with secondary hydatid disease was studied in mice activated by partially purified CSF-PAO with spermine and infected with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus.
The results revealed an obvious decrease in numbers, weights and diameters of secondary hydatid cysts grown, and elevation in the percentage of reduction of hydatid cysts, and a decrease in liver and spleen weights and their organ indices, in mice activated by different concentrations of PAO II 200-1000 µg/ 10 gm body weight with constant concentration 200 µg Spm throughout one month, and with optimum concentration 800 µg/ 10 gm body weight PAO II with 200 µg Spm throughout two and three months, in comparison with positive and negative control groups.
Therefore, it was concluded that PAO II isolated from CSF with Spm could be considered as an effective resistance against infection with secondary hydatid disease.

Preparation of activated carbon from different plant sources using chemical treatment

Mohammad Hajee Ali Albadrani

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 41-46
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89790

In this work activated carbon has been prepared from different agricultural sources.
The process of preparing activated carbon was conducted through carbonization the raw material at 350° C for 3 hrs. The carbonized product were subjected to final step of carbonization by mixing the feed stoke with potassium hydroxide (1:1) (raw materials: KOH) at 550±25° C for 3 hrs. The carbon obtained was purified by disttiled water, refluxed with 10 % hydro chloric acid for 2hrs, washed with disttled water and finally dried at 110-120° C for 24 hrs. The activated carbon obtained was evaluated by measuring (Iodine number, methylene blue, humidity content, ash content and Density) and Compared with commercial carbon from B. D. H.

Study of the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of some esters by potassium permanganate in acid medium

Ibrahim Younis Mohammad

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 47-58
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89766

In this study, the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of some esters (ethyl ,butyl and methyl benzoate) by potassium permanganate in acid medium were established and this study showed that reaction rate law is depended to permanganate ion concentration only at high concentration of ester according to following equation:

r = k [KMnO4]

(k) rate constant of pseudo first order reaction where: k=k2[ester]

The value of k is calculated from Aplot of (ln a/a-x) againet the time.
Arrhenis plot (lnk) against (1/Tk°) allowed us to determine the value of (Ea,A,ΔH#,ΔG#,ΔS#). Addition the [H2SO4] increase the rate constant increase. this results are in accordance with the mechanism proposed of oxidation reaction.


Isolation of total proteins and fatty acids of Yersinia enteriocolitica isolated from the human appendix in Nineveh province

Nawal Aziz Khalil; ِAmeera Mahmood Alrawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89780

(4) proteins bands with molecular weight 22, 24, 43, 66 KDa approximately.
Detection of free fatty acids of Yersinia enteriocoltica by thin layer chromatograph (TLC) was performed and the results showed the presence of two types of fatty acids, Oleic acid and Palmatic acid.

Effect of cold and warm Juglans nigra L. walnut leaves extract on fat in rats infected with high blood lipid level with hydrogen peroxide and cholesterol

Khalid Hammadi Hameed Sharaf; Jian Salam Hasan Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 69-84
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89774

Forty-five albino adult male rats severed from oxidative stress induced with 0.5% hydrogen peroxide and 1% cholesterol for 45days(30 days for the preparation of oxidative stress and 15days for therapeutic treatment of experimental period),and aged 3-4 months were used as experimental model for oxidative stress study in rats.Rats were dividedrandomly into nine groups. First group was used as control, second to fifth groups were orally treated with walnut leaves coldextract, and the sixth to ninth groups were treated separately with warm extract concentration 60, 75, 90 and 120 mg/kg body weight for the two walnut extracts respectively. Rats were fed with hyperlipidemicdiet, which contains 1% cholesterol and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide in drinking water for 15 days experimental period;at room temperature around 25°C in dark/light cycle was 12/12 hours daily.
Blood samples were collected from the eye retro-ocular vein using heparinized PCV tubeat the beginning and last days of experiment. Plasma was separated and used for the determinations of blood total lipid (TL), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), and liver total cholesterol. Rat's nutritional status (increased body mass-growth and food intake weights) was estimated too. Analysis of variance and Duncan test showed that, the cold and warm extracts of walnut leaves caused rat's nutritional status improvement and hypolipidemic effect in plasma TL, TC, VLDL-c &LDL-c and decreased atherogenicindices;in addition they increased the HDL-c and lowering liver total cholesterol. The walnut leaves cold extract concentration 75mg/kg body weight considered to be more efficient than other tested concentrations of cold and warm extracts. Therefore, this concentration of cold walnut extract was suggested as hypolipidemic matter with specific concentration.

The effect of the Kelp 40 seaweed extract on the growth and vegetation value of two cultivars of wheat

Abdulaziz Shekho Abduljabbar; Hussein Sabir Alrashide; Mohammad Uwayed Alobaide

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 85-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89786

The effect of spraying Shoot groups of two wheat cultivars (Um Rabee and Sham 6) by different Seaweed extract (Kelp 40) concentrations of (0.0, 2.0, 4.0) ml/L at three different growing times on the growth and vegetation value of these plants growing under plastic house condition was investigated.
Results showed that there was a significant increase in leaf surface area, chlorophyll a and b concentration in leaf tissues and carbohydrate, Ca, Mg, K in the grain treated with (4.0)ml/L seaweed extract, while the Length plant and protein concentration was not significantly different.
The treatment with (2.0)ml/L extract showed a significant increase in chlorophyll b concentration in leaf tissues and carbohydrate, Ca, K in the grain and a non-significant increase in the length of the plant, leaf surface area, chlorophyll a, protein, K concentration in grains of the wheat plant in comparison with control. It has been result showed that the spraying of the Shoot groups with the extract of the concentration of (4.0) ml/L leads to a significant increase in the length of plant, leaf surface area, chlorophyll a and b concentration in leaf tissues and K concentration of the grain in the cultivars (Sham 6). On the other hand using the same concentration of the extract concerning the cultivars (Um Rabee) there has been a significant increase in the concentration of carbohydrate, Ca and Mg.
The cultivated Sham 6 dominated the cultivated Um Rabee in most parameters.

Effects of Cadmium and Sulfur Interaction on Growth and Some Physiological and Qualitative features of Wheat Triticum aestivum L.

Farah Subhi Salih; Anwar Fakhree Altaee; Hanan ِAmeer Alrashide

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 99-114
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89767

This study investigates the effects of treating soil with Cadmium and Sulfur and the interaction between them. It also studies some physiological features of wheat plant in the environment of the plasichouse. The study has come up with the conclusion that the soil treated with Cadmium with concentration (1, 50) ml mol/Kg soil led to a decrease in the dry weight of the shoot and root. Similary it led to an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll a , b and the total chlorophyll (a + b), relative water content, protein, carbohydrates and significant increase proline in the leaf tissues of Wheat plant.
There was also a significant increase in the growth since there was an increase in the dry weights of the shoot and root. Like wise there was an increase in the above mentioned features and a decrease in the concentration of proline in the leaf tissues when the soil treated with Sulfur with concentration (1, 2) ml mol/Kg soil as compared with a potential average of (p > 0.05).
As for interaction effects it also found that the soil treated with Cadmium and Sulfur concentration (1) ml mol/Kg soil of each element. This resulted in the best results as compared with other treatment.

Investigation of the iron carriers Siderophores role in the pathogenesis and virulence of some pathogenic bacteria

Shakir Gazee

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 115-129
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89783

The research included extraction of siderophores from three pathogenic bacterial isolates: Escherichia coli ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus isolated from urinary tract, burn, upper respiratory tract infections respectively which were identified according to cultural, physiological, and biochemical characteristics.
The extracted siderophores from the three isolates were detected by the chemical and bioassay methods, The results showed the ability of the three isolates to produce siderophores.
The In vivo virulence assay for the isolates were performed to determine the LD-50 on mice by injecting them Intraperitanially with serial different concentrations of each bacterial isolate.
The three isolates subjected to 12.5µm `of 5_o_ (N_salicyal)_ subfamily adenosine) (SAL_AMS) In order to inhibit their abilities to produce siderophores, the siderophores were extracted from the treated isolates then their detection were performed, the results showed inability of treated isolates to produce siderophores.`
The in vivo virulence assay performed for the treated and untreated isolates were compared, the results showed Increases in the lethal dose values of 50% in mice injected with the treated isolates.
The extracted siderophores from the isolates before treatment injected at 2mg/ml with different serial concentration of the treated isolates then the lethal dose values for 50% of mice calculated and compared with the LD50% for mice injected with the treated isolates and saline as a control, the results showed reduction in LD50% for mice injected with treated isolates and extracted siderophores and this result means increase of the virulence and pathogenicity of treated isolates after injection of extracted siderophores in vivo.

A morphological and chemical study of some cultured L. pyrus malus cultivars in Nineveh Governorate

Muna Omar Mohammad

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 130-145
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89793

The present research includes a morphological and chemical Characters study for (4) cultivar belonging to the species pyrus mallus L. (Grane Smeeth, Royal gala, Mondeyal gala, and early rdon). which cultivated in different location of Ninavah govenorate.
The morphological study involved (Buds, Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, seeds and indumentums). This study indicates that the (Buds, and Fruits) characteristics have a good value to identified the cultivars.
The results of chemical study should that (9) phenolic compound were identified in leaves of cultivars pyrus malus L. They were: Quercetin -7- glucoside in all cultivars, Rutin found in Grane Smeeth, Myrictine found in mondeyal gala, while syringic acid found in early rdon, Quercetin found in Royal gala, Kaempferol found in grane smeeth and early rdon, Ferullic acid found in Royal gala while Apigenin found in grane smeeth and early rdon this result shol'd a good taxonomic value which varied a mong the cultivars.

Isolation and characterization of Bifidobacteria from broiler crops and the possibility to use as probiotics

Ammar AbdulRazzaq Tawfeeq Alani; Zeyad Tariq Mohammad Aldhanke

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 146-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89787

The aim of this study is to isolate Bifidobacteria from broiler crops to obtain bacteria having the ability of adhesion to digestive canal and good activity; The isolated bacteria were passaged three serial passages in chicks for 6 days interval, after that, Three isolates were selected and testing for probiotic and biochemical properties on them (api 20 A test one of biochemical tests which was conducted on one isolate only). These isolates were showed same properties, they were unable to grow in aerobic conditions, they couldn't produce catalase enzyme and CO2, they could produce acid, and analyze starch. They had high ability for adhesion on crop epithelial cells, and they were unable to grow in acid medium (pH<4.5) but they were able to growth in medium (pH=6). On other hand, the isolates were sensitive for most antibiotics. By using the api 20 A test, one of these isolates showed similar characters to Bifidobacterium adolescentis and possibly could be used as probiotic for broiler.

Measurement of radiation doses absorbed in the thyroid cancer when treated with radioactive iodine 131I

Asema Mahmood Alemam

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 158-169
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89785

In this research the absorbed dose by the thyroid gland of radioiodine 131I during treatment of the thyroid cancer after total or partial remove of the thyroid gland by operation, the radioiodine is concentrated in the un removed parts of the gland tissue depending on stage and type of disease. The thermoluminescence dosimeters TLDs are used for measuring the absorbed dose for its good efficiency in detecting alpha and gamma rays. High radiation doses was found in un removed regions, and low doses in the partial removed regions, in case of the total remove of the gland readings were lower over all the gland. Moreover much lower dose was found after second treatment by radioiodine, these measurements were welcomed by doctors of radiotherapy. Also by measuring the transmitted gamma rays from the frontal and dorsal parts of the neck it is found that the transmitted rays from the frontal part is about more than that from the dorsal part which indicate possible absorption and scattering by tissues and vertebral and also by the spinal cord, this later measurement help to consider the low possible risk of treatment by radioiodine.
Keyword: TLDs، 131I, gamma ray, treatment by radioiodine, Radiation Dose.

Phonon frequency spectrum of silver under high pressure

Hiba Mohammad Tahir Alhbaite

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 170-178
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89795

Evaluation of effect of pressure on phonon frequency spectrum of silver have been achieved in the present work by analyzing Ag pfs and computing frequencies shift and variation of mode density under high pressure.
Computation has been done by combining Vinet EOS with Grüneisen approximation. A good agreement between present results and that reported in literature has been shown.

improvement Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing

Suhaib AbdulJabbar Abdulbaqee

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 179-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89784

The objective of this paper is to develop a parallel Pole numerical integration method suitable for renaming in MIMD computing systems.
In this paper we improve the Pole Method for numerical integration by partitioning and parallel processing .we compared the developed methods with initial methods the comparison showed the supervise the developed Method for the initial method.
The developed methods are suitable fof running on MIMD computing systems.

Preparation of a geographical database of the morphometric characteristics of the watersheds in northern Sinjar using geographic information systems (GIS)

Raed Mahmood Faisal

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 191-215
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89781

This research aime to build geographyic data base with morphometric variables for 26 watersheds in northern sinjar by using data resoncces such as (SRTM) Digital elevation models programs that were used (Arc Gis 9.3 – Arc hydro 1.3 –Spatial Analyst–). Data base was used to extract measurement of 25 morphometric object that has shape characteristics or drainage or topography. Analysis results showed that most of the watersheds were almost rectangular (0.42) with a triangular formation) 0.15). First and second order in drainage were the most and longest (1421.37- 303.16) KM, (1812 -417) valley. Watersheds gave small value in longitudinal and numerical drainage density, and it was (1.81) KM (1.55) vallies, with rough texture severe topography (20.35(.