Volume 26, Issue 3, Summer 2013, Page 1-268

Preparation and Study of Some New Schiff Base Complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)

A. M. Al-Dabagh Department of Chemistry

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89908

The ligand (LH) [P-hydroxy phenyl benzilidene] derived from a condensation product of p-hydroxy aniline and benzaldehyde and its complexes with Cobalt(II), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) has been synthesized and characterized by metal analysis molar conductance, magnetic moments, Infrared Spectra. The complexes were observed to have an octahedral geometry around central metal ion in both neutral and basic media. The stoichiometry reaction between the metal (II) ion and synthesized ligand in molar ration of M: L (1:1) in both neutral and basic media. In neutral media forms the metal complexes of type of [M2(LH)2(H2O)4Cl4] while in basic media forms type [M2(L)2(H2O)6 Cl2] (where M= Co(II), Ni(II), or Cu(II), LH=C13H11NO, L= C13H10NO) respectively. The infrared spectra of free ligand and all complexes reveal that the ligand has been coordinated to metal ion through the nitrogen of azomethine group and oxygen atom of phenol group in neutral media but in alkaline medium acts as mono basic. In all these complexes the metal ions are hexacoordinate with most probable octahedral structure.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Phenolic Compounds Using N,N- diethyl –p-phenylenediamine (DE – PPD) and Benzoyl peroxide

Elham S. Salih; M. M. Al- sharook; Saladdin M. AL-Talib

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 8-17
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89913

A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of some phenolic compounds (phenol, o-aminophenol and α-naphthol) and was applied for determination of amoxicillin drug. The method is based on oxidative coupling reaction of these compounds with N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as oxidizing agent. The formed blue indophenol dyes have maximum absorptions at 627, 612.5, 611.5 and 628.5 nm. for phenol, o-aminophenol, α-naphthol and amoxicillin respectively. The molar absorptivities are 1.72× 104, 1.92× 104, 1.65 × 104. l. mol1-. cm-1 for concentrations obeyed Beer,s law in the ranges 0.2 -4.0, 0.5 -11.0, 0.6 – 16.0 and 0.8 – 25.0 µg ml-1 for the above compounds respectively. The average recovery % was ranged between 98.99% 100.45 with relative standard deviation ≤ 1.04 for all the studied compounds. The method is applied

A suitable analytical formula for the K shell ionization cross section of carbon and potassium atoms by electron impact

Salim H. Al-Shamma; Muzahim I. Azawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 18-22
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89914

In this study an analytical expression proposed for k shell ionization cross section for two atomic elements C (Z=6) and K (Z=19) due to electron impact had been investigated. This study is based on the analysis of calculated k shell ionization cross section.The proposed analytical expression had been found to fulfill the task of the fitting shape and behavior of the Sbell k ionization cross section database with an acceptable agreement in the values of the cross section at low incident energies.

Image Smoothing Based On FPGA

Maha A.R. Hasso; Farah Saad Al-Mukhtar

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 38-51
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89910

Programmable logic is emerging as an attractive solution for many digital image processing applications. As image sizes and bit depths grow larger, software has become less useful in the image processing, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has become a viable target for the implementation of algorithms suited to image processing applications, the unique architecture of the FPGA has allowed the technology to be used in many such applications encompassing all aspects of image processing.
Image smoothing is one of image processing applications, it often done to reduce the effect of pixel noise in images. This paper presents VHDL architectures (that allow description of the structure design of FPGA) to implement two of image smoothing filters:

a) averaging filters
b) median filters

This research is also applying the filters on FPGA. The results proves high-speed performance of the algorithms that rely on hardware and software compared to software alone, as it appeared very big difference in the speed of execution, depending on the hardware devices that showed the speed of the implementation of the scale of nanosecond, while the software application of algorithms is measured in seconds.
The software was implemented in this research using MATLAB 2010 language code as well as the VHDL language to deal with use of FPGA device, which was of a kind (Xilinx XC3S500E Spartan-3E).

Determination of structures of some imines derived from 3-acetyl and 4-acetyl pyridines by chemical and physical method.

Rawaa Dawod Sulaiman; Adil saeed Azooz

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89899

The study involves the preparation of new sixteen imine compounds derived from mother ketones, namely 3-acetyl and 4-acetyl pyridines. These compounds were prepared in a forms of syn and anti oxime, phenolic or amino Schiff bases, containing phenol and amine groups in ortho, meta and para positions on aromatic rings.
The presence of intra molecular hydrogen bonding in imines under investigation were confirmed by using UV and IR spectra.
The main aims of the study was the determination of structures of imines by physical method. This included the measurements of UV and IR spectra, melting points in addition to the examination of specific chemical tests.


Effect of some substances on the Actinomycetes sensitivity to antibiotics

Aws Ibreheem Sualiman

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 19-27
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89840

The effect of EDTA and CuSo4 on sensitivity of two species of Actinomycetes group including Rhodococcus and Kocuria to antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin) was studied and the results showed that Rhodococcus was inhibited very well by Ciprofloxacin with inhibition zone 34 mm and Kocuria was inhibited by Gentamicin with inhibition zone 38 mm.
Minimum inhibitory concentration for these antibiotics was determined the results revealed that the MIC for ciprofloxacin against Rhodococcus was 0.3 µg /ml and for Gentamicin against Kocuria was 1.2 µg/ml.
The effects of EDTA and CuSo4 on the MIC of the two antibiotics appear to decrease them to 0.1 µg/ml.

The Relation between diabeteic patients and some hematological،biochemical parameters.

Mahmood Ismael Mohammad Aljubori

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 28-38
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89904

Current study determine the relationship of non-insulin independent diabetes and some hematological،biochemical parameters in (50) patients of both sexes who are frequently attending AL-WAFFA and AL-SALAM hospital centre for Insulin treatments of Mosul in compares with twenty healthy persons of both sexes as a control group.
Results of this study shows a significant decrease in the hemoglobin concentration, percentage of packet cell volume (PCV) in both sexes of diabetes patients, the decrease was reaches to (0.49 ± 11.53), (0.739 ± 0.77), (1.5 ± 36.6), (2.2 ± 34.3) consecution up to, while there was increase in blood serum glucose of both sexes compared with the control group, The cholesterol concentration as increased blood serum of male and female patients and reachs (0.12 ± 5.83), (0.3 ± 6.2) receptively in comparison to the control group (0.05 ± 2.45) and (0.05 ± 3,15).
Urine test in both sexes showeds different types of diabetes, with increase in calcium oxalate salts in male reach (70%), while in female there was crystals found in urine reachs (30%), in diabetic patients shows ancrease in blood pressure reachs up to (50%).

Study of the effect of incubation periods and the source of carbon and nitrogen in the growth of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans and the production of gluconic acid

Mohammad Basheer Ismael Kasim; Rawaa Mohammad Jarjees; AbdulKareem Sulayman Hasan

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 39-56
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89903

In this study (16) different local isolates of the yeast like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were obtained. These isolates were isolated from uninfected leaves of many wild and cultured plants. These isolates were identified as real isolates of A.pullulans depending on the microscopic examination to determine the polymorphic form of this fungus. These isolates were screened regarding their efficiency to produce gluconic acid. Two isolates only, A.pullulans MU1 and A.pullulans MU2 showed a high ability to produce gluconic acid. The two isolates were tested to produce gluconic acid in the liquid media.
A.pullulans MU1 showed a high ability to produce gluconic acid after three days of incubation and therefore this isolate was selected in the latter experiments. In order to enhance the ability of the isolate to produce the acid we study the effect of the medium culture components from carbon and nitrogen source on the production. The results showed that best carbon source to produce maximum quantity of the acid was sucrose at the concentration of 15% so gave (15.1) g/L and best nitrogen source was ammonium chloride at the concentration of (4.8) g/L so gave (25.45) g/L of gluconic acid.

The effect of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), Salvia officinalis (sage) and Cassia spp.(seena) extracts in the growth of Aspergillus ustus

Nadwa Mohammad Khudher

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 57-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89906

The fungus Aspergillus ustus was isolated from external ear inflammation. This fungus rarely infects human because it infects immunocompromised patients causing cutaneous, endocarditis and pneumonia infections. It is also a pathogenic plant and contaminating the crops. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), Salvia officinalis (sage) and Cassia spp.(seena), was tested by using four concentrations for each extract 5,10,15,20 mg/ml. Results were compared with the antifungal ketoconazole and with the biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum. It is noticed that the highest percentage of inhibition was at concentration 20mg/ml for all the plant extracts used for inhibition percentage for A. millefolium, S. officinalis and Cassia spp.were 56.6%, 83.3% and 100% respectively. For ketoconazole the percentage of inhibition was 100% for all concentrations used in this study. The biocontrol agents T. harzianum and T. viride proved to have a high antagonistic ability against the pathogen. This proves that the alcoholic leaves extracts of these plants were more inhibitory for the fungus in addition to biocontrol agents.

Study of the electrical characteristics for Schottky barrier devices Au/n+-GaAs at range of different temperatures pre and post radiation with gamma ray .

Mustapha Arab Mohammad; Atyaf Subhi Mohammad

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 66-80
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89896

The electrical characteristics for Schottky barrier devices Au/n+-GaAs which have been radiated with two different doses of -ray at (3.41, 5.26)107 rad with -radiation and unradiated at range of different temperatures (93-333 K) are compared. It was found that the effect of temperature on I-V characteristics at forward bias for this devices are decreases as the radiation dose increase. Activation energy and barrier height measurement show that the conduction current are change from thermonic emission before radiation process to generation-recombination in lightly -radiated devices, while for highly radiated devices the conduction current is different to that.
It was found a reduction in leakage current by using Schottky devices with guard ring structure which fabricated by photolithography technique, the electrical characteristics of this radiated devices show low effect to radiation and high stability.

Effect of laser shear on bond strength of composite material with the tooth.

Jabbar Hussein Kamil; Muna Yohanna Slewah; Nawfal Yousif Jameel

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 81-94
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89905

The aim of this study is to determine the optimum value of the laser powers and to determine the least possible time for irradiation at which upon then may obtain the maximum degree of shear bond strength of composite material with the tooth. Teeth groups where etched by continuous wave CO2 laser in different power and energy densities for each group, and one group was etched by phosphoric acid solution. Some of them were selected for study used for photography by using light microscope. After a bonding procedure for the remaining teeth, the teeth had been subjected to sheer bond strength tests by using a universal testing machine and the result were recorded in megapascal unit (Mpa). Under light microscope, we saw the patterns of enamel etching by laser similar to that of acid etching, but not uniform and some groups produce poor etch pattern, compared to that of acid etched enamel. The bonding force of composite material adhered to laser etched enamel is less than that for acid etched enamel.

Changes in properties of Ba132-126 even-even isotopes

Zeena Hameed Salih; Imad Mamdooh Ahmad

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 95-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89901

The energy of the first exited state , and , , and for 132-126Ba even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between as a function of ( E-GOS) are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they have the O(6) property for low-lying states and a O(6) – U(5) property for the high states, except for 132 Ba that shows a O(6) – U(5) property for all these states with different values of parameters along the yrast region. The interacting boson model IBM-1 has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 6.5 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

Study of the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester reinforced by different hybrid intensification materials

Layla AbdulSalam Mohammad

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 108-119
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89902

The work focuses on the preparation of polymer matrix composite materials by hand lay up the composite materials were prepared from the unsaturated polyester resin as matrix reinforced by intensification materials (Si, Al2O3, and hybrid of both reinforcement (Si+Al2O3)) with weight fraction of %25.
This research includes studying the mechanical properties for these materials composite, the mechanical tests were done at room temperature, and they include (bending, impact, hardness, compression, tensile).
Results of the work showed that mechanical properties were for composite material reinforced by (Si) such that, they have higher compressive strength, impact strength, and more ductile in the tensile, and the composite material reinforced by alumina had higher value of young's modulus than the polyester itself. also the values of hardness for the composite material is a little low than material of un reinforced polyester.

Study the Infrared spectroscopy of the Fe2O3 and MgO oxides

Huthama Abd Mohammad Sulayman

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 120-131
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89841

The Infrared spectroscopy in the frequency range (400 cm-1) to (1000 cm-1) of (MgO)x(Fe2O3)1-x compounds at room temperature have been investigated. These compounds result from the solid state reaction of the Fe2O3 and MgO oxides at high temperatures around (1000 Co). The infrared spectrum of these compounds show two main absorption bands; the first band, ν1 is caused by the stretching vibrations at the tetrahedral sites and the second band, ν2 is caused by the stretching vibrations at the octahedral sites of the lattice structure. Values of ν1 are higher than ν2. Moreover, the force constants of the bonds at the tetrahedral sites, Ftet and octahedral sites, Foct have also been calculated. Values of Ftet are higher than those of Foct. The results of this study agree quite well with the related studies for these compounds

New methods for developing parallel algorithms of direct search in numerical optimization

Firas Mahmood Saeed; Basheer Mohammad Salih Khalaf

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 132-151
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89839

The Purpose of this research is the development Direct Search Methods for minimizing the objective function;
The Developed Methods reduces the approach time to the minimum through two techniques:
1) by reducing the number of function evaluation.
2) by developing algorithms suitable for running on MIMD(Multiple Instruction Stream Multiple Data Stream).
We developed two methods, the first method depends on the "pattern search" and the other depends on the "direct search" technique. The comparison of results shows the new algorithms are faster than corresponding algorithms.

Software engineering of a clonal selection algorithm and it's hybridizing with the genetic algorithm GA in cursive and discrete handwritten English character recognition.

Shereen Moataz Muhammad Siddiq; Jamal Salahddin Sayed Majeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 152-178
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89897

The work explores the potentiality of a clonal selection algorithm and it's hybridizing with the genetic algorithm GA in cursive and discrete handwritten English character recognition. In particular, a retraining scheme for the clonal selection algorithm is formulated for better recognition rates. Empirical study with a dataset (which contains about 100 handwritten samples for 26 characters taken from 30 persons) shows that the proposed approach exhibits very good generalization ability, such that results reported recognition accuracy reached to 100% for the recognition of characters that have been used in building database, and an average recognition accuracy of about 94% for other characters.

Hiding texts in HTML pages

Aisha Siddeq Shaheen

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 179-193
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89900

In this research the protection techniques are developed by using hiding in HTML pages which is suitable for ease of use on the other hand, the pages written in HTML, distributed largely on the Internet, so there is the possibility that the revealed contacts used for HTML pages is difficult, inspite of used techniques for network monitoring.
Eight methods was applied in the concealment of which match the colors (Color matching) and property size (Size Attribute) and the use of labeling of (JavaScript) and the use of marking (CSS) and has been proposed other modalities of hiding are the property (Hover) and the link attribute (Link) and the property of field hidden (Hidden Field) and the replacement property (Alternate). Has also been used: Java script, CSS,HTML development environment in Dream Weaver8 for application of this research.


hiding data in a text using color variance

Sundus Khalil Ibrahim; Warkaa Mohammad Hisham Yousif

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 194-215
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89907

Hiding secret information and data in a cover such as audio, image, or video files makes the files unsuspicion for the an reader. So, this is the main reason for this research in the steganography field, comparing with encryption methods. The encrypt text pay the tracker to use various methods to break the encryption and get the original text. While the steganography draw no attention, and the reader may pass over it without doubt thus, the file and the hiding data stay without damage.
This paper presents a new method for hiding data in a text using color variance. In the recovery step, the text file of the covered message converted to digital image form, and image processing methods used to extract the hiding data from it. The proposed method applied on Arabic and English texts. Most types of attacking are applied in the messages. It shows a high efficiency versus all applied types of attacking. Matlab 2010a is used in programming the proposed method.

The effect of surfaces on the movement of long bubbles in diagonally open channels

Zeena Talal; Khudher Mohammad Salih Khudher

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 216-223
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89843

This research aims at studying the stable flow of the viscous thin membranes in a two-dimensional system in a declined way, neglecting the inertia powers. The equation that controls the flow was found by means of using the continuity equation and the motion equations of Navier-Stokes.

Applications of Biometrics by ear print recognition

Yahya Ismael Ibrahim; Israa Mohammad Khudher

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 224-242
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89895

Biometrics has received considerable attention in recent years to its importance in the life process that starts from security systems at airports and criminal investigations to electronic banking. The use of (biometrics) is the most important parameters used in the disclosure of the identity of persons. The fingerprint, ear print recognition and automatically signature are important in the area of biometrics technology. So ear research recognition is improved broadly during the past decades and current years of other biometric research because their features are fixed and their change is expected. Biometrics are defined in many definitions as one of them "as any part of the body properties and that can be used to identify persons". And also know as "as a measure of physical properties or character traits".
The aim of the proposed work is to build an efficient system of person identification based on ear biometrics through the use of (Geometrical Feature Extraction of Ear). Images are collected from a database of ear color images from (Zsged) database. The completed initial processing of these images, by changing the size of these images using the method (Bilinear). Then, the image has shifted to the grayscale and define the edges of the gray image using filter (Canny). An Eleven features are extracted from the right ear of a person. The right ear has been chosen after reviewing the researches and analysis the area that related to the ear that the right ear is more efficient to distinguish sounds instead of the left one, which distinguish the music. These attributes are stored in the feature database to be beyond the testing phase and compared ear to be identified after extraction characteristics in the same proposed algorithm with recipes pictures prayer in the database. Correlation coefficient is dependent as a similarity measure between the input images entered to the system with image database. The results of the proposed work represented by FAR (False Accepted Rate) and FRR (False Rejected Rate) a great performance compared with other works in the same field. The system programs are applied by the use of (MATLAB Version R2009a) system.

Spatial Analysis of the Assessment of Groundwater Validity for Drinking, Irrigation and animal Watering in Sinjar District Using GIS

Raed Mahmood Faysal

Journal of Education and Science, 2013, Volume 26, Issue 3, Pages 243-268
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.89898

Groundwater occupies the forefront in areas where there are no sources of surface water from rivers and irrigation projects, and this applies to the study of sector Sinjar, located in the north-west of Iraq and of area (2926.4) km 2, as shown in the map (1), The water is a groundwater source upon which the main population of the judiciary for the purposes of drinking is primarily class, for the purposes of irrigation second class, has increased the role and importance of groundwater in the region with the increase in population, with repeated years of drought in the recent period, especially that the region relies mainly on rainwater in investment agriculture in the judiciary, therefore, stand on the validity of groundwater for human consumption and agricultural and through the application of modern techniques was using the (GIS), in analysis, and spatial distribution of the quality characteristics of groundwater in the study area is of significant importance.