Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 26, Issue 5

Volume 26, Issue 5, Autumn 2013, Page 1-341


Comparison of pKa values for some phenols imines derived from 3-acetyl and 4-acetyl pyridines.

Adel S. Azzouz; R .D.S. Uezbaky

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163050

Abstract
       The study includes the preparation of a new six imines derived from the mother ketones, namely the 3-acetyl and 4-acetyl pyridines. These imines containing phenols groups in ortho, meta and para positions on aromatic amine side of the molecules. The structures of these compounds were confirmed previously by UV, IR spectra, melting points in addition to the examination of specific chemical tests. 
       The main object of this study is the determination of pKa values for these phenolic imines and pKa־ for their conjugate acids (nitrilium ions) by potentiometric method. The last as found to be simple, rapid and precise.
       Generally, it was observed that, ionization constants values in these acids depend on three main factors :-

The chemical structures of imines.
The ambient temperature during pKa determination.
The type of hydrogen bonding present in these imines.

Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some 1,2,3-Selenadiazole Derivatives

Khalid M. Daoud; Mohanad Y. Saleh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163051

Abstract
In this paper the synthesis of some 1,2,3-Selenadiazoles derivative is reported . Acetophenone (A) , Cyclohexanone (B) and menthone (C) each was treated with p-toluensulfoyl hydrazide in ethanol to give tosylhydrazones (1-3) , their cyclization with selenium dioxide gave 1,2,3-selenadiazoles (4-6) .
Semicarbazone derivatives (7-9) were obtained by from (A-C) by their reaction with semicarbazide hydrochloride , treatment of semicarbazone (7-9) with selenium dioxide gave 1,2,3-Selenadiazoles (4-6).
Compounds (A-C) were treatment with ethyl hydrazenoacetate to give the corresponding ethyl ester (10-12) .

A spectrophotometric micro determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride by coupling diazometry

Mohammad Saleem Saleem; Zaheda Ahmad Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 23-35
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163052

ABSTRACT
          A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been investigated for determination of microgram amount of pyridoxine hydrochloride .The method is based on the oxidation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to produce diazotized2,4-dinitroaniline  which will be coupled with pyridoxine hydrochloride in basic medium to form a stable colored product with maximum absorption at 522 nm.Beer'slaw is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-12.5 µg.ml-1.The molar absorptivity value is 15214 L.mol-1.cm-1 .The average recovery is 99.09% and relative standard deviation (RSD)is less than 3.2%.The method  has been applied successfully  for the determination of the studied drug in its pharmaceutical preparation .The obtained result are in agreement with certified value of the  pharmaceutical and with the British pharmacopeia  method .

Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Chloramphenicol in Pharmaceutical Preparations using o-Chloranil Reagent

Thabit Saeed Al-Ghabsha; Theiaa Al-Sabha; Mohammed Al-Enizzi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 36-47
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163053

الخلاصة
تم وصف طریقة طیفیة سهلة وحساسة لتقدیر الکلورامفینیکول بشکله النقی وفی مستحضراته الصیدلانیة. تعتمد الطریقة على التفاعل بین الکلورامفینیکول المختزل والکاشف اورثو- کلورانیل فی الوسط المائی القاعدی مکونا معقد الشحنة المنتقلة ذی لون ارجوانی یمتلک طیفا امتصاصیا له أقصى امتصاص عند 527 نانومیتر. أمکن تطبیق قانون بیر ضمن مدى التراکیز 2-65 مایکروغرام/مللتر فی حین کانت الامتصاصیة المولاریة 3.72×310  لتر.مول-1سم-1 . بلغ حد الکشف 0.456 والحد الکمی1.521   مایکروغرام/مللتر ومعدل نسبة الاسترجاع 100.9% فی حین کان ألانحراف القیاسی النسبی أفضل من 2.2%. کذلک تم دراسة طبیعة المعقد  ومیکانیکیة التفاعل. طبقت الطریقة بنجاح فی تقدیر الکلورامفینیکول فی مستحضراته الصیدلانیة بشکل کبسول وقطرة العین بدقة وتوافق جیدین. کما تم مقارنة الطریقة المقترحة مع الطریقة القیاسیة فی الدستور البریطانی وطرائق طیفیة أخرى.

Spectrophotometric Assay of Phenylephrine hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation with Alizarin Red sulphonate in Aqueous Solution

Thabit Saeed Al-Ghabsha; A. M.S. Al-Delymi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 48-56
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163054

ABSTRACT
A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride was developed. The method is based on the proton transfer reaction with alizarin red sulphonate in aqueous neutral solution to form a violet product showing a maximum absorbance at 530 nm with molar absorptivity of 14320 l.mol-1.cm-1. The method is obeyed Beer’s law over the concentration range (0.5-10) mg.ml-1. The accuracy (average recovery) of the method is 99.72% and the precision (RSD) of the method is less than 1.5%.
The method was successfully applied for the determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation as eye drops and the results were in good agreement with the standard addition procedure.

Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis Of Pyrazolone Derivatives

Badie Ahmed; Jasim Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 57-63
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163055

ABSTRACT
The diazonium salt of 4-amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol- 2-one (4-aminoantipyrine) was coupled with ethylacetoacetate and ethyl benzoylacetate to give the corresponding diazo compounds under basic media. These products were allowed to react with hydrazine hydrate and phenylhydrazine under Ultrasound method to give pyrazolone derivatives (I) in high yields.

Determination of vanadium in Natural gas using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)

Suham Tawfiq; Abdul Majeed Khursheed; Tuana Khalil Abdulla

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 64-74
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163056

ABSTRACT
Vanadium is recognized worldwide as the most abundant metallic constituent in petroleum, and this led to expect of its existing in natural gas that associated with oil as a trace amount in ppb concentration or less. For capturing the trace amount of vanadium in natural gas we used diluted acidic medium as adsorption collection, and using the collection medium as a sample. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is the analytical method that utilized in this study to determine (nano-partical) of vanadium. The pyrolysis and atomization temperature used were 1100ᵒC and 2700ᵒC , respectively. This procedure allows determination of vanadium with a detection limit about 0.44µg/L and characteristic mass of 67 pg, the calibration graph was linear in the range (40-120)µg/L with correlation coefficient of 0.9980, and the relative standard deviation RSD% was (0.83-6.13). the accuracy of this procedure was confirmed by the determination of vanadium in a newly prepared standard solution as unknown concentration. The range of vanadium amount in natural gas supposed to be from 5-10 ng/L .

Synthesis of some new heterocyclic compounds derived from 2-Chloro-3-formyl quinoline

Ala I. Ayoob; Fatma N. Mohmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163057

ABSTRACT
In this paper the Synthesis of some substituted 2-Chloro-3-formyl quinoline (2a–d) by treating various substituted acetanilide or 1-(4-substituted phenyl) ethanone oxime with POCl3 in dimethyl formamide. It proceeds through Vilsmeier – Haack cyclization. The condensation of 2-chloro-3-formylquinoline with p-Hydroxyacetophenone, 2-acetyl pyridine, 2-acetyl furan or 3-acetyl indole via Claisene– Schmiatcondensations gives quinolinylchalcone (4a – d). Newpyrazoline derivatives were synthesized by condensing the appropriate chalcone (4a) with hydrazine hydrate or phenylhydrazine (10 – 11). Oxazole (12) is reported from compound (4a) and hydroxyl amine hydrochloride is in basic medium. The reaction of chalcone (4a) with urea, thiourea or quinidine hydrochloride gives pyrimidine-2-one (7), pyrimidine-2-thiol (8) or 2- amino pyrimidine (9) respectively.Oxirane (6) prepared from reaction of chalcone (4a) with hydrogen peroxide in basic medium. The reaction of chalcone (4a) with bromine gives dibromide (5). The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral and physical methods.

Synthesis and Characterization of Ruthenium (III) Complexes with Substituted Nitrones

Khalaf Ibrahim Khallow; Eman M.H. Al-Bayate

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 86-92
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163058

ABSTRACT
New series of complexes of general [Ru(Cl)2(H2O)2.L]nH2O ; where LH=[α-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)-N-(p-R-phenyl nitrone] n=0-6 and R=H, Cl , Br , COCH3 , NHCOCH3 , NH2  and CH3 were formula synthesized and characterized by their elemental analysis(CHN) , molar conductance , magnetic moments , infrared and electronic spectral  measurements. The Ligand (L) acted as a bidentate, univalent toward the ruthenium (III( ion via the two oxygen atoms of, the nitrone and naphtholic groups, with the presence of two chloride ions and two aqua molecules the most probable octahedral geometry around each ruthenium ion in each complex.
The elemental analysis as well the infrared spectra revealed the presence of lattice water molecules outside the coordination sphere. Their molar conductance measurements revealed the non- electrolytie behavior of the synthesized complexes.
 

Synthesis and Characterization of Mn(II) ,Co(II) ,Ni(II) ,Cu(II) ,Zn(II) and Cd(II) Complexes with Di-Schiff Bases Derived from o- or m- Phenylenediamine and 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone

K. Al-Nama; A. Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 93-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163059

ABSTRACT
Aseries of new complexes of the type [MLCl2] where M=Mn (II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II),Cd(II) L=L1 or L2 represents di- Schiff base ligands: {L1=(N,N'E,N,N'E)-N,N'-(phenanthrene-9,10-diylidene) bis (benzene-1,2-diamine). L2=(N,N'E,N,N'E)-N,N'-(phenanthrene-9,10-di ylidene)bis(benzene-1,3-diamine)} have been prepared in (1:1)(M:L) molar ratio and charactrerized by electrical conductivity,magnetic moment, IR , UV-VIS and metal content analysis.
Conductivity data in DMF and DMSO solution showed that all complexes are non-electrolytes. Magnetic moment and electronic spectra indicate that some of the complexes have a tetrahedral geometry  and the others have an square planar environment . The antibacterial activity against E.coli and S.aureus of L1 and L2 and some of their complexes derived from Cu(II) and Zn(II) illustrates that the complexes have higher activity than the corresponding organic ligand.

Synthesis of Some New Amides Derived from Indomethacin

Kawther Al-Naimi; Haitham A. Alwahb; Hyffaa younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 105-112
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163060

ABSTRACT
       Indomethacin (1) was alb wed to react with thionyl chloride in dry benzene to yield [1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetyl chloride (2) which was readily converted into a [1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]-N-(4-acetyl phenyl) acetamide (3) by its reaction with 4- amino acetophenone. Ethyl N-[{1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl -1H- indol-3-yl} acetyl] glycinate (4) was synthesized by the reaction of acid chloride (2) with ethyl glycinate.
        The reaction of compound (3) with bromine in absolute ethanol afforded N-[4-(bromoacetyl) phenyl] - [1- (4-chlorobenzoyl) -5- methoxy -2- methyl -1H-indol-3-yl] acetamide(5). The compoundsN-[(4-(N-carboxymethyl) glycyl/ cystyl/ valinyl/ thereonyl/phenyl)1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl] acetamide (6-9) were synthesized by the reaction of compound (5) with amino acids. The structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by the available physical methods and some spectral data (I.R, U.V and 1H-NMR).

Synthesis and Biological evalution of some substituted 2-dibenzyl amino 1,3,4-oxadiazoles , thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles

Khalid Mahmood Daoud; Shaima S. Ismmaeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 113-123
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163061

ABSTRACT
      In this paper the synthesis of some substituted 2-dibenzyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole, thiadiazole and 1,2,4-triazoles derived from dibenzyl amine is reported scheme-1.
Dibenzyl amine was treated with chloroacetic acid to give N,N –dibenzyl glycine (1) which was converted to its methyl/ ethyl esters (2,3) .The esters were treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give   hydrazide (4)which was reacted with ammounium thiocyanate to give thiosemicarbazide(5).Treatment of thiosemicarbazid(5)with concentrated sulfuric acid , hydrazine hydrate, 4% sodium hydroxide and with potassium iodide / iodine to gave substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole (6) 1,2,4- triazole (7) 1,2,4-triazole -3-thiol (8) and 5-amino1,3,4-oxadiazole (9) respectively.
 The acid (1) was treated with polyphosphoric acid and hydrazine    hydrate to give 2,5- disubstituted oxadiazole (10), sulfonation of (10) gave disubstituted 1,3,4- thiadiazole (11). Hydrazides (4) was treated with acid chlorides to give thediketones (12-14) which cyclized to substituted oxadiazoles (15-17) and thiadiazoles (18-20) by their reaction with phosphorus pentoxideand phosphorus pentasulfide respectively.Some of the synthesized compounds were tested against various types of bacteria. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by     physical and spectral methods.

Study of Alkaline phosphatase Inhibition by theophylline and trifluoperazine in vitro

Bilal Jasir Alrawi; Khalid Farooq Alrawi; Shakir Mahmood Alfahdawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 124-134
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163062

ABSTRACT
The aim of this research is to study the inhibition effect of theophylline and trifluoperazine in vitro on alkaline phosphatase and determine the type of inhibitions. A series of concentrations of both theophylline and trifluoperazine have been prepared and test their effect by adding them with the alkaline phosphatase assay.
After converting the data from absorbance into enzymatic rate and test these velocities against concentrations of substrates using Linweaver –Burk equation, the results showed that both of theophylline and trifluoperazine have inhibition effect and the type of inhibition is non competitive. Using of Dixon methods indicate that the Ki of theophylline is 4.55 mM while for trifluoperazine Ki and is 1.07 mM.

Synthesis of Some Heterocyclic Compounds Containing Tetrahydroisoquinoline Moiety

Mohammad Ahmad Al-Iraqi; Ahmad Waleed Najem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 135-144
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163063

ABSTRACT
      This research involves synthesis of some five membered heterocyclic compounds using 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline as a synthone. The initial step in this research involves the reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline with ethyl chloroacetate to form ethyl α-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl) acetate (1), which was converted to the hydrazide (2). This hydrazide was used to prepare some heterocyclic compounds, such as substituted oxadiazoles (7-10, 23) and thiadiazoles (11-14) via preparation of intermediate compounds such as diacylhydrazines (3-6), hydrazones (15-18) and substituted oxadiazoline compounds (19-22) and (24-27). The synthesized compounds were identified on the basis of some physical and IR spectral data.

Five-Membered Heterocyclic Ring Via Dichalcones

N. Ahmad; O Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 145-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163064

 ABSTRACT
In this study some of dichalcone compounds (4-12) were prepared by the reaction of benzalacetone and its derivatives with a number of different ketones (acetophenone, acetanilide, 2-butanone). Also a number of heterocyclic compounds were prepared as a derivatives of that dichalcones, these derivatives were prepared by the reaction of dichalcone with hydrogen peroxide, hydrazine hydrate and urea to produce oxirane compounds (13-21), pyrazolines (22-30) and pyrimidinones (31-40) respectively. All the synthesised compounds were characterized by the available physical and spectral methods (melting point , I.R. and U.V. spectrum as well as laboratory tests). Finally the expected biological effects of some compounds were investigated.

Ultrasound-assisted one-pot synthesis of dihydropyrimid-2-one/thiones catalyzed by zirconyl chloride hexahydrate

Omar M. Yahya; Badie A. Ahmed; Imad Thanoon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 154-159
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163065

ABSTRACT
Different substituted dihydropyrimidinones and  dihydropyrimidin thiones were generated from the Biginelli reaction between aromatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl and urea or thiourea under ultrasonic irradiation method. Compared with classical Biginelli reaction ,this method can be depending on selectivity of the suitable catalyst (zirconyl chloride hexahydrate) ,excellent yield ,easy work and short reaction time .The structure of the new compounds were confirmed by physical and available spectroscopic methods .
 

Synthesis and characterization Studies of Mixed Ligand (1,3,4-oxadiazole derivative and ethylenediamine or acetylacetone)complexes with Ni(II)

Rezhna Faraj; Hikmat Mohamad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 160-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163066

ABSTRACT
This work includes the synthesis of the ligands (POTL = 5-Phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol  , NPOTL = 5-(3-Nitro-phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol , and NPOTE = 5-(3-Nitro-phenyl)-3H-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thoione  . All synthesized ligands were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-visible spectra and molar conductivity.
Two nickel(II) complexes of mixed ligands (NPOTE) and en/acac were obtained by the reaction of Ni(OAc)2.4H2O with (NPOTE), on treatment with ethylenediamine (en) or acetylacetone (acac), gave the complexes of the type [Ni(NPOTE)2(en)2] , and  [Ni(NPOTE)2(acac)2] respectively. In both complexes, the heterocyclic ligand coordinate through oxadiazole nitrogen, and the ligand exist as a thione form. The characterization data of IR-spectra, UV-visible spectra, conductivity measurement, magnetic susceptibility and atomic absorption,  exhibited that both complexes have octahedral geometries around the Ni(II) center.

Synthesis and characterization of Fe(II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with Hexaaza macromolecule Ligands Derived from Semicarbazide

Saad K. Dawood; Falah Fakhree

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 178-188
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163067

ABSTRACT
A new ligands( 3,4,6,14,15,17,23,24-Octaazatricyclo [17.3.1.18,12] tetracosa-1(23),8(24),9,11, 19 ,21- hexaene - 2,5,7,13,16,18 – hexaone), (L1) and 2-(5-hydroxypentanoyl) hydrazinecarboxamide,(L2)was prepared from the reaction of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and glutaric acid with semicarbazide by microwave irradiation in solid state ,then was  reacted  with some transition metal(II) ions to form complexes of the type 
 [M(L1)Cl2] , [M(L1)]Cl2 and [M(L2)2 Cl]Cl , [M(L2)2Cl2]where M= Fe(II) ,Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II). Adducts of  the type  [M(L1)(PPh3)Cl]Cl, [M(L2)2(PPh3)]Cl2 and [M(L2)2(PPh3)Cl]Cl were prepared by the reaction of  the above complexes with triphenylphosphine in a  2:1 and 1:1 molar ratio . The prepared complexes and adducts were characterized by (C,H,N) analysis , metal content analysis , molar conductance, magnetic moment  measurements ,electronic and  IR spectroscopy, the ligand was characterized by 1H,13C -NMR . The electronic spectra and magnetic measurements indicated that the complexes have octahedral environment around the metal ions.
 

Effect of Oral Contraceptive on some Serum Biochemical Parameters

Saba Al-Abachi; Luay A. Al-Helaly

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163068

ABSTRACT
The present study were aimed to determine the level of some biochemical parameters: (alkaline phosphatase ALP, creatine kinase CK, aspartate aminotranferase AST, urea, total bilirubin, albumin and  total protein) in  serum of 47 healthy women who took oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) during the period 1 to 3years. Their ages ranged between 20-45 years. They were attending to Al-Khanssa Family Planning Center in Mosul. The study also aimed to compare the results with those of another 30 healthy women who did not use any hormonal contraceptive.
 
They were matched for age and weight with the OCPs user groups.  Results obtained in this study showed a significant decrease in the activities of ALP, CK, AST, albumin and total protein, while the uric acid value was significantly increased, and no significant differences in the concentration of urea and total bilirubin in OCPs user group compared  to control group.
 

Spectrophotometric Assay of Bromhexine hydrochloride in Pure and in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms by Diazometry Coupling Reaction

Salim A. Mohammed; Rana F. Almukhtar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 197-209
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163069

ABSTRACT
       Asimple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for quantitative determination of bromhexine hydrochloride (BH) in both pure form and in its pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is based on the diazotization of BH with sodium nitrite in hydrochloric acid medium to form diazonium salt , which is coupled with 2,4,6-trihydroxy benzoic acid in alkaline medium of sodiumHydroxide to form a stable and water-soluble azo dye exhibited absorption maximum at 408 nm against reagent blank. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 5 to750 μg of  BH/20 ml with a good determination coefficient ( R2=0.9973) and apparent molar absorptivity 3.053×104 l.mol-1.cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.0156 and 0.0520 μg ml−1, respectively. The relative errors and relative standard deviations are found as 0.19 – 1.42 % and ± 0.11 to ± 0.47% respectively, depending on the concentration level. The method is suitable for the determination of BH in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms. The composition of the resulting product has been also worked out and it is found to be (1:1) BH : 2,4,6-tri-hydroxybenzoic acid. This procedure is applied successfully for the analysis of BH in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, syrup and injection) without prior separation and with acceptable errors.

Effect of Cyclosporine on the Relevant Biochemical Parameters in Renal Transplantation Patients in Mosul/Iraq

Suad Yousif Alkass; Shehab Yousif; Mohammed Fathel Hamid; Alaa Alhamadany

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 210-220
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163070

ABSTRACT
Cyclosporine (sandimmune) is the backbone of immunosuppression in renal transplantation. However, it leads to multiple side effects, most of which are dose-dependent. In this respect, the quality of renal functions is undoubtedly linked to cyclosporine drug levels.
 Blood sample from 44 kidney-transplant recipients and 28 healthy control were collected, then serum Urea, Creatinine, Sodium (Na+), Potassium(K+), Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, Glutathione GSH and Malondialdehyde MDA were estimated. The current study showed that serum Cholesterol, TG, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c were significantly increased in renal transplantation patients comparing with the control group, The result also has been revealed that GSH concentration was decreased in renal recipient patients while MDA was increased renal recipient patients as comparing with the control group. On other hand Cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, and MDA exhibited a weak correlation with dose of cyclosporine while GSH exhibibted reciprocal correlation with CsA dose.

Study on recycling and characterization of some waste polymers

Hiba M. Awad; Fawzi habeeb Jabrail

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 221-232
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163071

 
ABSTRACT
Chemical recycling of waste polymers is one of the important recent objective.The wastepolyethelene that present in two structures (LDPE&HDPE),beside waste polypropylene ,polystyrene and poly(vinyl chloride) were recycled using the dissolution/reprecipitation method. The studied waste polymers were washed and grinded into few millimeter size and then examined by FT-IR spectroscopy and their thermal stability were examined by TG and DTA analysis. Different types of solvents and non-solvents(precipitators) were used for dissolving waste polymers and reprecipitate  as polymer segments, respectively, with slight depression in their molecular weight and melting point.
      The dissolving method was applied using different organic solvents and at suitable temperature in order to recycle the waste polymers with cheap solvent and non-solvent and using a simplest method.
 
 
 This technique provide polymer recovery more than 90%. FT-IR study for recovered polymers was shown no change in polymer structure.TG-DTA investigations were appeared weakness in thermal properties of recovered polymers.   The average molecular weights of the studied waste polymers and their recycle precipitate were measured and their melting point also have been examined.
 

Synthesis , Characterization of Some Benzilyl Hydrazone Derived from Benzilic Acid Hydrazide

Salim J. Mohammed; Fatin G. zuhair

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 233-239
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163072

الملخص
یتضمن البحث تحضیر مرکبات هیدرازونالبنزیلیک (4a-g)و(5a-f) من خلال تکاثف معوضاتالاسیتوفینون وکذلک معوضاتالبنزوفینون مع هیدرازید حامض البنزیلیک , تم تشخیص الهیدرازونات المحضرة بواسطة الأشعة تحت الحمراء ,الرنین النووی المغنطیسی لکل من البروتون والکاربون  وطیف الاشعة فوق البنفسجیة بالاضافة الى القیاسات الفیزیاویة

Microwave-assisted Degradation of Polyvinyl Chloride Induced by Complexes of Transition Elements

Tariq Abdul-Jaleel; Hameed Ali; Ahmad Obeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 240-255
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163073

ABSTRACT
              In this work, the presence of variable metals complex of [N,N-Bis(Salicylidene)1,2-[diaminoethane] Nickel(II), (Ni-BSEDA). And the PVC film were studied under the microwave radiation. The samples and complex metals salt were prepared using a hand molding casting with percentage ( 0.0 ,0.025 , 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.1 ) % . Degradation studies were carried out using commercial microwave oven at constant  power of 400W for all experimental. The specimens were exposed to microwave radiation  with multiple time( 0.0 ,15, 30, 60) minutes , A degradation were followed via the decreace in average of molecular  weights ( Mw-,Mn- ) and increase of the growth of absorbency the carbonyl index ICO and polyene index  IPO at the total time of 60 minutes.

A study of multisubstituted chain transfer agents on the kinetics of homopolymerisation of methylmethacrylate .

Dhari M. Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 256-259
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163074

ABSTRACT :
        A continuation to a previous study of monosubstiuted transfer agents, carried out by the same author, this investigation had been done. It has been found that multisubstituted chain transfer agents, such as tricholoro acetic acid, Di and Tribromo acetic acid, have played a significant role in the reduction of both the rate of polymerization and the molecular weights obtained of the homopolymers of methylmethacrylate, other vinylic monomers such as styrene, showed the same behavior, though they differ in their chemical nature especially that involved their stability due to the resonance effect .
 

Partial purification and study of kinetic enzyme reductase in blood cell decomposition of mice with induced atherosclerosis and inhibitory effect of some isoflavones.

Nahida Aljalabe; Eman Saeed Aljoga

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163075

ABSTRACT
The reseach includes isolation and study some kinetic characteristics of aldose reductase (AR2) from blood cells hemolysate for mice–induced atherosclerosis and normal mice. Two peaks of protein were isolated using ion exchang (DEAE Cellulose) chromatography  . The specific activities of AR2 enzyme  for these peaks were determined for normal and induced- atherosclerosis mice . The results showed 0.77 and 0.3 unit/mg protein for the two peaks of normal mice and 4.17 and 1.62 unit/mg protein for the two peaks induced- atherosclerosis mice. Peak I for AR2 appeared to be a high specific activity .The optimum conditions for peak I of the partial purified AR2 of blood cells hemolysate activity for induced- atherosclerosis mice were obtained and the results as follows : using (14 mmol /L) of glucose as a substrate , using phosphate sodiume buffer at (6.8 pH)  , an optimum reaction time at (10) minutes at (25°C) with volume of enzyme extract (200µL ),  a concentration of 10 mM of some positive ions which were indicat that manganes ions have the lowest inhibition  effect for AR2 .
       Using LineWeaver-Burk plot , the values of maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michael ,s-Menton constant (Km) were 2U/ ml and 33.33mmol/ L respectively .
 Also inhibitory effect of some isoflavone compounds( Daidzein and Gensitein )were studied  on the enzyme activity ,
and their results give different inhibitory ratios for this enzyme, the type of inhibition was obtained  noncompetitive in hibition for these compounds.                       

Spectrophotometric determination of a number of aliphatic amines in aqueous solution and application to some pharmaceutical preparations

Thabet Saeed Ghabsha; Yousry Ibrahim Al-Nuaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 17-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163076

ABSTRACT
A simple , rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of aliphatic amines was developed .The method is based on the proton transfer reaction using 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent in basic medium forming colored products with maximum absorption at  415 nm .The molar  absorptivity  ranged  from 5100 l.  mol-1 .cm-1  for  tributylamine to 12000  l. mol-1.cm-1 for dibutylamine .The method is obeyed Beer’s law over the concentration range (0.12-12) µg.ml-1.The accuracy ( average recovery ) is 99.73%  and the precision (RSD) is less than 4.50% .This method is applied successfully for the assay of ethanolamine and ethylenediamine in their pharmaceutical preparations .

Synthesis and diagnosis of a number of new super oxo compounds derived from Schiff base complexes for dual cobalt

Saad El Mokhtar; Tamador Mahmoud; Lana Rashid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 33-45
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163077

ABSTRACT:
         The work included the preparation of cobalt complexes having general formula [ CoL] , where L is divalent tetradentate Schiff base ligand derived from benzyl and anthranilic acid or o-aminophenol with 1:2 molar ratio . These complexes reacted with H2O2 in the absence and in the presence of B (B= py , -pic , Pph3) at room temperature to obtain [ CoLO2 ] and [CoLBO2 ] complexes. All the prepared complexes were characterized by metal content analysis , molar conductance , spectral studies including I.R and electronic spectra as well as magnetic measurements. These studies revealed that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. The Schiff base ligands act as dibasic tetradentate ( NNOO-donor) , CoL complexes are square planar containing one unpaired electron. The electronic spectra reveals the oxidation of Co(II) to Co(III) in [CoLO2] and  [CoLBO2] complexes. These complexes show μeff values  related to one unpaired electron , that belongs to O2 mioety , which is supported by (υo-o) band in I.R spectra that related to O2 mioety. Hence superoxo compounds are realy recognized.

Preparation of activated carbon from a mixture (wood _ polymer) using microwave radiation

Khalid ِAhmed Owaid; Ahmed Abdul Karim Thanoon; Mayada Mahmoud Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 46-59
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163078

ABSTRACT
The research work was aimed for  preparation of activated carbon from blending the wood of lead tree with variable ratio of polymers  organic glass(PMMA),recycled rubber (5,10,15)% after carbonization process for 3hrs at 350c° then an activation process by treating the product of carbonization process with(1:2)(carbonized materials :KOH)by heating with microwave oven for(4,8,12)min at 720 watt, many tests have been conducted on prepared activated carbon samples such as determining the activity of the samples through adsorption of iodine and methylene blue from aqueous  media, the density and humidity content were measured and all the properties were compared with commercial one from British and Russ.  

Construction of a selective membrane electrode for the determination of procaine hydrochloride by Schiff bases

Siham Tawfiq Amin; Faiz Mohsin Hamid; Obaid Abdullah Jassim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 60-73
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163079

ABSTRACT
       This project including synthesis of selective membrane electrode ,consisting of electrically active material produced from Schiff base reaction of (procaine hydrochloride , m-hydroxyl benzeldehyde) with phosphomolybdic acid and dibutyl phthalate as blastilyzer material and used  poly phenyl chloride  as asupport material ,
The electrode gave liner response in the range (10-5-10-1 M) with slope 19.3mv\decade  r2=0.9973 and LOD =1.72 ×10-7 M, The Optimum concentration of the inner solution was (10-4) M at temperature (25-35 C°)and pH (6-8) .The  Life time of the electrode was105 days.

Study of the inhibitory effect of some thiourea compounds on the activity of enzyme purified polyamine oxidase from the blood of patients with type 1 diabetes

Nashwan Ibrahim Abbou; Khawla Al.Fleih; Eyad Saadi Hamid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 74-87
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163091

ABSTRACT
The research included determination of  polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity in normal and diabeti patients type I females. It was found that the activity of  PAO in red blood cells (RBC) and plasma in  patients were significantly higher than that of normal(p<0.05).
The partial purification of  PAO from RBC of diabetic and normal females were included in this study. This was achieved by using different biochemical techniques. Three proteinous peaks with PAO activities in RBC (I,II,III)  from each of normal and diabetic with specific activities (U\mg protein) (0.194,0.183 and 0.098), (0.349, 0.237 and 0.176) respectively were isolated from ion exchange chromatography, with molecular weights (72588, 74512 and 69339), (141458, 100671 and 104018) Da respectively.
This study didn't show the existence of Cu2+ ion as a cofactor for any PAO isoenzymes, but indicated the existence of FAD as a cofactor for all PAO isoenzymes.
On the other hand the research included study the effect of some  thiourea derivatives which contains semicarbazide compound ,   N[(Benzoylamino)]thioxymethyl-semicarbazide and N[(p-toluine sulfonylamino)] thioxymethyl-semicarbazide, and N[(p-toluine sulfonylamino)] thioxymethyl-hexylamine which contained hexylamine . Semicarbazide showed inhibitory effect on partially purified PAO activity. Thiourea derivatives from Semicarbazide showed competitive inhibition of PAO activity but with hexylamine was non- competitive.

Synthesis and diagnosis of a number of new binary zinc complexes with a mixture of lindane (derived from acetyl acetone and semicarbazone) and the study of bio-effectiveness and the effect of laser radiation on them

Zohoor Fathi Al-Tai; Aws Mohammed Alazi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 88-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163092

 
Acetylacetoneazineoxime {AAOH}, acetylacetoneazinebis(oxime) {AABOH2}, benzilsemicarbazone {BScH} and benzilsemicarbazone hydrazone {BScZH} have been prepared using classical, one pot and microwave heating methods followed by the preparation of new zinc(II) complexes in neutral (or slightly acidic) medium with mixed ligands above using classical and microwave heating (Green Chemistry) methods. The resulting complexes have been characterized using elemental analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy and CHN analysis, relative molecular weight determination cryoscopically, molar conductance measurements, infrared, electronic and 1H NMR spectra. The study suggests that the above ligands form neutral complexes having general formulas [Zn(AH)(BH)(CH3COO)2] (where AH = AAOH or AABOH2; BH=BScH or BScZH ligands). Accordingly, hexa-coordinated mononuclear complexes have been investigated having distorted octahedral geometries.
The effect of laser have been studied on solid ligands and solid zinc(II) complexes, no   effect have been observed on all the compounds through the results of melting point and conductivity, this means that most of the compounds are stable and not affected by this kind of radiation. Also the activity of all the complexes have been evaluated on Tonsillitis from males and Females. They were found to be unactive against this pathogens.

Preparation of palladium catalyst loaded on zeolite and its application in qualitative improvement of heavy naphtha

Omar Moussa Ramadan; Ragheed Ghazal; Kedar Salem Gargees

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 108-118
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163093

ABSTRACT
       In this research the catalyst palladium supported zeolite was prepared  then X-ray diffraction and fluorescence and thermo gravimetric analysis was measured to understand  the crystal and molecular structure of  prepared catalyst, Then the catalyst was applied in the treatment of heavy  naphtha  boiling range (100-200) °C under different conditions of temperature, the proportion of catalyst and reaction time to knowledge the optimal conditions for the best treatment process , The best temperature was (250) ° C and the proportion of catalyst was (2%) and the time of reaction was (2) hours adjusted by measurements of gas chromatography and infrared spectrum has shown the catalytic ability to form aromatic and olefinic compounds. The research octane number (RON) increase from ( 72.42 ) in untreated naphtha to ( 92.39 ) in the best forms of treatment.

Synthesis and Study of New Complexes of a Mixture of Liquandate for Schiff Bases Derived from Isatin and Amino Acids and Bi-Amine Liquandate with Iron Ion (II)

Khalaf Ibrahim Khaloo; Abeer Salim Al Nuaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 119-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163094

ABSTRACT
The work includes the synthesis and characterization of new complexes of mixed ligands of Schiff  bases derived from isatin with amino acids (glycine,a-alanine,L-valine,L-leucine,L-histidine and L-tryptophane) (L¢) and diamine ligands(L²) with Fe(II) ion having the general formula[Fe(L¢)(L²)Cl(H2O)].nH2O; Where L²= bipyridyl(bpy) and 1,10-phenanthroline(phen) and n=0-8.
These complexes were characterized by  many physicochemical methods such as molar conductance, elemental analysis(CHN)  for some of  them Fe(II) content using the atomic absorption spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurement as well spectral studies such as IR and UV-Visible.
The analytical data showed that the Schiff base ligands act as bidentate toward the Fe(II) ion via the azomethine nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen groups and through both nitrogen atoms of diamine ligands .The presence of chloride ion and aqua molecule gave the most probable octahedral geometry around the Fe(II) ion. The conductivity values imply the presence of non-electrolyte species as well, the magnetic measurements referred to the high spin character in all complexes.

Estimation of lead and some biochemical variables in the blood of Al-Qayyarah refinery workers

Naoufel Shit Shahouth

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 128-137
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163095

ABSTRACT
      The study included measuring the concentration of lead in the blood of workers in the refinery Qayara and its effect on biochemical variables biochemical (such as glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C ; low density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C ;very low density lipoprotein cholesterol , VLDL-C ; albumin and Atherogenicity .
     Taking group of samples of the blood of workers and addition to another group samples as a control group. The results indicated a significant increase of rate of each of (Pb, total cholesterol, TG and VLDL-C) between the working group and the control group.
     The study also demonstrated for non significant increase in the proportion (glucose and LDL-C), and non significant drop in the proportion of (albumin and HDL-C). Statistical analysis did not show a significant change in the risk factor (Atherogenicity) ، For all age group .

Spectrophotometric determination of chloramphenicol (after reduction) by nitrogen and conjugation using fluorochlosinol reagent - application to eye drops

Waadallah Bashir; Tamador Abbas Hamoudi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 138-155
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163096

ABSTRACT
         A spectrophotometric method for the assay of micro amounts of chloramphenicol was developed. This method is based on the reduction of the nitro-group of chloramphenicol to amino-group, followed by diazotization and coupling with phloroglucinol in alkaline medium to form   a stable yellow azo dye which shows maximum absorption at 419 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range (0.4 – 40) ppm. The molar absorptivity is (1.5437×104) l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell sensitivity index of  (0.021) µg / cm2with a relative error of -1.8 to -0.52% and a relative standard deviation of  ± 4.0 to ± 0.69%. The propose method has been applied to the determination of chloramphenicol in eye drop.

Preparation of a number of heterocyclic compounds derived from benzotrazole

Mohamed Khedr Mohamed; Ahmed Khedr Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 156-172
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163097

ABSTRACT
       In this thesis, a number of heterocyclic compounds with  five-memberd  , such as substituted oxadiazole  , thiadiazole , pyrazole , iso andoline-1,3-dione , also the preparation of  pyrroline and pyrrolidine compounds .
     The  ester  compound  (1) was  synthesized  from  the  reaction  of benzotriazole with ethyl chloroacetate. The hydrazide (2) was  prepared from the reaction of  ester (1)  with  hydrazine  hydrate , 1,3,4- Oxadiazole-5-thiol (3) was synthesized from the reaction of  hydrazide (2) with carbon disulfide in potassium hydroxide , 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole (4) compounds was prepared by reaction of ester (1) with hydrazide (2) in presence phosphorus oxychloride , while treatment of the hydrazides with substituted benzoic acid (4-chloro and 2-nitro) in the presence of phosphorous oxachloride gave disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole (5,6) , Pyrazolone (7) was synthesized from the reaction of hydrazide (2) with methyl acetoacetate , The pyrazole (8) was synthesized from the reaction of hydrazide (2) with acetyl acetone , 2-(benzotriazolyle acetamido) iso andoline-1,3-dione (9) compounds was prepared by reaction of  hydrazide  (2) with phthalic anhydride , pyrroline-2,5-dione (10) was prepared from the reaction of hydrazide (2) with malic anhydride , pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (11) was prepared from the reaction of  hydrazide (2) with succinic anhydride , 2-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (13) was prepared from the reaction of acid (12) with thiosemicarbazide in phosphorus oxychloride , Physical and available spectral were used to confirm structures .

Spectroscopic and Fluorometric Determination of Cinnarizine and Dipyridamole in Pharmaceutical Tablets Using Eosin Y Dye

Zeina Zuhair Al - Abdali; Elham Saad Allah Saleh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 173-189
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163098

ABSTRACT
Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of cinnarizine and dipyridamole. The spectrophotometric method is based on the formation of ion pair complex  between the studied drugs and eosin Y which shows maximum absorbance at 550 nm in the phthalate buffer (pH3.5) for cinnarazine and 547 nm in citrate buffer (pH3) for dipyridamole. Beerʼs law is obeyed in the concentration ranges of 0.1-8 and  0.1-7 µg/ml with molar absorbitivity values of 4.65×104 and 4.90×104 L.mol-1.cm-1 for cinnarizine and dipyridamole respectively. The spectroflurimetric method is based on the quantitative quenching effect of cinnarizine and dipyridamole on the native fluorescence of eosin Y. The quenching of the fluorescence of eosin Y was measured at 553 nm after excitation at 350 nm. The fluorescence-concentration plot is rectilinear over the ranges of 0.05-5.2 and 0.1-5.0 μg/ml for cinnarizine and dipyridamole respectively. The two proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of drugs in pharmaceuticals preparations.

The relationship of the lipoxygenase enzyme in female blood with cardiovascular diseases

Amira Aziz Mahmoud; Rawia Rashed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 190-202
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163099

ABSTRACT
  Lipoxygenase , LOX, is one of the enzymes that  affect the lipid metabolism. On the other hand, lipids can influence the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Therefore, the present study deals with the estimation of the level of LOX in blood of females with cardiovascular disease ( only/ or in addition to diabetes). The study also focused on assessing the serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)، glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA).
The results showed that the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes led to a significant increase in the level of LOX in both the blood-cells homogenate and the serum. Also, the results indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of TC and MDA and there was a significant  decrease in the level of HDL-C and GSH in addition to an increase in the ratio of TC/HDL-C.
On the basis of the results, it may be concluded that the high level of LOX, TC و MDA and TC/HDL-C ratio and the low level of HDL-C, GSH are  considered as a negative indicators that promotes cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Preparation of activated carbon from asphalt and asphalt treated with polymers using microwave radiation

Khalid Owaid; Ahmed Ali Hammadi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 203-227
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163100

ABSTRACT
The study included the use of  two path in the process of preparation.The first pathway included preparation of the AC from Baiji asphalt by an oxidation process done at 350 °C using 2% FeCl3 for 3hours, after that the resulting product was distillated normal and vacuum distillation, and then the resulted of vacuum distillation were  carbonized at a temperature of 400°C for  2hours and treated with KOH at various ratios ranging from (0.5:1) ,(1:1) and(2:1) (potassium hydroxide: carbonized materials) using microwave radiation at power of (90,180,270,360,450,540,630,720) watt and at periods ranging between (4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) minutes.
The second pathway involved the treatment of  Baiji asphalt with different percentages of polymers ranging between (5,10,15,20,25)% of poly ethylene, poly styrene and melamine formaldehyde resin (which are thermally craclced )  at a temperature of 170°C for 1 hour with 1% AlCl3 as a catalyst of this process , and the resulted product was carbonized at a temperature of 400°C for 2 hours with addition of KOH at a ratio of (2:1) (potassium hydroxide: carbonized materials ) with radiation energy of 630watt for 16 minutes. Many tests were conducted on the samples of the prepared activated carbon for the purpose of determining its effectiveness by measuring its adsorption ability of aqueous solutions of Iodine and methylene blue dye as well as some other measurements as density, ash content and humidity were evaluated, and as a practical application of the effectiveness of one sample of the prepared AC adsorption of the azo dye 1,4-di(2-amino 4-hydroxy phenyl azo)benzene (1,4HAAB)  was conducted from its aqueous solution and compared it with the commercial one sample and it was noticed from this study the effectiveness of this AC sample in the adsorption of this dye.
It is found from this study that the process of preparing activated carbon using microwave radiation gave good samples regarding to the ability of adsorption and some samples were better than the commercial samples, further more; the process of preparation has reduced the time of reaction from several hours to few minutes as well as providing energy and this is very important in terms of economic feasibility of the process.

Study of the properties and inhibition of the polyamine oxidase enzyme partially purified from the fruit of green pepper by amyloride and medovi

Wathba Idris Touhala; Muheeb Mohammed Jassim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 228-243
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163101

ABSTRACT
The study included a detection of PAO in green pepper (Capsicum grossum) and its partial purification by using dialysis and anion exchange chromatography (using DEAE – cellulose) techniques . Two isoenzymes were obtained, with a specific activity of 3.9 and 2.6 unit / mg protein, and a purification fold of 21.4 and 14.3 respectively compared to crude enzyme. Copper ion in both isoenzymes was detected and found to be 0.1915 and 0.2947 mg / ml respectively.
The maximum PAOI,II isoenzyme activity were obtained at 100 microlitre of enzyme, sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.6,7.2, temperature at 40, 37°C, and 125 , 100 mM of spermidine as substrate respectively, and have a high specificity toward the polyamine, spermidine compared with other amine compounds.
     The inhibitory effect of the drugs amiloride and medovire on PAOI activity was studied and showed that increasing of inhibitor concentration led to a decrease in activity. The inhibition type was found to be competitive , and Ki were 0.88 and 1.1 mM respectively.
          Spermine was detected by HPLC technique from non-proteinous extract. Basic amino acids were  isolated by using  Amberlite 120 H+ and Amberlite 50NH4+ successively, the results indicated that the green pepper contained 96.1  mg / g of plant.

Relationship of zinc, copper and manganese levels on bone formation that increases the risk of uterine cancer

Zeina Abdel Moneim Al - Jawadi; Zainab Mahfouz Al Nuaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 244-251
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163102

ABSTRACT:
Due to the lack of previous studies on the impact of osteoporosis on the incidence of uterine cancer,  and the rapid spread of uterine cancer in recent years all over the world, and the exact mechanism of its occurrence is not entirely clear. The study focused on the possibility of consideration of osteoporosis as a marker to uterine cancer by study the relationship between osteoporosis and uterine cancer through the measurement of both Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn) which operate inside the body as antioxidation when its linked with enzymes, which affect the bone density and their impact on the incidence of uterine cancer. The study involved collecting samples from hospitals in Mosul , women without uterine cancer as the control group and divided into two groups (44 women with good health and 38 women diagnosed as osteoporosis only). And patients women also divided to the two groups did not receive any treatment (43 with uterine cancer only and 58 women with osteoporosis and uterine cancer). Each patient was evaluated clinically and then was estimated Zinc, Copper and Manganese in serum using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique as well as appreciation of  both estrogen and progesterone in the serum. The results showed that osteoporosis may increase the incidence of uterine cancer through hormonal changes and the concentration of antioxidants and their impact on the bone-building and thus its impact on the amount of free radicals in the body which cause increase the likelihood of uterine cancer  before and after menopause. Accordingly, the study showed that osteoporosis is a new risk factors increase the likelihood of uterine cancer. Accordingly, women should pay attention to bone health by maintaining the concentration of antioxidant mineral , which includes all of the Zinc, Copper and Manganese, which has a role in bone health and prevent fragility and early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis to reduce the risk of uterine cancer.

The Effect of Age, Smoking and Exercise on Sorbitol Dehydrogenase and its Correlation Factor with Some Biochemical Variables in Diabetics

Wasan Khairallah Ali; Maher Abdul Sattar Al - Dabbagh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 252-269
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163103

ABSTRACT
     This research includes a biochemical study of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in the serum of the control and patient with diabetes mellitus. Their ages ranged between (8-65year) . It has been shown that the mean value of (SDH) activity is (0.015± 0.010) of the control group and )0.516±0917) of the patient groups .The result shown that significant increase in activiyof (SDH) patient groups and for each sexes when compared with control groups .There was a study of the relationship between (SDH) activity and clinical variables of the control and patient groups by finding the linear correlation was studied. Moreover , there was positive significant correlation between the activity of enzyme and each of glucose , total protein , albumin , globulin , in control and patient groups . Inverse significant correlation between the activity and Ca++ in control and patient groups .
 

Effect of Fructo-oligosaccharides and Xylo-oligosaccharaide (XO) assisted biotreatment on serum lipid concentrations in mice

Bilal Ahmed Saleh; Ahmed Talal Hikmat; Khalil Ibrahim Khalil

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 270-279
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163104

ABSTRACT
The study was investigated the ability of prebiotics in reducing the lipids concentrations in the host where used laboratory mice for this purpose. The study included giving the laboratory mice into a period (8) weeks for the food that containing fructo-oligosaccharaides (FOSs) (included two types: oligofructose and inulin) and xylo- oligosaccharaide (XO). The results were showed that FOSs of inulin type was the best compared with the other of prebiotics in reducing the harmful lipids concentrations in the serum, for reaching the reduction rates into (30%) , (11.2%) and (18%) for concentrations of triglyceride (TG) , total cholesterol (TC) and cholesterol-associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) respectively. While the reduction rates were reached (15%) , (8%) and (14.5%), respectively, when used the xylo-oligosaccharaide (XO), while FOSs of oligofructose type was lowering concentrations of both total cholesterol (TC) and cholesterol associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) only with reduced rates reached (8.6%) and (12.4%) respectively.
The prebiotics that used in this study was no appear any effects on beneficial lipids that presented  the cholesterol-associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL-c).

Study of some thermal properties and activation energy of epoxy resin alloys with copper complex of acid N, N-5,2-toluene di-malic acid

Iptihag Zaki Al-Halim; Akram Aziz Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 280-294
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163105

ABSTRACT
Research includes the study of thermal isothermal Epoxy resin alloy with copper complex,( N,N - 2,5 Tolylene  bismaleamic acid Copper (2,5TBMA Cu), through thermal analysis measurements weighted at temperature constant time it takes to reach the constant weight within 23 minutes compared to 17 minutes for the epoxy alone. It has been treated at temperatures, was a high values ​​end CDT decomposition and a percentage values ​​weighted 350 (% Wt) whenever the temperature increased treatment .When treatment had employed resulted to a higher values ​​of the weighted at 350 C°  (Wt%)350 in the middle neutral. Fuoss equation had been used to calculate the activation energy for the beginning of the process of disintegration polymeric material.

Synthesis, Diagnosis and Study of Natural Nano-Silica Complexes with Polyester Razin and Polystyrene - Butadiene

Tareq Abdul Jalil Mandil; Mohammad Abd Al Kareem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 295-305
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163106

ABSTRACT
        For the preparation of composite materials environ mentally friendly natural nano particle silica derived from rice husks has as streng thening of Iraqi natural materials in a ratio of(2, 4, 6, 8%) on the poly esterres in body and poly (styrene-co-butadiene) separately. Natural silica was identified using XRD and FTIR by measuring the proportion of SiO2 . AFM device was also used to measure the granular size of the   silica nano particles. And the results of the study consistent with theoretical studies . Results also showed mechanical models composite. That added nano-silica of 6 % to poly esterres in body results are increase the impact resistance values ​​, hardness, and bending rigidity. As in the case of poly (styrene-co-butadiene) composite, the ratio of 2% is the optimized percentage of streng thening, which lead to increased values​​of impact, bending and hardness. these study also showed ability of natural silica  composite mechanical properties to gives resistance to stress conditions during use .

Preparation of a number of 4,3,1-oxadiazole substituted derived from imidazole and evaluation of their biological effectiveness

Khaled Al Badrani; Khalid Matni Al-Janabi; Ammar Saad Eddin

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 306-313
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163107

ABSTRACT
         Ethyl 2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetate (A1)  was synthesized by the reaction of ethylchloroacetate with imidazol, Then refluxed with hydrazine hydrate to obtain 2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)acidhydrazid (A2) . (A2)  was reaction  with various substituted benzyldehyd  to gain 6 novel compounds shiffe bases(A3-8).and 5-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)3-N-acetyl-2-(aryl)-1,3,4-(2H)-Oxadiazol (A9-12) were synthesized by the reaction of shiffe bases(A3-8)with acetic anhydride . In order to show the antibacterial  activity of prepared compounds are evaluated against four types of common bacteria (psedomonus, Staphylococcus aureus, Eschershia coli, Klebsiella peneuomina). The result of biological study are compared with standered antibiotic (metheprem & Gentamycin) . The structure of the synthesized compounds are confirmed by I.R, 1H-NMR & 13C-NMR spectra and Some chemical physical data.

Preparation of poly (acro-yellow hydroxamic acid) from the polymer (methyl acrylate) and study use it in the water purification from heavy metal elements.

Saddaa Abd Abdullah Gamal

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 314-324
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163109

ABSTRACT
         The aim of this research is the preparation of Poly (Methylacrylate) by a free radical initiating process for polymerization methyacrylate using benzoyl peroxide as an intiator at (70°C ) and(10%)   ratio of conversion. Conversion of the ester group of the Poly (Methylacrylate) in to Hydroxamicacid was carried out by treatment of (PMA) with hydroxylaminehydrochloride in alkaline medium at (pH=13) using Sodium Hydroxide. The poly hydroxamic acid was identified by (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Sorption Capacity (qe) of the metal ions (Fe3+ ) , (Cu2+ ),( Ni2+) ,( Co2+) ,( Cr3+),( V3+),( Zn2+),(Al3+)and) Pb2+) by using (PHA) was determined . Also the study showed that there was an effect of initial (pH) and temperature on the sorption capacity of the metal ions ,  by poly Hydroxamic acid.

The use of dipron coupling reagent in the spectrophotometric determination of aniline in presence of Sodium metaperiodate in aqueous solution

Ilham Saad Allah AlTalbi; Maysam Hossam ALFakhry

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 325-341
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2013.163110

ABSTRACT
A simple rapid and specific method was developed for the determination of aniline .The method depends on the organic oxidative coupling reaction of dipyrone (metamizole sodium) with aniline in the presence of sodium metaperiodate in aqueous solution to form purple product measured at 530 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.04-8 µgmlˉ¹ with accuracy (average recovery) of 99.94% and precision (RSD) is less than 2.5% .The molar absorptivity is 20312 l.molˉ¹ .cmˉ¹ with LOD 0.012 µg.mlˉ¹ and LOQ 0.038 µg.mlˉ¹ .The method has been successfully applied to determine aniline .