Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 27, Issue 4

Volume 27, Issue 4, Autumn 2018, Page 1-201


Synthesis and Study of Many New Chalcone Derivatives

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 1-28

This study include the synthesis of the compound 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanol [1], from the reaction of ortho pheneylene diamine with lactic acid and then oxidized using potassium dichromate to give1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) ethanone [2]. Reaction of this compound with different substituted benzaldehydes or 1-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethanone, to obtain α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (chalcones) [3-11]. These chalcones have been used in preparing number of heterocyclic compounds through reaction with the hydrogen peroxide to get the oxiran compounds (three membered rings) [12-20], hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to prepare the isooxazoline compounds(five membered rings) [21-29], 3-nitrobenzohydrazide to prepare the pyrazoline compounds(five membered rings)[30-38], thiosemicarbazide hydrochloride to prepare the pyrazoline compounds(five membered rings) [39-47], semicarbazide to prepare the pyrazoline compounds(five membered rings) [48-56], guanidine nitrate to prepare the pyrimidine compounds(six membered rings) [57-65], ortho pheneylenediamine to prepare the benzodiazepine compounds (seven membered rings) [66-74], ortho aminophenol to prepare the benzoxazepine compounds(seven membered rings) [75-83].
The synthesized compounds were identified, using chemical, physical and spectral methods (melting points, color change, infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and many theoretical studies).

Estimation of pKa, Analgesic, CNS Depressant Activities of Imidazolinone Derivatives By Correlation With Theoretical Parameters Based on Quantum Chemical Method

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 29-45

Regression analysis is used for the estimation of the pKa values, %analgesic activity (%AA) and % decreasing activity of central nervous system (CNS) depressant property (%DA) of eight substituted imidazolin-5(4H)-ones by using various types of descriptors as parameters. These parameters are based on quantum chemical treatments. They were derived by employing semi-empirical calculations represented by Austin model 1 (AM1). The parameters used for representing the variation observed in the pka values, %AA and %DA are atomic, structural, and molecular properties, including charges on hetro atoms present in the compounds, energies of HOMO (EHOMO) and LUMO (ELUMO)orbitals, hardness of molecules (η) , chemical potential (μ) electrophilicity index (ω), total energy (TE), stretch (Str), bend (Bd), 1,4-Vander Waals interactions (1,4VDW), and Non1,4- Vander Waals interactions (Non 1,4-VDW). The relation of pKa, %AA, and %DA and each of these parameters of the studied compounds is investigated.
Depending on these relations, three sets of parameters were constructed, each of them representing the most sufficiently and reliable set to describe the effect of substituents and structure of imidazolinone under consideration on the studied properties with highly predictive power indicated by high consistency between the calculated and experimental values expressed by correlation coefficient values (R2) close to unity and standard error (SE) less than %5 of the experimental values.
The three sets of parameters were used for the estimation of pKa, %AA and %DA of a number of hypothetical compounds with structures similar to those considered before but with different substituents as a test of the validity of the derived parameters. The calculated values were within acceptable range compared with other values found in the literature.

Synthesis some of heterocyclic compounds derived from thymol

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 46-53

A series of some hydrazones derivatives (3-7) have been synthesized from the reaction of hydrazide (2) with substituted benzaldehyde. While oxazridine derivatives (8-12) were synthesized by oxidation with hydrazones derivatives (3-7) with m-chloro per benzoic acid, the of these compounds (8-12) with ammonium thiocyanate afforded compounds (13-17). While the reaction of compound (2) with indole-2,3-dione afforded compound (18) while in reaction with mercaptoacetic acid gave Spiro indoline-2,3-thizolidine derivatives (19) when the compound allowed to react with conc., sulfuric acid and phosphoric pent oxide afford (20) and (21) respectively.

Design of Zero Dispersion Optical Fiber at Wavelength 1.3 m

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 54-68

In this article, an optical fiber was designed with zero- dispersion at wavelength of (1.3 m). The design took into consideration many factors of the fiber, such as; fiber cross- section, fiber material, refractive index. These factor can affect the operation of a fiber in optical communication system.
A zero- dispersion fiber was obtained when the core was doped by (1.3%) of GeO2. Implementing the package of computer aided design (OptiFiber 2.0). We were able to attain the optimum values for refractive index core and clad as (1.48 and 1.45) respectively, i.e, a percentage difference of (0.02) for radius (6.728 and 8.46) respectively, for zero- dispersion at wavelength of (1.3 m) that is use in the optical communication.

Generating Mosaic Images Based On Texture Analysis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 69-101

Photo-mosaic (mosaic-image) generation is the process of dividing an input image into equal rectangular blocks (image blocks), each of which is replaced with another image (tile image) that matches the features of a corresponding image block. When the produced photo mosaic is seen from a distance, it seemingly forms the input image.
Photo mosaic is not a new concept; however, only a few publications on this subject are available because of its commercial nature. The quality of the produced photo mosaic depends on the size of the database and the variety of images. In addition to process time, a bottleneck occurs because of the discrepancy in the match rate between the input image and the produced photo mosaic.
This research proposes three intelligence-based approaches for producing photo mosaics in less time: (1) k-means clustering with Manhattan distance, (2) back propagation neural network with Manhattan distance, and (3) hybrid fuzzy logic with Elman neural network.
Three groups of features are extracted and then used to find the best matching tile image for each corresponding image block within the container image. The first group comprises statistical features extracted from a 64-gray level quantized histogram. These features are variance, mean, skewness, kurtosis, and energy. The second group is a subset of Tamura features, namely, coarseness, contrast, and directionality. The last group includes a feature called edge rate, which is computed as the percentage of edge pixels within an image that can be detected using a Canny filter. In addition, two methods of color correction are used to adjust the colors of a tile image to match the colors of a corresponding image block. The first method is based on mean, whereas the second is based on histogram specification.
Finally, experimental results show that hybrid fuzzy logic with Elman neural network is the best among the three approaches used. This technique needs 10.0 seconds to produce photo mosaics, with a correlation rate of 0.82 between the container image and the produced photo mosaics,using mean-based color correction. By contrast, this approach needs 42.33 seconds to produce photo mosaics, with a correlation rate of 0.86, using histogram specification-based color correction.

Analysis and Comparison the Dynamical Properties for Two Hyperchaotic Systems

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 102-116

In this paper , a new four-dimensions hyperchaotic system is
proposes based on a three-dimensional Pan system by introducing a
nonlinear state feedback controller, and we investigated some basic
properties for this system numerically and analytically, we found the
parameter c is effective on stability of new system at the point
O(0,0,0,0) and has two roots form  b  d 1 2  ,  while has root 0 1   at
the points 1,2 p , and we compare the properties of a new system with
properties of another 4D hyperchaotic system and show the difference
between them, Finally, an illustrative example is given.

i-Open Sets and Separating Axioms Spaces

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 128-145

The purpose of this paper is using a class of open sets called i-open
sets [9] to study some classes of separating axioms spaces for open,  -open
and semi-open sets. Further, we studied the relations between such spaces.

New Condition of Automatic Continuity of Dense Range Homomorphisms on Jordan – Banach Algebras

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 146-150

The following open problem stated that, if T: A⟶B is a dense range homomorphism between Banach algebras A and B such that B is semi-simple. Is T automatically continuous? (see [1]).
In [3] given a partial solution of the above problem as follows:
Let A and B be Fréchet algebras such that B is semi simple, the spectral radius rB is continuous on B and the spectral radius rA is continuous at zero. If T : A ⟶ B is a dense range homomorphism, then T is automatically continuous.
In this paper, we prove the following result :
If T : A+ ⟶ B+ is a dense range homomorphism between Jordan – Banach algebras A+ and B+ such that B+ is semi simple, the spectral radius rB+ is continuous on B+ and the spectral rA+ is continuous at zero, then T is automatically continuous.

Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Mixed type of Integro-Differential Equation

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 161-167

In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of a mild solution of a nonlinear mixed Volterra – Fredholm integro-differential equation with nonlocal condition in Banach space. Furthermore, we study continuouce dependence of mild solution. Our analysis is based on semigroup theory and Banach fixed point theorem.