Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 27, Issue 3

Volume 27, Issue 3, Spring 2018, Page 1-177


Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Niclosamide in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Nabeel S. Othman; Saad H. Sultan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159307

A simple and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of niclosamide in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the oxidation of reduced form of niclosamide with iron ( III ) in acidic medium, then the subsequent reaction of iron ( II ) with 1,10- phenanthroline to produce a ferroin complex which is water - soluble , stable (using EDTA solution improve the stability of the complex) , and has a maximum absorption at 510 nm against the reagent blank with a molar absorptivity of 2.19×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 . Beer,s law is valid over the concentration range of 2.5 to 225 μg/10 ml. The relative error is in between - 1.80 and +1.50 % and the relative standard deviation from ± 0.89 to ± 2.07 % depending on the concentration of niclosamide . The proposed method has been applied successfully to determine niclosamide in pharmaceutical preparations.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Chloramphenicol in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Tamathir A. Hamoudi; Wadala A. Bashir

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 19-35
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159308

A spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of chloramphenicol has been proposed. This method depends upon the reduction of the nitro to amino group, condensation with promethazine reagent in the presence of cerium (IV) ions to form a colored dye which exhibits maximum absorption at 606 nm with a high sensitivity (molar absorptivity is 1.292×104 l.mol-1.cm-1, and Sandell's sensitivity index of 0.025 μg/cm2). Beer' s law is applied within the concentration range of obeyed in 0.4 to 12 ppm with a relative error of -2.73 to + 0.37% and a relative standard deviation of ± 3.84 to ± 0.44%, depending on the concentration level. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of chloramphenicol in pharmaceutical preparations (capsules, eye drop and eye ointment).

Synthesis of Some New Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives

Amena A. Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 36-45
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159309

In this paper the synthesis of five membered ring heterocyclic compounds was achieved, 2-(8-chloro naphtoyl) benzoic acid (1) was used as starting material which was prepared from the condensation of 1- chloro naphthalene with phthalic anhydride in presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride, the acid was then esterified to the corresponding ethyl ester(2). The ester(2) was converted to the corresponding hydrazide(3) then cyclized into substituted 1,2,4 triazole. The hydrazice(3) was treated with ammonium thiocyanate in presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid to give substituted thiosemicarbazide(7) which was converted to 1,3,4- thiadiazole (8) in acidic medium. While in oxidation with HgO the product was oxadiazole(9). This was converted to a Schiff base(10) followed by cyclization to the corresponding thiazolidine derivative(11). Compound (1) was also converted to ethyl ester (13) via acid chloride (12), which was treated with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol to give the corresponding hydrazide (14) which converted to oxadiazole(16) and thiazolidine(17). Compound (19) was synthesized from compound (1) by its reaction with hydrazide (18) then it was cyclized by phosphorus oxychloride. The structures of synthesis compound were confirmed by spectral and physical methods.

Thermodynamic and Theoretical Studies of average Ionization Constants of a Number of Phenolic Schiff Bases Derived from Salicylaldehyde by Conductivity Measurements

Emad A.S. AL-Hyali; Feda H.M.Al – Taai; Shatha S. Othman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 46-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159310

In this work, three Schiff bases carrying acidic phenolic groups were synthesized derived from the reaction of salicylaldehyde with o,m, and p-amino phenols. A number of their physical and structural properties were determined by IR, UV spectra and melting points. The ionization constants of the synthesized Schiff bases were calculated at different temperatures by conductivity measurements. The effect of varying position of OH group with respect to the imine group on ionization constant was investigated. Depending on the results of varying temperatures, the thermodynamic functions of ionization were estimated. The study also concerned with the calculation of a number of theoretical parameters by employing the semiempirrcal Austin method 1 (AM1) including the atomic charges present on the hetro atoms in the molecules, in addition to some energetical and structural parameters. The determined parameters were correlated to the variation of ionization constants of the synthesized imines. Explanation and support for the experimental results were provides by these calculations. The overall results proved that, the ionization constant is affected by inductive, resonance, steric and by hydrogen bonding, and can be determined simply, precisely and accurately by conductivity measurements .

Two New Extended PR Conjugate Gradient Methods for Solving Nonlinear Minimization Problems

Abbas Y. AL-Bayati; Rana Z. AL-Kawaz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 71-96
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159311

In this paper, we have discussed and investigated two nonlinear extended PR-CG method which use function and gradient values. The two new methods involve the standard CG-methods and have the sufficient descent and globally convergence properties under certain conditions. We have got some important numerical results by comparing the new method with Wu and Chen PRCG-(2010) method in this field.

A New Globally Convergent of Spectral Hideaki - Yasushi Type Conjugate Gradient Method

Sawsan S. Ismael

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 97-109
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159312

This paper presents two new spectral conjugate gradient methods which are designed for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. These methods are based on the idea of the Hideaki – Yasushi
method. Which produce sufficient descent search direction at every iteration. Experimental results indicate that the new proposed methods more efficient than the Hideaki – Yasush method

SMS-Phishing on Android Smart Phone

MAHMOD S. MAHMOD

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 120-135
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159322

Recently, mobile become the most significant device that used almost daily, and one of the most important service that offered by mobile operators is the SMS that used between mobiles, none of the mobile OS is contain a service that encrypt the send SMS where some needs to send an important, personal or secure message to the other mobile, and in this case mobiles OS needs an application to encrypt the SMS and then decrypted it on the other side. From this conception the idea of this research become to develop an application working on the devices that supports Android environment, this application encrypt the SMS before it sends from sender and then decrypt it by using the same application when it arrives to the recipient.
The goal from Using the encryption Operation of the SMS is to convince that the user is using a secure SMS application that it sends an encrypted SMS where in fact that is not the truth, but the application find the loophole to take the encrypted SMS and sends the encrypted SMS to the third party (hacker) where the user will not noticed that the SMS went to the third party. Java language and an android developer tools like (ECLIPS) and other tools where used to build this application. This application is working on android environment and also needs a little space of memory and it works without leaves anything that refers to the third-party.

Using Genetic Algorithm in Outlier Detection for Regression Model

Zakariya Y. Algamal; Hamsa M.Thabet

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 136-142
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159314

Linear regression model is commonly used to analyze data from many fields. Sometimes the data under research contains outliers, and it is important that these outliers be identified in the course of the correct statistical analysis. In this article we used genetic algorithm (GA) with three type of objective functions,Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and Hannan–Quinn information criterion (HQIC) to detect the problem of masking and swamping outliers in linear regression model . Two well – known data sets have been studied and we conclude that GA doing-well in detection these type of outliers when using AIC and HQIC comparingwithBIC.

A Global Convergence of Spectral Conjugate Gradient Method for Large Scale Optimization

Ghada M. Al-Naemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 143-162
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159323

In this paper, we are concerned with the conjugate gradient method for solving unconstrained optimization problems due to its simplicity and don’t store any matrices. We proposed two spectral modifications to the conjugate descent (CD). These two proposed methods produces sufficient descent directions for the objective function at every iteration with strong Wolfe line searches and with inexact line search, and also they are globally convergent for general non-convex functions can be guaranteed. Numerical results show the efficiency of these two proposed methods.

Studying Stability of a Non-linear Autoregressive Model

Anas Salim Youns; Abdul Ghafoor Jasim Salim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 163-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159315

In this paper we study the stability of one non-linear autoregressive model with hyperbolic triangle function polynomial with hyperbolic tangent function (singular point and it's stability conditions and the stability of the limit cycle) by using the local linearization approximation method and we apply this theory results by using some of examples to explain that.

Use aluminum plates as reflectors in sewage treatment by solar radiation

Abdul Azeez Al-Safawi; Alaa Al-maadidi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159316

Aluminum plates have been used for treating sewage by exposure to the direct solar radiation in the normal conditions of Mosul city using transparent plastic containers with capacity of 5 liters and four treatments (t1 sewage without dilution, t2 diluted sewage with conc. of 75%, t3 diluted sewage with conc. of 50% , t4 diluted sewage with conc. of 25%) ,the measurements have been concluded to: pH, EC25, BOD5, T H., some cations and anions, and indicators of bacteriological contamination etc. according to international standard methods . The studying reveals a significant improvement in the transparency and water quality, the removal percentages of organic load, TH, calcium , chloride and phosphate reached to ( 86 , 55.53 , 50 and 81) %, respectively, toward the end of the treatment, while the removal percentage of bacterial total number was up to 96% in the fourth day of the treatment, but reached to 100% for both fecal coliform and E. coli in the third day of treatment, as a result of the impact effect of water temperature and solar radiation, as well as the role of aluminum plate in utilizing as much as possible of the reflected rays to stimulate photochemical reactions

Effect of irrigation water quality on some physiological processes and the concentrationof heavy elements in five types of cultivated plants in Nineveh province

Hussain AL-Rashdi; Ghazi Wasmi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 19-44
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159317

This study was carryout at the department of Biology ,College of Education ,Mosul University .Five Plants species Eggplant (Solanum melongena ) ,Green bean (Viana radiate ) ,Green pepper (Capsicum grossum),Squash (Cucurbita moschata ), Okra (Abeiomoschus esculentus ). was taken from six different farms sites in around the left riverbank of Nineveh province .These sites are Al-Jmasa,Vally of Al-hamedea ,Uarmga , Al-mazara, Al-entesar,and Al-whda The Plants in these sites are irrigated by different sources of water like artisan wells, domestic influent and combined domestic influent and industrial wastes water. The results of current revealed that there was a significant decrease in the relative water content and the degree of stability of cytoplasmic membrane and significant increase in proline in the plants leaf tissues. As well an increase in the concentrations of heavy metals (cu, zn) in the different parts of plants at the farms of Uarmga , Al-mazara, Al-entesar,and Al-whda, Which were irrigated by the domestic, or domestic and industrial wastes water. where significant increase in the relative water content and the degree of stability of cytoplasmic membrane and significant decrease in proline in the plants leaf tissues and in the concentrations of (cu, zn) in the 2 parts in plants of the Al-Jmasa and Vally Al-hamedea farms that were irrigated by the wall water in comparison with other areas irrigated by other water sources.

The vitality of the earthworm developing in soil treated with different concentrations of leaves and fruits powders of Melia azaderach L

Safaa Mahmoud; Adnan Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 45-65
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159318

The present study investigated the effect of five concentrations (1,2.5,5,7.5,10%) of leaves and fruits of Melia azaderach L . plant powder on relative growth rate of earthworm after one and two months post treatment , the results revealed that the relative growth rate was decreased and the least one was the concentration at 7.5% for leaves and fruits powder of Melia azaderach L. plant,of 44.4%and71.55%, respectively. In addition , the effect of these concentrations on increasing and decreasing worms weights was studied and showed that all concentrations led to weight decrease of in treated worms especially at the concentration 7.5% during two breeding period , also noticed that during a second period of Treatment with leaves powder at 5,7.5, 10% concentrations during the second breeding period led to worms death and incomplete life cycle.Death. Furthermore, the percentage of death was estimated at the same concentrations of leaves and fruits powder during two breeding periods, in additon to the effect of these concentrations on protein content in worm bodies, the thickness of body wall (epidermis and body wall )was estimated in addition to the thickness of the epithelial layer of digestive tract, and the effect on the internal structures in treated worms.

Effect of laser radiation on the immune response of mice against infection with secondary hydatid disease.I. Growth and development of hydatid cysts.

Asmaa AbdulAziz Ali; Zeena Dhabyan Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 66-80
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159319

The present study investigated the effect of the Nd-TAG Laser radiation 1000 mw on the viability of the protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro, for different durations 40,60,120 and 240 minutes, and on the immune response in BALB/c mice against infection with secondary hydatid disease by injecting the mice with protoscoleces of Echinococus granulosus treated with laser radiation, 70%,57%,50% and 40% viability, compared with the control group of (mice injected with untreated protoscolices with the laser radiation) through three months, depending on many criteria including numbers, weights and diameters of the hydatid cysts and the percentage of reduction of their numbers. The results revealed an obvious decrease in the mean of number, weights and diameters of secondary hydatid cysts, during three months, in treated mice the minimum number was, 0.00 in 240 minutes, one month post infection,at (P<0.01) in comparison with the positive control group, 2.6, 3.404mg and 2.48mm, respectively.

Assessment of water quality characteristics and calculation of coefficient (WQI) for some water sources in Abu-Maria village Tal-Afar district / Nineveh province

Abdul Azeez Safawi; Reem Al - Shanouna; Noor Al-Sardar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 81-98
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159320

The present study investigates the suitability of some water resources of Abu Maria village in the district of Tall Afar for human uses. Two springs and eight dug deep wells were chosen to conduct some quality tests such as pH, dissolved solids, total hardness and the concentration of cations and anions, Water quality for drinking were assessed by determination of water quality index (WQI), as well as their suitability for domestic uses according to Kamensky classification . The result revealed that water resources under study have high concentration of TDS,T.H and SO4 = which amount to 2003, 2020, 2136 mg . l-1 respectively, thus WQI is above standard, so it isn't suitable for drinking ( category V), in spite of low WQI results which are ranged between 1.55-6.76, it is also unsuitable for domestic usese because of high concentration of calcium and sulfate .

Hide text in audio channels within files

Hassan AL-Numa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 3, Pages 99-117
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2018.159321

The aim of research and studies in the field of steganography to hide data inside other data are not aware, as the world witnessed during the recent period significant development in this area, and that the goal of this research is to hide the text data in secret within the media audio (wav), also been working on concealment within the channel audio in the video, and through access to the audio channels for each frame of video frames and include the data inside. When we hide in the channel audio video clip of the type (Avi), all within a framework of frameworks The video has audio channels belonging to him can been forced in any one of the audio channels for each frame of frames the video, so it is very hard to detect sites of concealment where the view of the capacity high for the video, it is possible to hide a very large amount of information without a clear change in the video, where the results of concealment in audio channel of digital video is fully compatible with the goal of the research.