Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 27, Issue 1

Volume 27, Issue 1, Winter 2018, Page 1-121

Determination of pKa for some Schiff bases derived from benzaldehyde and amino phenols by conductivity measurement

M. M. Gh. A. E. AL-Dabbagh

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-15
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161534

The aim of this  work is concerned with the determination of pka for some Schiff bases by conductivity method.These imines are prepared by reactions of benzaldehyde with o,m,p-amino phenols by standard method.
The structures of these imines are confirmed by using some physical methods, namely, U.V,I.R and melting points.
Experimentally it is observed,that intramolecular hydrogen bonding may contribute in decreasing pka value of benzylidene-o-hydroxyaniline. The presence of phenolic groups at m and p-positions of primary amine side of the Schiff bases, have a noticeable influence on the collected  pka values.
The thermodynamic of ionization reactions of these Schiff bases are determined. These showed a positive sign values of  ΔG˚ and ΔH˚ thermodynamic parameters. Also ΔS˚ value has a negative sign. These positive and negative signs values are discussed in detail.

Synthesis and characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with Schiff bases derived from terephthalaldehyde and isophthalaldehyde

W. AL-Kattan; E. AL-Nidaa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 16-26
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161567

A series of new complexes of the type [M2LCl4] and [M2L2Cl4] where M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), L=L1 or L2 {L1= 1,4-Bis (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) terephthylidene, L2=1,3-Bis (2-amino pyrimidine) isophthylidene} have been prepared in 1:2 and 2:2 (L:M) molar ratio and characterized by molar conductance, magnetic moment, FT-IR,1H-NMR, Uv-visble spectra studies and metal content analysis. Conductivity data in DMF and DMSO solution showed that all complexes are non-electrolyte.
Magnetic moment and electronic spectra indicate that some of  the complexes have a tetrahedral and the others have an octahedral environment

Synthesis of 2- alkyl/phenyl -5-Substituted 1,3,4- Thiadiazoles

Khalid Daoud; Shaima S. Ismaeel; Yassir S. Mohamad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161557

In this paper the synthesis of some 2-alkyl phenyl 5-substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole is reported, Benzonitrile and Acetonitrile were treated with thiosemicarbazide in presence of trifluroacetic acid to give 2-alkyl/ aryl -5- amino- 1,3,4- thiadiazoles (1,2), which was treated with ethylchloroacetate in methanol to give Ethyl N-(5-alkyl/phenyl -1,3,4-thiadiazole-2- yl) glycinate (3,4), the resultant esters were converted to acid hydrazide (5,6) by their reaction with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. Reaction of the hydrazides with benzaldehyde in ethanol gave hydrazones (7,8). Thiadiazols (1,2) were treated with ethyl chloroformate, acetyl and benzoyl chloride or benzaldehyde/ p-methoxybenzaldehyde to give substituted thiadiazoles (17,18), (9-12) and (13-16) respectively.
The structure of the synthesis compounds were confirmed by IR, UV. Spectra and physical means.

Spectrophotometric method for the determination of tolnaftate in pharmaceutical preparations

Nief Rahman Ahmed; Nawfal Sheet Mohamad

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 35-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.161563

A simple, accurate, rapid and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of tolnaftate in pure and pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reaction of tolnaftate with potassium permanganate in alkaline medium to form a bluish green colored product with an absorption maximum at 610 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 5-60 µg/25ml with a molar absorbitivity of 5.379×104 The optimum conditions for all color development were described and the proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of tolnaftate in pharmaceutical preparations. A statistical comparison of these results with those of official method using (t and F) values at 95% confidence level, The calculated t- and F- values did not exceed the theoretical values indicating that there was no significant differences between the precision of the proposed and official method. So that the proposed method can be used as a routine quality control for determination of tolnaftate in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations.The common excipients and additives did not interfere in the proposed method.

Spectrophotometric Determination Of Nitrazepam And Dapson Using Vanillin Reagent in Pharmaceutical Preparations

Maha Al-Obaidi; Theiaa Al-Sabha; Thabit S. Al-Ghabsha

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 43-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161562

A simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of dapson and nitrazepam in bulk drug and in dosage forms using vanillin as the chromogenic agent. The method is based on the condensation reaction between dapson (DN) and reduced nitrazepam (RNZ) with vanillin to produce an intense yellow colored product. The resulting Schiff’s bases show an absorption maximum at 405 nm for both drugs. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 1-30 and 1-20 µg/ml with a molar absorptivity of 8.69×103 and 1.332×104 L mol-1 cm-1 for DN and RNZ respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.087 and 0.299 µg/ml for DN, respectively and 0.069 and 0.231 µg/ml for RNZ, respectively. The method shows good accuracy and precision, and was applied successfully to the determination of DN and RNZ in tablets. No interference was observed from common additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained by the proposed method were validated statistically by comparing the results with those of official methods by applying the Student’s t-test and F-test.

Comparative Study of DNA Sequences for Genes Encoding Urease in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis

Mohammed Z. Saeed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 58-68
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161568

Urease genes cluster  consist of  7 genes ureA, ureB, ureC, ureD, ureE, ureF  and ureG. P2 index of Pr. mirabilis genes are 0.429, 0.481, 0.409, 0.378, 0.472, 0.392 and 0.567 for ureA, ureB, ureC, ureD, ureE, ureF and  ureG  respectively and these values are higher compared with 0.323, 0.369, 0.337, 0.226, 0.365, 0.276 and 0.329 for the same genes of K. pneumoniae.Alignment of nucleotide sequences of the two genera showed 58.4%, 36.7%, 26.2%, 67%, 27.8%, 29.7%  and 31.3%  similarity  between ureA, ureB, ureC, ureD, ureE, ureF and ureG respectively, while alignments of amino acids sequences  results in higher values of 81%, 62%, 72.6%, 42%, 39.36%, 42.3% and 77% for the same genes respectively. The threefold, fourfold and sixfold synonymous codons have less incidence of rare codons in Pr. mirabilis so that Ala, Gly, Leu, Thr and Val have no rare codons in their synonymous codons as compared with those in K. pneumoniae

Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus spp. with Antagonistic Activities for Biological Control

Omar Mu'ayad Al-Obaidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 69-77
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161564

We isolated 47 different bacterial isolates from 13 different soil samples, five of  them showed antifungal activities belonged to Gram positive bacteria  Bacillus subtilis and were designated as B1,B2,B3,B4 and B5 and they were screened to choose the better one whose activity appear to be high against different kinds of plant and human pathogenic fungi which it was the isolate B4. It's activity is due to the production of antifungal compound(s). Also the optimum conditions for the production of the antifungal compound were determined by  growing the antifungal isolate at 28°C for 5 days at pH 7. The crude extract containing the active compound was extracted and tested against different types of pathogenic fungi and showed different values of activities by measuring the inhibition zone and it was found that the fungus Alternaria alternata was the most sensitive. The crude extract is soluble in water and organic solvents  and the activity of the extract was not affected by heat treatment. Thus the isolate B4 and its extract could be used as a potent biological control agent against these pathogenic fungi rather than chemicals which have harmful side effects.

Deviations of the Surface Brightness Distribution in Isolated Elliptical Galaxies

Omar Salih

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 78-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.0201.161569

In this paper, we present the surface brightness profiles of 48 isolated elliptical galaxies. we have adopted the r1/n – law to the observed surface brightness profiles of the adopted sample of isolated elliptical galaxies for the intermediate radial range . From best fitting profile. The results showed that the deviations are similar to previous studies, and the deviations do not  depend  on the  surrounding  environment of the galaxies, whether that were an isolated or not. Such results might be very useful to understand the structure and evolution of elliptical galaxies.

Two New Extended PR Conjugate Gradient Methods for Solving Nonlinear Minimization Problems

Abbas AL-Bayati; Rana AL-Kawaz

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 97-115
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161565

          In this paper, we have discussed and investigated two nonlinear extended PR-CG method which use function and gradient values. The two new methods involve the standard CG-methods and have the sufficient descent and globally convergence properties under certain conditions. We have got some important numerical results by comparing the new method with Wu and Chen PRCG-(2010) method in this field.

Automatic Continuity of Dense Range Homomorphisms into Multiplicatively Semisimple Complete Normed Algebras


JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 116-121
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.161566

The following open problem state that: If  is a dense range homomorphism from Banach algebra into Banach algebra  such that  is semisimple. Is  automatically continuous? (see[1])
In [5] given a partial solution of the above problem as follows:
Let and  be a Fréchet algebras such that is semisimple, the spectral radius  is continuous on  and the spectral radius   is continuous at zero. If  is a dense range homomorphism, then is automatically continuous.
In this paper, we prove the following result:
If  is a dense range homomorphism from a complete normed nonassociative algebrainto a complete normed nonassociative algebra  such that  is semisimple and multiplication algebra   of  is also semisimple, the spectral radius  is continuous on  and the spectral radius  is continuous at zero, then  is automatically continuous.

Comparison of pKa values for oxy-enzymase derivatives derived from 3-acetyl and 4-acetyl-3 serotonin by using glass pole

Adel Azzoz; rawaa Suliaman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162129

The study includes the preparation of four syn and anti oximes derived from mother ketones, namely 3-acetyl and 4-acetyl pyridine by standard method. The structures of these oximes were confirmed by using UV and IR spectra, melting points and specific chemical tests.
The main aim of the study was the determination of pKa for these prepared oximes by potentiometric titration method, which was found, simple, fast and accurate. Finally, the study concluded that values of ionization constants depend on three main factors as:-

The structure of oxime.
Type of syn and anti isomer.

Effect of fasting on certain immune factors

Mahmoud Altobji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 12-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162130

Twenty Blood samples were collected from healthy people of both sexes before and after 20 days of fastingRamadan.
The phagocytic activity was determined using Candida spores,  itsrate was (11 ± 1.9%) before fasting which was increased to (23 ± 3.2%) during fasting this increase showed a highly  significant difference at less than 0.05 .
The level of IgGwasdetermined for 14 subject, and IgM for 20 subject, and itappears that they were (838.4 ± 393.1 mg / 100 ml) and (53.4 ± 0.91 mg / 100 ml) for IgG and IgM respectively before fasting, while they were (1363.4 ± 609.4 mg / 100 ml) and (54.4 ± 2.06 mg / 100 ml) for IgG and IgM respectively after fasting.
The increase in IgGlevel was significant for IgG while it was not forIgM.
The level of  C4 was (24.4 ± 13.1 mg / 100 ml) and (29.3 ± 8.7 mg / 100 ml) before and after fasting respectively with no significant differences between them. The level of IgG was higher in female (1393.1 mg / 100 ml) the male which was (1168.6 mg/100ml)with no difference in other immunological factors between the sexes during fasting, and the study confirmed the effect of fasting in increasing the immune activities as it appears clearly with increasing age.
Key word: Phagocytosis, Fasting and immunity, IgG, IgM, C4

Modification of the geological properties of Baiji asphalt using microwave technology

Khalid Awyed; Rami Abdulahed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 22-43
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162131

The research work was aimed to prepar different types of asphalt.  Beji asphalt was mixed with polymers such as polystyrene, melamine-formaldehyde resins and poly methyl methacrylate. The amount of polymer added varied between (0.5- 3%) in addition to (1%) blow down and (1%) of anhydrous aluminum chloride AlCl3. The materials were mixed and heated to (140±5 C◦), then exposed to microwave for a period of (5, 10& 15) minutes at (180 and 360) watt. After the reaction was completed, some rheological properties were measured such as ductility, softening point, penetration and penetration index (PI), and compared with the non-modified asphalt. The process was repeated at the same condition but without using Blow Down and the time of reaction is (10) minutes,
         The rheololgical properties of the obtained sample was almost similar to this of Iraqi standards. In addition Marshall test of paving asphalt was compared for the samples. The results show that, the modified samples superseded that of the original asphalt in term of paving properties and characteristics.

Extraction and diagnosis of fatty acids for Sinorhizobiummeliloti bacteria

Alyaa Alqosaimi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 44-52
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162132

The current study sought to investigate one of the determining factors of symbiosis between rhizobium bacteria and legumes (i.e. multi sugary acids of Sinorhizobium meliloti), where fatty acids on the lipid A chain were extracted and esterified for analysis using Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC) and determination. Moreover, a number of standard fatty acids were analyzed for comparison with fatty acids extracted from S. meliloti.
Results show predominance of unsaturated Palmitoleic acid (C16:1) with percentage of 29.299. Furthermore, a number of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which levels exceeding model fatty acids analyzed within the scope of the study, were determined.

The antimicrobial effect of Trigonella graecum foenum, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Escherichia coli on the growth of three types of pathogenic bacteria

Aryan Hamed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 53-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162128

The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the oil extracted from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and Exopolysaccharides (EPS) which is isolated from the symbiotic bacteria, namely, Sinorhizobium meliloti and the standard bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli. The study conducted by utilizing an unified concentration of 200 mg/ml in the growing of three types of pathogenic bacteria which are Escherichia coli and Proteus miribilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The results of the study show that there is a sort of matching between the oil extracted from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and the extract Exopolysaccharides (both types) with the utilized standard samples by means of the TLC technique. Similarly, the study testified the chemical structure of these three extracts by using the spectrum infrared rays. It has been shown that the oil extracted from Trigonella foenumgraecum seeds consists of the group O=C-OH and the group C=H aromatic and alkyl. Similarly it also contains the group of acids, aster and thin aromatic. Whereas EPS (with both types) consists of alcohol OH and the carboxyl group C-OH and CH aliphatic in addition to aster and ether  compounds and the two groups of carbonyl C=O that belong to Glucuronic and Pyruvate acids. All these compounds had a lethal effect on the growth of bacteria.  
The results also show the biological activity of the above mentioned extracts. The first, Exopolysaccharides (EPS) that is extracted from the bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti, comes in the first position with antimicrobial activity on the growth of the pathogenic bacteria Proteus miribilis. Secondly, comes EPS isolated from the bacteria Escherichia coli, then comes the oil extracted from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds especially on the growth of Proteus miribilis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results were registered with a significant value estimated to 0.0627 and 0.2453 respectively compared with a comparative sample at significant degree (p≤0.05).Whereas the bacteria Escherichia coli showed a weak sensitivity against the third extract compared with the first and second extracts.

Environmental and biological study of the effluents of the Danafi Valley and its impact on the water quality of the Tigris River in the city of Mosul, Iraq

Abdulazeez Al-Safawi; Azhar Al-Assaf

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 71-89
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162133

The present study includes ecological properties of danfeeli valley which is located at the south eastern part of Mosul city of Iraq. Danfeeli valley transports seasonal rainfall water domestic and industrial wastes to Tigris river, so that, creates additional water pollution of this river, water samples were collected from five stations along the valley inside Mosul city to examine the physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as, the role of self purification in elimination of the pollution problems, Also, samples of Tigris river were collected to determine the effect of polluted valley water on the river water parameters.
Results of the present study indicates for dimension of dissolved oxygen in the valley water especially dty Dryweather due to high biological oxygen demand which reachs to 177.4 mg/L in one of some warm month. Relative increase in sulphate ions concentration was found as a result of proteolysis of protein matters in the valley water.
The dominant phytoplankton genera were: Clamydomonas. Euglena, Fragelaria, Nitizschia and Navicula. It was found high significant pollution effect of Danfeeli wastewater on Tigris river at station 50 m south meetings, this deterioration was continued till at station 250 m, therefore, ecosystem pollution will be increased later.
Also it was investigated the relative effect of self purification event (pathways) on some investigated parameters of water wastes through its streaming in the valley; namely, biological oxygen demand, chloride ions, sulphate ions and phosphate ions.
It was considered that Danfeeli and Tigris water proper for irrigation usages for pH, sodium percentages sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and potential salinity. However, some problems in salinity were obtained according to standard international classifications.

Producing poly-β-hydroxybutyrate from local isolates of risobium bacteria

Raad Sultan; Wajdan Qasim

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 90-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162134

In this study, five isolates of Sinorhizobium meliloti were obtained from root nodules of alfalfa plants collected from agricultural soils of different regions of Nineveh governorate/Iraq. Local isolates, RW8, RW9, RW10, RW11 and RW12 incubated for periods 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. Biomass (g/l), production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (g/l) and production percentage (of dry cell weight) were recorded. Results revealed that RW9 isolate was the best among isolates of S. meliloti.It gave the best production percentage of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate which reached 43.05 % when grown in YEM (Yeast Extract Mannitol Broth) medium two days of incubation, whereas maximum average of biomass production reached 1.97 g/l. The effect of addition of different carbon sources growth medium on poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by S. meliloti isolate RW9 showed that glucose, as carbon source, promote the productivity of the polymer that reached to 65.07 % two days after incubation. The optimal concentration of glucose to support highest production was 2.0 % that enhance production to 82.55 %. The effect of addition of different nitrogen sources at 0.10 % concentration to YEM broth medium (supplemented with 2.0 % glucose) revealed that glutamic acid gave the best productivity which reached 86.51 % two days after incubation. The effective concentration of glutamic acid support the best productivity was the used concentration (0.10 %). According to the obtained results RW9 isolate which accumulated high level of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate may be superior to be employed in industrial production when this isolate grown in optimum conditions.

Stimulate the production of antibiotics using local isolates of the genus Streptomyces using chemical and physical mutants

Mohammed Qasim; Safaa Alobaidi; Arwa thannon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 105-118
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162135

Three local isolates of the genus Streptomyces were obtained from ten soil samples collected from different places of Niniva governorate. The isolates showed bioactivity against test Gram positive and negative bacteria and two Genera of fungi. Streptomyces isolates were identified according to microscopic and morphological tests. The Streptomyces isolates were subjected to ultra violet ray for different time periods. The treated isolates showed little increase in inhibition zone and treated period of (5) minutes showed the best inhibition of the test bacteria. The Streptomyces isolates treated with N – methyl – N – nitro – N – nitroso guaniction at the concentration of (50)  showed clear increase of antibiotic production. The isolate Streptomyces III showed clear inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis and the diameter inhibition zone was (20,29,20)mm respectively.

Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria on some types of pathogenic bacteria and aspergillus parasiticus in the production of toxins and growth

Hamed Mohammed; Salah Ahmed; Aleya Kamel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162136

Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from newly born infant's stool, purified and identified by studding the morphological and biochemical tests then compared with Bergey's manual for the Holt et al (1994). Also studied the impact of the inhibitory to the extracted filtrate of the bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus on some types of pathogenic bacteria, as found the inhibition area (inhibition zone) to the Staphylococcus aureus 14 mm and were the species most resistant  is Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi amounting to 12 mm. Also studied the effect of bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus on the growth of fungus Aspergillus parasiticus and production of aflatoxins B1, B2 and G1, G2 in the media component MRS and extract corn as the results show for high acidity and low pH due to the growth ofLactobacillus acidophilus which produced antibacterial activity (bacteriocine) and led to a reduction in mold growth and toxin production to 6 days of incubation and then increased in the mold growth and acidity decreased with increase in pH and the amount production of aflatoxin poison B1, G1.

Temperature effect on IR diode emission parameters

Bashar Al-Sheeti

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 126-141
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162137

The aim of this research is the study the characteristics of commercial of an Infrared Emitting Diode under different degrees of temperature and their action on each of the output power, output intensity, forward voltage and the potential barrier. The ideality factor (η) has been found as a function of temperature degree also, furthermore, we report on this research the influence of type temperature on current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the diode, the value of energy gap (Eg) has been found as well as the wave length (λ) of the emitted ray of the diode.

Use of graphs in the statistical modeling process

Hasmeek Wartan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 142-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162138

Through studying numerical summaries and graph of data movement, to achieveproper and suitable type of data distribution, in simple, clear and minimizing errors, in the same time the graphs and summaries illustrate the possibility of unavailing of available distribution that we have, and the possibility of create data distribution in the case of disadvantages of identification to available data distribution

Attack encrypted text (known as explicit text) using a genetic algorithm

Yahya Ibraheem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 158-168
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162139

A Genetic Algorithm is defined as a smart algorithm which can be used to solve the complex matters and improve them, which are used in many fields. Also, Genetic Algorithm is considered as one of the efficient search methods which depends on the natural test and genetics.
          In this research, the Genetic Algorithm features were used to determined and find the encrypted key which was used to encrypt a plain-text by firstly using many selected random generated keys, then apply the Genetic Algorithm with its different features such as: selection, crossover and mutation, leading to the most efficient key to attack the cipher-text and return it to its plain-text with very small or non error ratio. Thus the user will be able to use this key to attack other coming texts for the same destination. The GA which is used in this paper were applied on a different English texts.
Results showed the importance of Genetic Algorithm through its potentiality in wide space intelligent search of keys to find the right key, from the other hand, these results showed the accuracy of Genetic Algorithm during its approach.

Remove regular noise from gray digital images using spatial filters

Alhan Al-Saffar

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 169-179
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2014.162140

Noise is any undesired information that contaminates an image. Noise appears in images from a variety of sources such as errors in  transmission data or camera, etc.In typical images the noise can be modeled with either a Gaussian, salt-and – pepper, or uniform  distribution, Image filtering is a technique to preserve important image elements such as edges, smoothing the details of the images to make images appear clear and sharpener. in proposed work, a simple, fast technique is given to remove Gaussian noise with (different values) of an gray image by using some spatial filters such as: Arithmetic Mean Filter, Geometric Mean filter, and Harmonic Mean filter. Matlab system 7.0 is used to programmed this research.