Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 27, Issue 2

Volume 27, Issue 2, Winter 2018, Page 1-168


Synthesis of five membered ring hetero cyclic compounds derived from methyl-6- methyl-2- oxo-4-substituted 1,2,3,4- tetrahydro pyrimidine-5-carboxylate

Shaima S. Ismmaeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

In this paper the synthesis of methyl-6- methyl-2-oxo-4-substituted phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (1-3) were synthesised from substituted benzaldehyde, urea and methyl acetoacetate, substituted pyrimidine (1-3) were treated with hydrazine hydrate in butanol to give acid hydrazide (4-6), which were converted to hydrazones (7-12) by their reaction with substituted benzaldehyde. Cyclizatian of hydrazones (7-12) with lead dioxide in glacial acetic acid gave substituted 1,3,4- oxadiazole (13-18). Hydrazide (4-6) were treated with ammonium
thiocyanate in ethanol and hydrochloric acid to give substituted
thiosemicarbazides(19-21). Reaction of thiosemicarbazide (19-21) with
4% sodium hydroxide or with concentrated sulfuric acid gave substituted
1,2,4- (4H) - triazole (22-24) and 1,3,4- thiadiazole (25-27)
respectively.
The structure of the synthesized compounds, were confirmed by IR, UV
and physical methods.

Physical and Chemical Methods Used for Determination of Structures of Some Imines Derived from Different Carbonyl Compounds

Adel S.P.Azzouz; D. B.T.Bakzo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 15-27

The project is concerned with the preparation of fifteen imines derived from 2-acetyl pyridine ,3 or 4 –hydroxy benzaldehyde and m-anisaldehyde with aromatic primary amines by standard method .
These imines include namely ,hydroxylamine hydrochloride,o,m,p-amino phenols ,4-amino naphthol ,bromo or chloro aniline and p-anisidine .
The main aims of the study is the determination of structures of these imines by the available physical method ,namely ,the melting points ,boiling points , U.V and IR spectra . Some chemical tests for functional groups are also included .This seems important from chemistry point of view as in the elucidation of tautomerism reactions happen in some oximes and phenolic oximes . Finally ,the influence of inter molecular hydrogen bonding on association (polymerization) of imines was also discussed

Morphological study of flesh fly stages, Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

Abbas M. Faraj; Nabeel A. Mawlood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 28-38

This work includes a detailed morphological study of flesh fly stages, Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann) which was wide spreaded in different localities of Kurdistan region-Iraq. The specimens were collected from March until July 2012. All stages have been described in detail. Taxonomic key have been formulated to isolate the larval instars. The important parts have been drawing. Some ecological information of the species, localities of collection and its date have been mentioned.

Heat Shock Stimulate Division of Hypocotyle Suspension Culture of Dianthus caryophyllus L.

Sahla Mohamed Zeadan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 39-47

The study succeeded in establishing a fine cell suspension derived from callus of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. Hypocotyle explants in liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgL-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mgL-1 BA. The cells begin its first division within 24 h. These cell were continued their subsequent divisions to produce 142x103 cell/ml culture after five days of initiation. Results indicated that exposure of cell suspension to 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50oC short-term 5, 10 min. and long-term 15-20 min. stimulate the division of cells suspension in all treatments. Heat shock sustained the division of cell cultured in multiple drop array (MDA) technique and increase the formation of cellular colonies which produced a numerous of calli primordia. The total number of colonies was 959 developed when cells exposed to with the short-term 35oC/5 min heat shock. The produced calli was green in colour and friable in texture.

Better Adaptive Text Compression Scheme

Duha Amir Sultan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 48-57

A data compression scheme suggested by Ziv and Lempel, LZ77, is applied to text compression. A slightly modified version suggested by Storer and Szymanski ,LZSS, is found to achieve compression ratios as good as most existing schemes for a wide range of texts. In these two methods and all other dynamic methods, a text file is searched from left to right to find the longest match between the lookahead buffer (the previously encoded text) and the characters to be encoded. The method suggested in this work depends the searching in two directions, from left to right and from right to left, although this process takes more time, better compression results were obtained

Development a Hybrid Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Minimization Problems

Sawsan S. Ismael; Basim A. Hassan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 58-70

In this paper, a new hybrid nonlinear conjugate gradient method are presented, which produce sufficient descent search direction at every iteration. This method showed globally convergent under some assumptions. The numerical results show that all this new hybrid method are efficient for the given test problems.

The chemical, physical and biological properties of the well water of some villages in Sinjar area and their validity for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes

Afaf Abdullah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1-19

due to the need of some villages to water and because of its far distance from the rivers. many wells were dug in these areas to fulfill their need to water for irrigation and drinking , The aim of the study is to determine the validity of these wells water for the purposes that mentioned above also study its physical and chemical properties. Several samples were taken from some wells of Sinjar villages‟ for six months starting from October 2011 until March 2012. The results showed the existence of some wells in Sinjar which are not fit for agriculture ,irrigation ,drinking even for industry according to international and Iraqi standards. Since the concentration of salts in which increased to reach in one of those to 4750 milimose / cm .and the Chloride reached to 910mg/L in these well , and some are valid for all purposes .

Modification of the Rheological properties of Baiji asphalt using a chemical system (sulfur: epoxy)

Ammar Hamdoun; Moafeq Rabeea

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 20-29

There is a growing need for the production of a certain types of asphaltic materials having a good rheological properties compared with the nonmodified asphaltic materials, thus many experiments were performed to prepare a modified asphalt that can be used in different fields. This study aimed to modifying asphalt with addition of (epoxy and hardener) according to three steps as follow:- 1.The modification of asphalt with different ratios from epoxy (without adding hardener) in the presence of 1%(Wt%) sulfur at 180ºc for (1 ,2 and 3)hrs. 2.The best sample was obtained from step(1)treated with different ratios of hardener at the same conditions. 3.The step(1)and(2)was repeat in the presence of 0.25%(Wt%) AlCl3 as the catalyst for this treatment and 1%(Wt%) sulfur at 180ºc for(1 , 2 and 3)hrs. From this work we obtained the asphaltic materials which can be used in paving and mastic according to the measuring of the (ductility,penetration and softening point).

Study the phenomenon of the occurrence of ectopic cells and their treatment by applying the cathodic protection principle using different media and poles

Ebtihaj Suliaman; Layth Qasem

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 30-46

Corrosion is one of the most serious problems facing the industry, which leads to loss billions of dollars annually. It is a complex problem known widly about it and despite intensive experiments and research is still the issue of erosion it and needs a lot of effort and investigation. A number of tests were conducted that leads the way for the conclusion that occurs from chemistry point of view. it was the reaction occurred in electrochemical cells (electrochemical) .For the purpose of clarifying the phenomenon of cells erosion we have used different poles media and apply the principle of corrosion protection by using sacrifice anode with applying an electric current

The ability of some physical and biological methods to improve the quality of well water

Abdulazeez Taleea; Noor Sadeq

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 47-60

Relatively the specific high salinity ground water in Nineveh province were physically improved with freezing and melting treatment. Also, the algal treatment with Chara vulgaris as a biological treatment were applied, this algae have salt absorbance ability and precipitate it on the external algae surface . The results indicated that the complete freezing and slow melting gave low concentrations of the studied parameters, which depends on the melted water quantity after freezing, the impurity reduction efficiency %E of electrical conductivity, total alkalinity and total hardness with high values at the first treatment were (95 , 96 , 95%) respectively, the previous parameters were decreased to (73 , 74.7 and 77%) after the third treatment, also, the results were reported decreasing in case of partial freezing, so, the releasing percentage of electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, chlorides and sulfates to ( 56 - 55 - 42 and 85%) respectively. After six days of the biological treatment with Chara vulgaris algae indicates that the releasing percentage of total alkalinity and total hardness were decreased by ( 38.7 and 66%) respectively, finely it was found after 13 days of the treatment, the above parameters were raised to ( 55.1 and 92% ) respectively

Viability of earthworm breeding for one, two and three months in soil treated with different concentrations of polluted water

Safaa Mahmoud; Adnan mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 61-74

This study is conducted to know the of effect of breeding earthworm for month , two month and three month in soil polluted with the concentration 25,50, 75, 100% of polluted water on its viability. The treatment reduce rate of specificgrowth ratio and it was 59.08 and 78.57% at the concentration 25 and75% respectively , also the treatment cause reducing in the weight of the treated earthworm and it was -0.079 and 0.0787 g at the concentration 25 and100%respectively. This study aimed to know the affect of this treatment on the worms death percentage , and also to knowing the percentage of protein body content... and showed that the polluted water affected thickness the body wall and epithelium of the digestive system and it´s caused the reduce thickness.

Study the inhibitory effect of mother's milk and its comparison with colostrum in isolates of Candida albicans isolated from patients with oral candidiasis in Mosul city and their effect on phospholipase production

Rafea Mohammed; Rafeah Jarjees

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 75-94

The current study was included isolation and identification of the yeast Candida albicans from patients infected with oral candidiasis. Thirty six yeast isolates were obtained grown on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium (SDA) , the colony colour was from white to creamy and it was smooth with curved surface . Symbols were given to isolates from RA1 to RA36 in order to differentiate them. Identification by Vitek 2 Compact system showed that 29 isolates belonging to the species C. albicans . This study included the evaluation of phospholipase enzyme production on egg yolk agar for all C. albicans isolates and the results showed that 23 isolates (79.31%) were producers of the enzyme and precipitation zone (Opaque zone) was observed around the grown colonies with different precipitation zones. Evaluation of the effect of colostrum and mother's milk was carried out on growth of 10 isolates of C. albicans exhibiting highest activity in its production of enzyme. There wasn't any inhibitory effect noted on the isolates understudy at the concentrations 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32% of colostrum or milk by agar dilution – streak assay and also by disk diffusion method at the concentration 100% , but the effect on phospholipase production was observed of colostrum at the concentration 32% on three isolates , namely RA4, RA6 and RA13 (30%), whose production was reduced The test also showed that the effect of milk at the concentration 32% reduced the production of isolates RA4 and RA13 (20%) .

Effect of ultrasound waves against infection with giardiasis in Rattus norvegicus rats.

Asmaa Ali; Hiba Khudher

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 95-109

The present study investigated the effect of the direct ultrasonic waves, as an immune stimulator, against infection with giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia in Norwegian rat, Rattus norvegicus. The pathological changes occurred in the rats administered orally with the cysts of G. lamblia, exposed to different durations of ultrasonic waves for 60 seconds, 150s, 210s and 240s, respectively, with constant frequency 20,000 pulse\second(1.8w/cm2 ) were followed compared with the control group (rats administered orally with the cysts of G. lamblia, without exposure to the ultrasonic waves), along the experimental period, depending on many criteria, included the changes in cysts expel and weights of animals . The results revealed significant reduction (p>0.01) in cysts expel in the rats exposed to direct ultrasonic waves in comparison with the control group, the maximum reduction was at duration 240 seconds, and a significant elevation (p>0.01) in percentage of weights in the treated animals compared with the control group, the maximum elevation was 404. 25% , at 240 seconds .

Measurement of some physiological variables and electrolytes in the blood and serum of athletes exposed to different efforts

Mahmood Es Al-Jebouri

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 110-117

Study examined the current knowledge of the sensitivity of some blood components and electrolytes in serum and blood of athletes as a result the practice of different sports, as it was during the study survey of thirty athletes from male healthy and exposed to Voltages first by 9.6 km / hour and a slope of 4% and the second rate of 20.8 km / h and slope 20 %, as the samples were collected venous blood of these athletes was estimated by some blood components and trace elements (Concentration of hemoglobin, Volume of packed blood cells, red blood cell count, potassium, sodium, calcium, chloride) in addition to measure the number of heart rate and body temperature of these athletes were compared with (20) sample of healthy individuals as control group.
The study results showed obvious changes in the concentrations of these variables above, as it showed Concentration of hemoglobin significant increase was (16.69 ± 3.4) and (16.60 ± 3.7), respectively, in
the effort I and II compared with the control group (14.00 ± 2.3), while showing Volume of packed blood cells significant increase arrived (52.68 ± 4.1) and (50.26 ± 5.6) compared with the control group (44.00 ± 2.3),
The concentrations of electrolytes showed clear differences as it showed a potassium rise is morally reached (4.55 ± 0.29) and (4.81 ± 0.46) mmol / l compared with the concentration in the control group (4.9 ± 0.90), while
calcium showed a significantly increase total (93.30 ± 1.6) and (87.50 ± 4.3) compared with the control group (98 ± 4.6), either the number of strikes heart showed an increase in athletes and effort during the first and
second hit (90,75%) in addition to the high temperature objects these athletes when they are the first and second voltage. 

Minimize the sum of the error boxes in the multi-linear regression model using the genetic algorithm

Hamsa Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 118-129

Regression models are regarded as the most important ones used in statistical models in defining the relation among variables through the available data which can be applied to various sciences . In most of these applications , there is a dependent variable and independent variables and the linear relation between them represents multiple linear regression function . The values of the dependent variable can be predicted when the independent variables take definite values and the model's parameters are estimated through minimizing deviation of squares among the values of the real and estimated data. In this research we use the genetic algorithm to find the minimum sum of error squares, where they are applied to different data in many applications . The genetic algorithm is able to achieve the minimum sum of error squares and estimating the parameters of the model.

Analyze video image fabric using Gabor filter to identify the target and track its motion

Abeer Thannon

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 130-145

This paper investigates the field of Video image analysis depending on texture for detecting a goal and tracing its movement in a video series. Analysing images depending on texture is better than depending on colour or shape , for the goal sometimes depends on different features . The aim of this study is to propose a method for tracing a goal within a video series after detecting it in each video frame. This study exhibits one of the techniques of extracting the image features depending on the signal frequency through using Gabor filter and in different trends for each frame. Then the histogram is taken for each frame and the frame given the best description for the goal is selected , in which case the threshold is depended . Then it is transformed into the binary form of the video frame ,to decrease time consumed short in detecting the object target . The algorithm is applied to part of the video frame . The location of the object target is determined through calculating the centre for part of the frame and the operation is applied to the series of the frames of the video film . Two films have been adopted as a research sample ,The first is a person„s movement by the traffic lights in al-Nabi Yunus area and the other are the students movement at the university of Mosul in the College of Education.

The use of ants algorithm in the detection and classification of intrusion in computer networks

Najlaa Ibraheem; Mahmoud Mahmoud

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 146-168

The widespread development of using networks and relying on it and the emergence of many challenges faced by so many institutes like ministry of defense, intelligence agencies , banks, universitie...etc which depend heavily on service provided by those networks, resulted in the emergence of a new security concept towards building new security systems known as " Intrusion Detection Systems". The current study aims at detecting the known and unknown attacks as well as classifying the known ones. A network intrusion detection system is developed using AntMiner algorithm, which is one of the Swarm Intelligence which assimilate , the behavior of natural environment of ants. It is used to investigate the training data and getting the basic classification which is helpful in classifying the attacks in the tests data. The KDD Cup 1999 dataset concerned in constructing and evaluating intrusion systems which includes Training Dataset of 494021 in number as well as the testing dataset of 311029 in number. Experiments are conducted on the system using data sets and the complete tests. The results show that the detection rate using the SOM is: 92.37% and false alarm is: 4.67% and classification rate using Ant-Miner algorithm is : DOS(Denial of Service) 96.15 %, U2R(User to Root) 97.13%, Normal 94.50%, probe 72.90%, R2L(Remote to Local) 13.88%. These results show the effectiveness of SOM and Ant-Miner algorithms in the field of network security