Volume 28, Issue 2, Spring 2019

Synthesis of Some New Chalcone Compounds Derived From (Phenyl Quinoxaline Methyl Benzotriazol) of an Expected Biological Activity

Natiq Ghanim Ahmed; Hussein Yousif Ridha

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 1-22
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.161174

This study include the synthesis of the compound 2,3-Diphenyl quinoxaline from (the reaction of ortho Phenylenediamine with Benzil) and then connect this molecule with benzotriazole molecule, using the Methylene bridge through using formaldehyde in acidic medium to obtain the compound 6-[(1H-Benzotriazol-5-yl)methyl]-2,3-diphenylquinoxaline which having acidic hydrogen at the nitrogen atom which could be reacted with chloroacetone to form ketonic compound (2), that can be react with different aromatic aldehydes (4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 4-methoxy benzaldehyde) or 4-nitro acetophenone through aldol condensation to obtain an α,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (single chalcones) (3-6), from which we could prepare a double chalcones (7-11), these compounds are used to prepare many heterocyclic compounds as derivatives, when reacted with hydrogen peroxide gave oxirane compounds (a ring with three atoms) (12-16), with bromine in the presence of a base, gives mono substituted bromine (17-21),with hydrazine hydrate and phenyl hydrazine gave the pyrazoline compounds and their substituted compounds (a ring with five atoms) (22-31) and finally with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to give the isooxazoline compounds (32-36).
The synthesized compounds were identified using physical and spectral methods (melting points, colour change, infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra), also bromine test were used to the detection of the double bond which present on the single and double chalcones.

Isothermic Adsorption and Applications of Kinetics Models, Thermodynamics Functions ,Probability Sticking for Benzoic Acid and Some Substituted by Using Anew Adsorbent Substance

Khaleel Ibrahim Al-Neimi; Ahmed Ghanem Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 23-39
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161175

The research including used anew adsorbent substance collected from sandstorms  which arrived to Mosul city to study adsorption of Benzoic acid and some substituted and application of kinetics Models (pseudo first and second order reaction ) Elovich model kinetics and determination of thermodynamic function  for  adsorption process as well as the probability  sticking for acids molecules on surface (S*)and the appareant activation energy , the isothermic constants  were determined  for frendlich ,Langmir,Tempkin at different temperature  and factors affecting  on adsorption  process ,the results gives indicates that the physical mechanism which predominate  and some times physical  and chemical the adsorption was increased and desorption decreased ,this process non spotonous and need lower energy to happened

Modification of The Rheological Properties of Asphalt Using Spent Lubricating Oils and Air Oxidation

Alaa Ali Hussein; Ammar Ahamed Hamdoon

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 40-49
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161176

There is a growing need for the production of certain types of asphaltic materials having good rheological properties compared with the unmodified asphaltic materials, thus many experiments were performed to prepare a modified asphalt that can be used in different fields. This study aims to modify asphalt with the addition of (spent lubricating oils) with different percentages and with air blowing oxidation.
From this work we obtained the asphaltic materials which can be used in paving and mastic production according to the measuring of the (ductility, penetration, asphaltene and softening point)

Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studys of Adsorption of Azo Dyes on The Local Bentonite Clay

Safwan .A.S.Aldbouni .A.S.Aldbouni; Emad. A.S.Alhyali A.S.Alhyali; Ammar .A.H.Alkazraji .A.H.Alkazraji

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 50-70
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161177

 This work is included the synthesizs of two azo dyes from the reaction of p-methoxy aniline and 2-amino benzo thiazol .via diazounium ions.A number of clays are tested as adsorbents for the removal of these dyes from their aqueous solution by adsorption . The most efficied one was selected to peforme  this study . The prepared dyes are characterized by some of their physical propertier such as(lmax)  , (emax) melting point.  Stretch bond of  (N=N)   group by(IR)spectrometry and colours.
 The optimal condition of the adsorption systems undre study such as effect of does ,initial concentration ,and temperature wear investigated .
Two isotherm models,Langmuir and Freundlich  were fitted to the experimental data of adsorption .the thermodynamic Function (  H, ∆G°,∆S°) are estimated. The results of the thermodynamic study showed that ,the forces controlling the adsorption process of the systems under considerate are physical in nature . The adsorption process are exothermic , occur spontaneously in the direction of connecting the dye to the clay surface ,and forming less random system.

Determination of Mesalazine Spectrophotometry Based on The Charge Transfer Complex n- π Using Reagent p-bromanil

Ghaith Luqman Al-Ramadhani; Sobhi Al-Mtioti

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 71-84
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161178

Simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of mesalazine in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations is described. The method is based on the reaction of  mesalazine  with p-bromanil in the presence of borate buffer solution of pH9 to form a pink color charge transfer complex of maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 346 nm. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer’s law correlating the absorbance with mesalazine  concentration was obeyed in the range of 0.48-12 μg ml-1. The molar absorptivity was 6.5×103 L.mol1cm1. The limits of detection was 0.053μg ml-1. The accuracy and precision of the method were satisfactory; the average recovery was 98.04% and values of relative standard deviations better than 1.70 %. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the reaction mechanism was postulated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of mesalazine in its pharmaceutical tablet and capsule  with good accuracy and precisions. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained by the official method.  

Mechanism, Kinetic And Thermodynamic For Transport Of Citric Acid Ions To Removal By Adsorption Using Electrical Conductivity, Potential Difference And Acidity Function

Khaleel Ibraheem AL-Niemi

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 85-102
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161179

In this research used the electrical conductivity, potential difference, acidity function and the probability Sticking on surface were used to detected the mechanism of Ions transportation of citric acids by adsorption from the solution to the surface of solid particles using anew adsorpent clay. The kinetics model (pseudo first and second order, Eleovich kinetic and Intraparticle diffusion) applied on the experimental results of adsorption as well as Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms, this study arrived to that the a high transportation of acid ions to the surface to form a surface complexation model with solid particles happened at low concentrations and temperatures, the result of adsorption obeyed the pseudo first order kinetic, and the Intraparticle diffusion occurred was a controlled process , the constants KF, KT for isotherms used to calculated the thermodynamic functions ΔG,ΔH,ΔS for adsorption process.

Study in The Inhibitory Effect of Disinfectants and Antiseptic Traded From Local Market in Nineveh The Province of on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Bushra Dlae Hamad

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 103-112
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161180

This study deals with the comparison of the effect of some disinfectants used in Hospitals from local market of Nineveh province from  different origins, on some Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria isolated from burns and wounds. These disinfectants includes  : Dettol (septol) ,Hepatine , Povidine-iodine , Hand sterilizer all of them from local , Arabic and international origins. 
Results showed a clear resistance of the studied bacteria , and differences in bacterial sensitivity toward disinfectants depends on its origins and bacterial species .It was clear that the disinfectant (hepatine) was the best disinfectant in inhibiting  growth , the danish origin was the best of them then  Jordanian origin, the second disinfectant (dettol)  of  which the Jordanian origin was also the best, then (povidine-iodine) of which the Emirates origin was the best and then (hand sterilizer gel) of France origin was best.

Effect of Ascorbic acid on the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi to antibiotics

Dhuha Jassem Mohamed; Bushra Dlae . Hamad; Muhsin Ayoub Essa

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 113-121
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161181

This study included the investigation of the  effect of Ascorbic acid  (Vitamin C) and incubation at temperature of 44 C° on the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi to some antibiotics to which resistant it was Resistant Results showed that Ascorbic acid had a curing impact in removal of resistance character against many antibiotics (Amikacin Erythromycin ,Tobramycin, Penicillin ). Concentration of Ascorbic acid had a role in its effectiveness and the concentration (1.5) mM  was the best in all curing results. The study also demonstrated that the temperature 44c° had a curing effect on the resistance of bacteria under to most studied antibiotics except erythromycin according  to this results and because Ascorbic acid is not toxic, it be used with antibiotics against infection with  Salmonella typhi .

Effect of Sex and Age of Human on Infection With Types of Stones and Its Concomitant Bacteria

Amera Mahmud AL-Rawi; Rash Nazar AL-Sa’doon

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 122-132
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161182

The current study involved isolation and identification of bacteria from (50) urine samples of patients suffering from renal stones and urinary tract infections (UTIs) Sixteen bacterial isolates were obtained from urine samples (32%), Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli being the most frequent among isolates, forming 37.5% (6 isolates) and 31.5% (5 isolates) respectively while Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates 12.5% (2 isolates) then Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated at a rate of (6.25%).
The study showed that 32 (64%) of urine samples were from patients having calcium stone, 10 (20%) with uric acid stone and 8 (16%) with struvite stone but cystine stones were not identified. Furthermore, this study showed that there is a relationship between type of stones and the type of bacterial isolate .
The effects of some factors such as sex and age on the rate of infection with different stone types were investigated ,the results revealed that among (32) calcium stones, 71.9% were males and 28.1% were females. From (8) struvite stones, males represent 37.5% while females were  62.5%, for uric acid stone 60% were males and 40% were female.
The incidence of renal stone seem to be the highest in the age group(30_53) years comprising 48% of the total patients followed by the age group (54_77) years 32% and the least incidence was in the age group (6_29) years 20% .

Design of ZnO Nanowire Laser Single Mode and Study Its Properties

Rafid Ahmed Abdulla; Ahmed Ali Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 133-149
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161183

Designing of single-mode ZnO nanowire laser has been achieved. Studying its properties has also been considered. Analysis of single-mode rate equations indicates that the laser has threshold current of 53 mA, the output power of 30 mW at bias current of 70 mA and the slope efficiency around 1.77 mW/mA for the output power from both mirrors. The critical diameter for nanowire has been calculated and it is found to be 128 nm. The number of nanowire rods through designed area of dimensions (21µm×21µm) has also been calculated. The cavity of nanowire laser is (F-P). The results are compared with some experimental work of ZnO nanowire lasers and good agreement is found. 

Anatomical and Histological Comparative Study of The Proventriculus and Histochmisitry of Mucins in Two Species of Birds Which Differ in Nutrient Nature

Ameer Mahmood Al-Hamdany; Abdulaziz Subhi AL duleemy

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 150-166
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161184

The present study aimed to identify the anatomical and histological aspects as well as the histochemistery of mucin of glandular stomach of two birds which differ in their feeding habit. These birds are Sturnus vulgaris and Taenipygia guttat using light microscope and histochemical techniques. The anatomical results showed that the glandular stomach in Taenipygia guttat  was conical or elongated while it was conical shape in the Sturnus vulgaris. Histologically, the result showed that the wall of the glandular stomach in both birds composed  of four layers that comprise the rest of the digestive canal, The mucous layer of the glandular stomach in the two birds consist of folds extending into the glandular stomach cavity which known as mucus folds which is lined by simple epithelial columnar tissue, below it lies the lamina properia which contains superficial glands. While Submucosa is fully occupied with deep gastric glands. Muscularis consist of two layers, The internal circular shape and external longitudinal shape, as well as the serosa covered by mesothelim. Histochemically, the epithelial tissue showed moderate positive response  for PAS reaction  in both birds indicating the presence of moderate quantities of positive mucus materials for PAS reaction
For TB technique epithelial tissue showed a positive response in T. guttat indicating that there isrelatively large amounts of acidic mucopolysaccharides in both birds ,while the epithelial tissue in T.guttat. and S.vulgaris showed positive response for AB PH1, AB ph2.5. techniques respectively. AS for AB-PAS epithelial tissue in both birds showed a positive response indicating the presence of neutral and acidic mucins. Superficial gastric glands in both birds showed positive response for all techniques used, as well as the deep gastric glands which showed positive response in T. guttat and  S. vulgaris for PAS techniques, while the AB PH2.5 and  TB technique  showed similar responses in both birds. AS for AB-PAS technique, positive responses as were shown in both birds, indicating large quantities of mucin in the secretions of these glands.

Detcetion Of Bacterial Contamination Of Drinking Water In The Right Side Of Mosul City By Multiple Tubes Fermentation Technique.

Adeba AL-Nuaaman; Musaab Hamad Al- Ballo

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 167-184
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161185

    This study aimed to investigate bacterial contamination of drinking water in the right side of Mosul city using multiple tubes fermentation technique, depending on total coliform count as an indicator, this study takes seven months started from December, 2017 to June, 2018.
     Three hundered fifteen smples were collected from water purification plants and 12 quarters in the right side of Mosul city include (Msherfa, 17-Tamoz, Al-refaee, Tal- alromman, Al-moa'alemen, Al-shohada'a, Nabls, Al-resala, Al-a'amel, Al-tayaran, Wadi hajar and Al-mansour).
    The results showed contaminate of water in purification plants during April and May only while  the contamination wase in all study months of the water reaching consumers with a rate reaching 40.5% of total samples and the highest was in Al-refaee quarter (71.4%) whereas the lowest reached 14.3% in Nabls quarter, the results also showed variations in the contamination during the study monthes, it's highest in May as it reached 83.3% whereas the lowest was in January as it reached 16.7%. The results of chlorine concentration test showed that  the residual chlorine was less than the accepted levels in some quarters formed a ratio reached 32.1%, while it was higher than the accepted level at a ratio of 2.4%, whereas the residual chlorine in 65.5% from total samples was within the accepted level. In this study we isolate and identificate some of the contaminating bacteria such as Escherichia coli , Klebsiella  pneumoniaeEnterobacter  cloacae, Enterobacter  aerogenes , Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter  freundii and Salmonella  typhi , Escherichia coli forming the higher rate 40.8% whereas the lower was Citrobacter  freundii 4.1%  . Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated in this study at 14.3% of the total isolated bacteria.

Insecticidal activity of aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants on stages of south beetle beans Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.)

Adnan Mossa Mohammed; Doaa Basim Abdul-Rahman

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 185-195
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161186

The current study examines the effect of six concentrations of aqueous extracts which are 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of four medicinal plants on the biological aspects of south beetle beans Callosobruchus maculatus. These plants belong to the family Umbellifera, they are: Coriandor Coriandrum sativum, Cumin Cuminum cyminum, Fennel Foericulum vulgare and Anise Pimpinella anisum. The activity test of these plants was done by soaking chickpeas seeds (the food of the insect) in the previous extracts. The aqueous extracts of Coriandor, Fennel and Anise cause 100% killing of the larval and pupal stages at 25% concentration. The treatment had a significant effect on some of the biological aspects of the first generation pregnancy, since the female productivity decreased to 20.53% at the concentration 25%. Also egg retention occurred in anise treatment. While the productivity of control treatment was 79.26%, also eggs retention was occurred in the female of the southern cowpea beetle which reached 41.70% in Anise treatment at the concentration 2.5%. The study proved that the almost of the above treatments affected the eggs viability of the first generation females.    

The Use of Original and Hybrid Flower Pollination Algorithm In Estimating The Parameters of Software Reliability Growth Models

Jamal Salahaldeen Alneamy; Marwah Marwan Dabdoob

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 196-218
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161189

        In order to assess software reliability, many software reliability growth models (SRGMs) have been used for estimation of reliability growth. . In this work, the parameters of (SRGMs) were estimated by using Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA). Then, the (FPA) was hybrid with Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RGA) to obtain Hybrid FPA (HFPA).
        The results that obtained from (FPA) are compared to the results of five algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), the Dichotomous Artificial Bee Colony (DABC), Classic Genetic Algorithm (CGA) and the Modified Genetic Algorithm (MGA).
        The results showed that (FPA) outperformed the rest of the algorithms in parameters estimating accuracy and performance using identical datasets. Sometimes, the (DABC) showed better performance than (FPA).
       Other comparisons were made between (FPA) and (HFPA) and the results show that the hybrid algorithm outperformed the original one.

Derivative UV-Spectroscopic Studies of some Schiff Bases in Absolute Ethanol

Amel G. gassy Abed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 219-232
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161211

According to the biological and industrail importance of Schiff bases compounds , a new simple  and accurate UV spectrophotometric method was established for the studied and determination of the Schiff bases compounds formed from the reaction between aromatic aldehydes compounds and
P-toluenesulphonamide , depending on the zero and fourth  derivative mode techniques . The zeroth and fourth order derivative spectra of the Schiff bases : [benzylidine (compound I) , 3, 4 – dimethoxybenzylidine (compound II) and
2 ,6 – dichorobenzylidine (compound III)] p-toluenesulphonamid , were recorded in absolute ethanol for series of different  concentration solutions . The calibration curves were ploted which result in astraight lines obeying Beers – Lambert law with R2 values and R.S.D for compound I . II and III . These values indicate that these techniques having good sensitivity and precision for the quantification of these Schiff  bases .

Preparation and Characterization of Co(II), Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes with Unsymmetrical Tetradentate Schiff Bases Ligands

K.Sh. AL-nama AL-nama; E.M. AL Nidaa AL Nidaa

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 233-248
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161212

                    Complexes of  Co(II), Ni(II),Cu(II) and Zn(II) with unsymmetrical tetradentate schiff bases ligands H2L1 =2-(1Z)- (8-(2-hydroxy benzylidene amino)naphthalen-1-ylimino) methyl) -6- methoxy phenol, H2L2 =2-((E) -1-(8-(Z)-2- hydroxyl benzylidene amino) naphthalen -1- ylimino) ethyl) phenol and H2L3= 1-((8-((Z) -2-hydroxy benzylidene amino) naphthalen -1- ylimino) methyl) naphthalene-2-ol, have been prepared in (1:1) (L: M) molar ratio and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, spectral method (I.R, electronic, 1H-NMR), magnetic measurements and metal content analysis. The spectral data suggest that the ligands  behave as a dibasic  tetradentate ligands with ONNO donor, and coordinate with the metal ion to form mononuclear complexes via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the phenolic  group and azomethine group  respectively. Conductivity data in DMF solution showed that all complexes are non-electrolyte. Magnetic moment and electronic spectra data suggested square planar geometry for all complexes .

The collective Properties of Even-Even164-174 W Isotopes

Muyasser Fatehi Fadil; Imad Mamdouh Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 249-258
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161213

      Ground states bands (GSB) and negative parity band (NPB) of  isotopes have been calculated. Bohr-Mottelson (BM), Interacting boson approximation-1(IBM-1) and Interacting vector boson model (IVBM) were used for this purpose. The principal excited state (  ) and the proportion of the second to the primary excited state   provide primary information about the properties of the nucleus. The ratio of the gamma energy, over spin  of each state as a function of the angular momentum  (E-GOS), has been assessed to decide the ground states property of each nucleus. The ratio of energies of ( ) and ( ), states as a function of the angular momentum , have been attracted to decide numerically the properties of the ground states band of all states and all nuclei. The  staggering between octupole band and ground state band is found to display a beat pattern as a function of angular momentum . The methods which were used, showed the transitional U(5)-O(6) properties of , the general properties that U(5)-O(6)-SU(3) of , and the transitional properties O(6)-SU(3) of ; while  showed the SU(3) properties.

Contrast Enhancement in Gray Level Images

Duha Amir Sultan; Alhan Anwar Yonis

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 259-281
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161214

Contrast enhancement is a very important step in image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision .Histogram Equalization (HE) is widely used for contrast Enhancement . This paper discussed five techniques of contrast enhancement, i.e. Histogram Equalization (HE), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Brightness preserving Bi_Histogram Equalization (BBHE), Dualistic Sub_Image Histogram Equalization (DSIHE) and Recursive Sub_Image Histogram equalization (RSIHE). Also it presented the comparison among the various techniques that show the image enhances the overall contrast and visibility of local details, by using two measures: Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) and Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE) to check the signal and brightness power respectively. This work is programmed by MATLAB VER.7.8.

On i-Continuous Functions

Sabih W. Askandar W. Askandar

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 282-288
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.161215

      In this paper we prove that the function  is i-open if it is injective, surjective and i-continuous from i-compact topological space  into -space. Further, we define and find the relationship among some i-separation axioms such as,  and.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Ibuprofen and Nystatin Via Ion Pair Complex Formation Using Chromotrope 2R

Intisar A. Shihab; Theiaa Al-Sabha

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 289-299
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.161532

This research paper tackles a developed method for Ibuprofen and Nystatin drugs determination both in their pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes (ion association complexes) between the above drugs and Chromotrope 2R (C2R) in acidic medium forming a reddish orange colour. The complexes show maximum absorption at 562 nm and 566 nm for Ibuprofen and Nystatin respectively. The method was adhering to the Beer's law over concentration range 10-90 and 2-40 μg/ml with molar absorptivity values 1.36×103 and 7.59×103 l. mol-1. cm-1and average recovery 99.77% and 100.60 % for the above mentioned drugs respectively. No observed interferences appeared from the excipients commonly existed in pharmaceuticals. Successfully, application for both Ibuprofen and Nystatin was conducted in their pharmaceutical formulations.

Compare Between Genetic Algorithm and Clonal Selection Algorithm To Pattern Recognition Latin's Numbers

Maha Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 300-315
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.162121

       This work involves the use  some of Artificial intelligence techniques algorithms which are genetic algorithm and artificial immune system algorithm- clonal selection algorithm.
       A comparison was done between the original mode of the Latin number and the distorted modes applied for the same number and with the use of above algorithms.
       Mode results obtained from implementing both algorithms showed that the artificial immune system algorithm(Clonal selection algorithm) was good and 85% in getting closer modes to that of the applied Latin number original mode.
      Both above algorithms are based on optimization principle in getting the results.