Volume 28, Issue 4, Autumn 2019, Page 1-272

Kinetic Study of Adsorption of Some Azo Dyes On A Thermally Catalyzed Local Bentonite Clay

Safwan A.S. Aldbouni; Ammar A.H. Alkazraji; Emad A.S. Alhyali

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.163310

The research is included studying the kinetic of the adsorption of two azo dyes synthesized in our laboratories on a local bentonite  thermally activated .The efficiency and capacity of adsorption are calculated at the optimal conditions of adsorption. Such as the effect of dose , contact time ,pH of adsorption medium and temperature .
Four kinetic models of  adsorption namely ,pseudo first and second order ,Elovich , and intraparticle diffusion have  been applied on the experimental data of the adsorption system under consideration . The results showed that ,the studied systems are fitted to the pseudo second order model  ,and the adsorption process occurs in more than one mechanism. The activation energy of adsorption of the studied system in addition to the thermodynamic functions of  activation of adsorption are estimated from studying the effect of temperature on the rate constant of adsorption .

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Diclofenac and Isoxsuprine Drugs Using N-bromosuccinimide and Malachite Green Dye

Marwan M. Al- Sharook; Leena A.S.M. Al-Salim

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 18-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.163311

Simple, accurate and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method for assay of diclofenac (Di) and Isoxsuprine (IS) in pure and pharmaceutical formulation has been developed. The method is based on oxidation of (Di) and (IS) by N-bromosuccinimide in acidic medium. The excess of oxidant is determine by reaction with malachite green dye and the absorbance is measured at 615nm. Under the optimized experimental conditions, Beer's law is obeyed in concentration range 0.5-18 , 1-18 µg/ml with molar absorptivity 5.1×104 and 4.6×104 L.mol-1.cm-1 for (Di) and (IS) respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) 0.0314, 0.038 and quantification are 0.0104 , 0.126 µg/ml. with the accuracy (average recovery) 100.80%, 101.20% for above drugs respectively and the precision (RSD) less than 1.5% for both drugs. The proposed method is applied successfully for assay of pharmaceutical formulations.

Preparation of biodiesel fuel from Urtica dioica seeds oil and study different Properties

Osamah M.M. Taha; Khalid S. Tawfiq; Subhi M. Jarullah M. Jarullah

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 33-47
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.163324

Recently,biofuels are considered as an important alternative energy resource and could be a substitute for fossile fuels,due to the fact the increasing awarenees of the environmental pollution issues and depletion of fossil fuel resources (crude oil, natural gas and coal). The greatest motivation for producing biofuels is the clobal warming caused by the continuous burning of fossile fuels.                                                                                                                                                      
In this study,fatty acid methyl esters,known as biodiesel fuel derived from triglycerides(virgin vegetable oil of nettle),by transesterifacation with methanol,show the promising yield and better quality of biodiesel. This paper presents the development for the production of biodiesel from the vegetable oil having the high yield 91% where the transesterification reaction is promoted by finding an optimal conditions.                                                                                           
Clearly the process of transesterification is directly affected by the mode of reaction  condition including: molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, amount of KOH, reaction time and temperature. In the present paper,various conditions of preparation of biodiesel have been  described to obtain the best quality and high yield.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Mesalazine, Carbamazepine and Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Using Nile Blue Dye

Abdussamed M. A. Saeed; Elham S. Salih

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 48-69
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163325

A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been suggested for the determination of Mesalazine (MES), carbamazepine (CAM) and diclofenac sodium (DFS) in pure and pharmaceutical dosages. The method is based on the oxidation of drugs in acidic medium with known excess of N-bromosuccinimide (in case of MES), or bromate-bromide mixture (in case of CAM and DCF) and subsequent determination of unreacted oxidant by decolorization of nile blue dye (NB) and measure the absorbance of unoxidized dye at 640 nm. Calibration curves of the dye in the presence of studied drugs were rectilinear over the ranges 0.1-2.2, 0.4-2.4 and 0.6-2.8 µg ml-1 with molar absorptivity of 6.21×104, 1.05×105 and 1.21×105 l.mol-1.cm-1 for MES, CAM and DCF respectively. The common excipients and additives didn’t interfere in their determination. The suggested method was successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical forms resulted in a good agreement with standard British pharmacopeia method and standard addition procedure.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Fungi Associated With Citrus Fruits Taken From The Local Markets of The City of Mosul and Laboratory Control

Rafia K. Gergis; Nisreen I. Mohamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 70-81
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163326

The present study involved the isolation and diagnosis of  molds and yeasts which affecting the local and imported citrus fruits available in the local markets of the Mosul. These fruits include (grapefruit, oranges, lemons, sweet limes, oranges Japanese, sour, bitter orange and  tangerine) .45 isolates were obtained from filamentous fungi and 26 isolates also were obtained from yeasts.The fungi were identified morphogically and microscopically based on Pitt and Hocking taxonomic index(2009) . The molds samples were distributed to the following species Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Alternaria, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Rhizopus. The two genera Aspergillus and Penicillium  were identified to the species level, because of their frequent ocurrence in the isolates, as well as the yeasts were diagnosed morphogically and microscopically, their growth have been studied  on  the differential medium.The  system Vitek 2 Compact also has been used .Distinction was made between Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes yeasts.  yeasts samples were  distributed to 5 genera.They are Crptococcus spp, Candida spp, Saccharomyces spp,, Rhodotorula mucillaginosa, and Geotrichum candidum.The present study included the use of  Candida guilliermondii (which has been isolated during the present study), yeast as biological  control  for the isolated yeast of the present study. The yeast showed high efficiently in inhibiting molds growth specially   P. italicum and A. niger , the yeast inhibited their growth completely and it was 100% . 

Effect of Spraying with Liquid Solution of Some Organic Substances and Germinated Barley Grains Cultured in Physiological Growth Constants of Fennel Foeniculum vulgate

Saad Al-deen Majid Al-Hafodhi; Muntaha Mahmood Al-Rashidi

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 82-92
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163327

A field experiment was conducted in the winter season for the year 2017/2018 to study the Effect of Spraying with Liquid Solution of Some Organic Substances and Germinated Barley Grains in Physiological Growth Constants of Fennel.
               Three types of animal manure dungs of (cows, sheep and hens) and  Germinated Barley Grains in addition to the mixture of all type were use withe concentration  (0, 15, 20, 25) gm/l. with three periods of spraying (15, 30, 40) days/spray. Plants were sprayed until reaching to dealing point.
               Results showed high significant degree of (15) gm./l. of the liquid  solution of cows dung in each of Bio Mas Duration and Relative Growth Rate and leaf area duration, while the liquid solutions sheep dung with a concentration of (15) gm./l. in Crop Growth Rate was exceeded Spraying date was recorded one time for each (30) days significant for all former characteristics.

Isolation And Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Some Clinical And Environmental Samples And Study It,s Activity for The Production of Pyocyanin And Protease

Nazar Mohammed Hassan Al-mamari; Adeba Younes Sharif Al-Numa,an

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 93-107
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163328

      The study includes isolation and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different sources as (90) samples were collected during a period from November (2017) to February (2018), including (wounds, suckers, urine, drinking water), Twinty five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified depending on morphological and biochemical tests at a rate of (27.77%) from total samples including (13) isolates from suckers used for sucking solutions from respiratory tract, (7) isolates from wounds, (3) isolates from urine and (2) isolates from drinking water. The isolates from sucker formed the highest rate reached (14.44%) of total samples and (52%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, whereas the lowest rate was from drinking water (2.22%) of total samples and (8%) of total Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The results showed that (92%) of total isolates were pyocyanin producer on King A agar medium, It was also found that all isolates of this bacteria have the ability to produce protease.

Measurement of Some Antioxidants in Serum of Infected Pregnant Women with Toxoplasmosis

Muna I. Ibraheem; Layla A. Mustaf; Nabeel E. Salih

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 108-115
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163329

The study  involved measurement of  medical, biological and antioxidant  importance of toxoplasmosis and the effect of the causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii ,on the level of the biochemical parameters in the serum of 225 pregnant women infected with toxoplasmosis compared with225serum of women infected as control group. The criteria taken into consideration are: Glutathione (GSH) , Albumine (Alb) , Uric acid (UA) , Malondialdehyde (MDA) , Peroxinitrate (No).The Results showed: A significant increase (p≤0.01) in level of GSH, MDA and NO whereas Alb and U.A decreased, compared to control group. Interference between infection and pregnancy periods showed an significant increase (p≤0.01) in level of GSH during 1-3 months pregnancy period and MDA and non- significant increase in level of NO during 6-9 months pregnancy period. Alb and UA levels decreased, as significantly (p≤0.01) in serum of pregnant infected women.

The Use of Anatomical Characteristics of The Stems in The Identification of Five Cultivars of Italian Pear Plant (Pyruscommunis L.) Cultivated in The North of Iraq

Amina A.Y. Dalalbashi

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 116-128
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163330

This research included a taxonomic study of pears plant using the anatomical characteristics of the stems of five cultivars of the Pyrus communis L. imported from Italy and implanted in Iraq (Beurre hardy, Conference, Bonne louise, Abate fetel, Doyenne comice). The cultivars were compared anatomically. The results showed significant differences for many of the anatomical characters including: The thickness and shape of the cross section of the stems, as well as the thickness and type of the bronchimic and collagenic tissue, as well as the thickness and shape of the phloem and xylem, and the number of vascular bundles. These important taxonomic variations played an important role in the isolation and identification cultivars.

Use The Positive Selection Algorithm and The Negative Selection Algorithm in The English Character Recognition

Maha A.M. Hassan; Noura Abdel Fattah; Maha H. Najam; Nour S. Shiban

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 129-141
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163331

In this paper, I use some artificial intelligence techniques algorithms, which are the algorithms of the artificial immune system (positive selection algorithm and negative selection algorithm). Through these two algorithms, it is distinguished between the original and distorted English letters.
       Through the results of the patterns, which were obtained after the implementation of these two algorithms, I observed that the percentage of discrimination was 85% for the positive selection algorithm, and 80% for the negative selection algorithm.  This discrimination was applied after the images had been divided into blocks, and then the properties of the images had been extracted by adopting the method of seven undependable momentums in order to gain patterns which are close to the original pattern of the introduced English letter.

Solve the Initial Value Problems of Fractional Order Using The Homotopy Analytical Method and Improve Them Using Pade' Approximations

Heba Sh. Mahmmood; Kais I. Ibraheem

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 142-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.163332

In this research , the initial value problems of the caputo- fractional order are solved using the homotopy analysis method. The Pade' approximation is added to the fractional order to improve this method. The improvement is confirmed through two examples by comparing the value of mean square error for homotopy analysis method and the improved method.

Distinguish Some Textile Defects by Adopting Image Processing Methods and Intelligence Techniques

Iman Subhi Mohammed; Israa mohammed khuder

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 158-175
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163333

The automatic control of the fabric is one of the important steps in the spinning and weaving industry in order to preserve the quality of the fabric. The manual methods have been used for decades to control the product using human vision. The monitoring process is very strenuous, time consuming and cost effective. To reduce the costs required there arise the needing of automated systems appearance to examine, detect and apply tissue defects.
The aim of the proposed work is to build an efficient system for detecting and classifying textile defects using advanced image processing techniques based on new methods of combining the practical implementation of image segmentation and features extraction, as well as the use of artificial intelligence techniques of neural networks for detection and classification.                   
            The system was built in two phases: the first is the defect detection phase, and the second phase is the classification phase, where live images were collected as a textile database from the textile factory in Mosul as well as the local market. The fabrics were carefully selected and these fabrics are of different types and colors, some of these have no defect at all and some of them have up to fourteen types of defects. 560 images were collected; 280 of which were non defective fabrics, 280 were defective, and there are 20 images for every type of defect, at the defect detection phase, the statistical second-class attributes of the GLCM matrix (energy, variance, correlation, homogeneity) are extracted, while in the classification phase, the statistical first-class attributes, mean and skewness, and the geometric attribute of the total defect size. Two neural networks were used as determinants of detection and classification: the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and the Elman network. The proposed system showed a 95.7% discrimination rate compared with other similar work in the same field.

Data Mining by Using Rule of Space Syntax Theory

Shahla H.A. Kharofa

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 176-188
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163334

Data mining is the technique, methods and means of extracting information from data and exploiting it to solve problems and make appropriate decisions using computer applications, which is a smart modern technology.
In this research, data mining and spaces syntax theory were used, a program was carried out to determine the structural importance of the spaces to determine the degree of their objective importance and comprehensiveness at the level of the system as a whole, school of two floors  was  selected and used for analyzing. Matlab language was used to perform the analysis. 
Through applying the program, integration kernel showed the most integrated spaces locations which have the lowest degrees Real Relative Asymmetry while the isolation kernel has showed the lowest integrated spaces which have the highest degrees Real Relative Asymmetry. The results were compatible with the logical locations which hypothesizes the space system integration geometrically.

Encryption and Compression Digital Video Files using Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm

Hasan M.A. Anwer

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 189-205
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163335

The research and studies of encryption and compression of digital files to the confidentiality and ease of dealing with networks and the Internet, by reducing the size of files transmitted through multimedia, and also used to increase the confidentiality of information transmitted.
The purpose of the research is to encrypt and compress colored digital video files using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm, The digital video file is entered into Audio Video Interleave (AVI) and cut into a set of frames, Each frame is then analyzed into the three color segments (red, green and blue) And an audio input from the Waveform Audio File Format  (WAV) type (which represents the encryption key), the encoded frame was then inserted into the compression algorithm, A hybrid compression method was adopted which is considered as one of the solutions that reduces the size of the required data on the one hand and gives it a secret on the other, Where it was segmentation and clustering the encoded frames into a cluster of clusters (The optical pixels), which have been introduced into the artificial neural network (back propagation network), The genetic algorithm has been used to calculate the weight values ​​of each cell of the network. The decryption and decompression is then performed, and by using a set of testing and comparison tools that showed that the results were consistent with the research requirements, and Matlab R2017b was used to implement research algorithms.

A comparative Study for Designing an Efficient Intelligence System for the Process of Discrimination

Iman S. Mohammed; Shatha A. Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 206-223
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163336

Face recognition is one of the most important biometrics techniques used to identify people. The research aims to build an efficient system by devising a new method of discrimination that includes advanced image processing techniques and intelligent techniques.
This work has been implemented in several stages, the first of which is the arrangement of the database, Followed by pre-processing based on the integration of Gaborand DCT conversion. And then adopt two methods in extracting statistical features, the first dependent first-class statistics, the second dependent second-class statistics of the GLCM matrix and then draw the important features of them.
In the phase of discrimination, two types of artificial neural networks were used after their construction in the 2016 MATLAB environment, BPNN and Elman. Finally, the efficiency of the methods used and the identification of the best were compared.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Diazo-coupling Reaction

Thabit S. Al-Ghabsha; Aseel N. Obedagha; Rawaa A. Zakaria

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 224-232
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1999.163319

A ccurate and simple spectrophotometric method  has been suggested for the determination ofoxymetazoline hydrochloride (OMCl) in aqueous solution is developed. The present process included coupling of  OMCl with diazotized sulphanilic acid reagent in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The orange colored azo dye formed very stable and soluble in water gives maximum absorption at 496 nm. The lineratey is obeyed over the range 20 – 400 mg / 25 ml (0.8 –16µg.ml-1) the molar absorptivity is equate  to 2.30 ´ 104  l.mol-1cm-1. The proposed method has been used to the determination of OMCl in two formulations with satisfactories results.

The Effects of Soft Drinks on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats

Salwan W. Yousif; Mahmood I. Mohammed; Jasim MY. Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 233-239
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163320

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of soft drinks such as Cola and Miranda on some physiological and biochemical parameters in the blood of white rats such as body weight (B.W), hemoglobin (HB), blood glucose (B.G) concentration and estimation of lipid profile estimation which included: total cholestrol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), total protein as well as estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the blood serum of male albino rats treated for one month.
 The results showed significant differences (p≤0.05) in some parameters compared with control group like body weight, blood glucose concentration and lipid profile, while other values such as concentration of hemoglobin, urea and total protein showed no significant differences with control group.
 These results show the relationship of soft drinks and their harmful effects on public health as well as their cause of metabolic syndromes such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes and high blood lipids.

Study of Resonator Properties of Stable and Unstable Lasers

Zeina T. Abdul Rahman; Zeyad T. Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 240-250
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163321

In this work, the stability of optical resonator for two types of lasers are studied which are, He-Ne laser and CO2 laser. The first type, is a low power laser and 0.6328 µm of wave length and  the second type (CO2 laser) is a high power laser and 10.6 µm of wave length .
Theoretical part deals with illustrating the physical meaning of stability factors which are g-factor, Fresnel No. , Q-factor and diffraction losses , also the mathematical equations of these factors and the geometrical specifications related  with optical resonator.
According to the figures which show the relationships between the stability factors, He-Ne laser is more stable than CO2 laser ; it has been verified and this is due to the high difference of photon ,s energy and also to the difference in output powers for the two laser.

On SSAGP-injective Rings

Raida D. Mahmood; Manal I. Abd

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 251-257
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163322

In this paper, we investigate some properties of rings whose simple singular right R- modules are A Gp-injective (or SSAGP- injective for short). It is proved that:  Y(R)=0 where R is a right SSAGP- injective rings. It is also proved that

Let R be a complement right bounded, SSAGP – injective rings and every maximal essential right ideal is Gw-ideal. Then R is strongly regular ring.
Let R be SSAGP – injective and r(e) is Gw-ideal for every idempotent element . Then Z(R)=0.

Let R be SSAGP – injective, MERT and right CM. Then R is either strongly regular or semi simple Artinian.

Embedding Data In Personal Image By Using Mosaic Image

Kanar M. Sami

Journal of Education and Science, 2019, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 258-269
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.1970.163323

Many ideas have been dealt with in recent years about hiding data and different types and sizes of images. Different ways of hiding leads to unifying the desirable goals of this process. The main goal of a great bits of information with the smallest size or at least maintaining the original one of the hidden images or the target ones. One way to achieve the two goals is the hiding method by using mosaic image. Mosaic Images that are used image processing are those made by combining small tiles. The tiles are the source images which aim at  restructuring the original visual information which is rendered into a new mosaic-like style. The Creation of mosaic images, made by a sequence of partial views, is a powerful means for obtaining a larger view than available within a single view, and it has been used in a wide range of applications especially in the field of steganography. Using this way, it is possible to hide information with the same size of the original image without increasing the size or the compression of data to reduce the size. In this research, twice the data size used has been hidden by hiding the data of the ‘secret’ image embedded in a ‘target’ personal image, noising the image itself. Thus the features of personal image disappear, making a hidden image and a noisy one. Different types and extensions have been chosen in this research including personal, natural, or satellite images. The personal image is used as a target image to hide other data inside it while other images are secret ones embedded in the personal image. Matlab is used to execute mosaic image algorithm.