Volume 20, Issue 1, Summer 2007, Page 1-588

Effect of food type in response to different roles of fig figs and raisins for some insect growth inhibitors

Nazar Al-Mallah; Rana Al-Sabea

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162782

The result of the recent study revealed that the host kind (Artificial diet, Date and Fig) affect the Susceptibility of different insect stages of Fig moth Ephestia caute/la (Walk.) and CmTant moth Ephestia ca/ide/la (Gunee) to selected insect growth inhibitors (Diflubenzuron , Lufenuron, Cyromazine) Lufenuron was the most toxic inJ1ibitors against eggs of Fig moth reared on artificial diet and its LC50 value reached 0.0012 while the Cyromazine exhibit a less toxic effect on eggs of the same species reared on Fig and its LC 50 value reached 0.0075. The larvae ofFig moth showed a higher sensitivity to insect growth inJ1ibitors in comparison to Currant moth larvae reared on all hosts. The values of LC50 of insect growth inhibitors on pupae of Fig and currant most were varied according
to the diet kind and ins·ect species. Diflubenzuron and Cyromazine were more toxic to the adults of Fig moth reared on artificial diet while Cyromazine showed a higher toxic effect to the adults of Cunant moth reared on fig.

Effect of some plant extracts in structure

Najem Korkees; Ayad Ismaeel; Adnan Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162781

The effect of aqueous plant extracts of (Capparis spinosa L., leaves; Olea europea L., leaves; Dianthus chinensis, flowers; Mentha longifolia L., leaves and Melia azedarach, leaves and fruits) on the histology of the midgut of larvae and adult of Rusty flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). & Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts was studied. Results showed that the longitudinal muscles bundles began to disintegrate and sometimes disappear. The circular muscle layer became thinner, irregular, deattched from epithelial layer and even it underwent disruption. Also, cells of epithelial layer have undergone a great and clear disintegrator in many places. These effects have been noticed in the midgut of adult stage of khapra beetle. Histological preparations showed
the absence of peri trophic membrane in both beetles studied. The extracts have seriously affected the histological nature structure of the ovaries in khapra beetle reared from larvae previously treated with the extracts. The follicle cells became loose, separate from each other and then began to disintegrate, thus, becoming indistinguishable .Also vacuoles appeared at the peripherye of the oocyte which increases in number and size due to the isappearance of the yolk granules. Morphological abnormality appeared in ovarian follicles. They lose their
regular circular or oval form and become irregular, amoeboid, distorted or disintegrated. These effects have led to the decrease of the number of ovarioles. The effect was severe on the fat bodies. Their quantities became greatly decreased, and restricted in certain areas, and finally, almost disappeared around the ovaries.

Effect of aquatic extracts of oleander and Melia azedarach on the nucleic acid content of trichomonas vaginalis in vivo

Rana S Abdullah; Hussain E. Artain

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 22-31
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162945

This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of aqueous leaf extract
of Nerium oleander and fruit extract of Melia azedarach on nucleic acids
content and activity of some enzymes in Trichomonas vagina/is which
growth in Diamond's medium tryptone, yeast and maltose (TYM) media.
Results indicated that the exposure of T. vagina/is to IC50
concentration of N. oleander leaves and M azedarach fruits extracts
showed asignificant decrease in DNA content by 31.5% and 38.2%,
respectively, while the RNA content decreased by 28.3% and 50.7%,
respectively. Furthermore the totel.l. nucleic acids content decreased by
27.9% and 48.1% , respectively, compared with the untreated
trichomonads with plant extracts after 72 hours of growth.
The results of this study also indicated that T. vagina/is treated with
N. oleander leaves and M azedarach fruits extracts showed inhibed in the
activity of thymidine phosphorylase enzyme at rate 32.7% and 69.2%
respectively compared with untreated trichomonads with plant extracts
after 72 hours of growth.
From the results of this study, 1t is obvious that the above mentioned
extracts possess an inhibitory effect on nucleic acids and on the activity
of the enzyme Thymidine phosphorylase.

Morphological deformities and tissue lesions of some parts of the central nervous system updated with rifampsin Rifampicin in the white mouse embryo Mus musculus

Hani Hammodi; Raya Sadallah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 32-42
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162797

The present study aimed to investigating the effects of rifampicin drug to induce morphological malformations and histological defects in some divisions of central nervous system during embryogenesis of swiss albino mice Mus musculus at the level of light microscope. The pregnant female ingested of rifampicin orally as ascending concentrations 150, 250, 350 mg/kg body weight daily, which started at the ih day of pregnancy until delivery of neonate. The result revealed at 150 mg/kg no morphological malformations were observed except some 
histopatholgical changes in the spinal cord. The ratio of malformes embryos at 250 mg/kg was 14% represented by embryos hypertrophy, Encephalauxe, Embryos cyanosis, and ophthalmoptosis. The histological injuries in the mantle layer of neuro epithelium were vaculation, bleeding, degeneration and necrosis. In addition, decreasing of central canal in the spinal cord appeared. At 350 mg/kg of rifampicin the malformed embryos, were 29%. The morphological defects were enencephalauxe, abdominal teres is with intestinal cenosis appeared lowering of the cranial skull, displacement of otic and straight microcaudale tail appears. Histopathologically many injures appeared as vaculation hypoplasia and necrosis in the mantle layer of neuroepithelium , as well as protrution of
brain laterally as external brain, in addition to spinal cord damages, compared with control group.


Intesar Al-Kenany; Shahla Hasan

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 43-53
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162795

This study conducted to induce the effect of DL-m~thionine as antioxidant on histochemistry as well as ability to induec histopathological changes in liver tissue of rabbit experimentally . In this study have used nine rabbit at weight rangine between 1100-1300 gm local breed ( 3 in each group) , divded into 3 groups 1st group considered
as control 2nd group treated with 0.4 % DL-methionine while 3rd group treated with 0.8% DL-methionine .
Histological sections revealed histopathological lesions in liver at 0.8 % represented by vacuolar degeneration coagulative necrosis , portal fibrosis , hypertrophy in kupfer cells associated with hemosiderine pigmentation and invitation mononuclar inflammatony cells . In bile duct epithial hyperplasia , peri ductule cuffing of inflammatory cells have been seen.
Histochemically , results showed sever positive reaction with PAS and BC , moderatia positive reaction with AB at pH 2.5 and BC. When estimation Glutathion (GSH) in liver tissue the results showed significant decrease in GSH concentration in liver tissue at 0.8% of methionine as compared with control group.

Study of embryonic development and histological structure of the eye in white mouse Mus musculus

Hani M Hammodi; Raghed A Abbas

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 54-69
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162950

The present study aims to investigate the morphological,
anatomical and histological eye development of the swiss albino mice
mus musculus. The eye development initiated at early stage of pregnancy
and continued and represented for twelve stages, each stage per one day.
At full term delivery, the eye was closed and incomplete in
differentjation. The first signal of optic vesicle primordium appeared in
the first stage at th day of pregnancy and continued with enlargement in
the second stage. The optic vesicles was invaginated, at the 3 rd stage to
form the optic cup. At the same time, the lens primordium (Lens
placodes) appeared. In the 4th stage, the two layers of optic cup
differentiated and the lens disc involuted to form, The lens vesicle the
first retinal signal appeared at the 5th stage were ganglion cells. At the 6th
stage, several features appeared which include bruche 's· membrane,
choroid fissure, optic nerve primordium and spherical lens with lens fiber.
Then inner plexiform layer of the retina differentiated at the th stage. The
choroid and scleral tunics as well as the retinal nerve fiber layer appeared
at the gth stage. The cornea and iris primordia as well as the pigment
epithelial cells of the retina appeared at the 9th stage. At the 1oth stage the
optic nerve emerged from the ventral side of the eye ball. The distinct
features of the 11th stage were the appearance of the outer neural retina as
syncitiallayer with the differentiation of inner nerve fiber layers. On the
other hand, the eye chambers, and the differentiation of inner nuclear
retinal layer and the outer plexiform layer were developed at the last


Sundes Al-Kalak; Mohammed Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 70-85
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162799

The study involved the investigation of protein and carbohydrate substances in adult tapeworm Khawia luteiu using histochemical techniques (Ninhydrin- Sheff,Millons reagent and Toluidine-blue). Protein and carbohydrates were found in abundance in reproductive organs ,mesenchyma tissue, vitelline glands and eggs, using Ninhydrin- Sheff and Toluidine blue stains.Also, the muscular system, mainly the longitudinal muscles, showed strong positive reaction with Ninhydrin- Sheff stain and negative reaction with Toluidine blue and Millons reagent. Positive and weakly positive reactions in different tissues and organs were noticed with Millons reagent.
The study also showed that the histochemical reactions in the worm varied in strength because the metabolic and physiological activities, such as protection, energy storing, sensitive pulses reception to activate reproductive processes and host immune response resistance.

The biological effect of the under - killer concentration of some pesticides in some domestic fly virgins

Nazar Al-Mallah; Abduljabbar Ibraheem

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 86-95
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162798

The results of the recent study revealed that the biological effect of sub-lethal concentration of some insecticides were varied on housefly eggs and pupae. The results mentioned a higher effect ofNemec-super in increasing the average incubation period and redaction of the average eggs hating percentage egg percentage which reached 20.8 hour 70.1% respectively . The Cyromazine average period of larval stage 11.2 , 10.4 days respectively and the average percentage of abnonnal larvae produced 4.5 , 5.0% respectively from treated eggs . The effect of eggs
treatment expand to the average period of pupal stage and to the percentage of adult eclosion from the pupae , average period of adult stage and on reducing the number of eggs I female .Pupal treatment showed a little variation on average pupal period and percentage of adult eclosion from the pupae , adult period and number of eggs /female . 

Effect of a number of plant extracts in the life of beetle Tribolium casteneum (Herbst) and flour Trogoderma granarium (Everts).

Najem Korkees; Ayad Ismaeel; Adnan Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 96-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162794

The effects of six aqueous plant extracts ( Capparis spinosa L., leaves; Olea europea L., leaves; Dianthus chinensis, flowers; Mentha longifolia L., leaves and Melia azedarach, leaves and ripe fruits) were studied on a number of biological aspects of Rusty flour beetle Tribolium casteneum (Herbst.) & Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts) . Seven concentrations
(%0.5 d.O d.5 ,2.5 ,5 ,7.5 dO)
were used for each extract. Different effects on the larval longevity have been seen when using different extracts, concentrations and insects species .This study revealed that the extracts have significant affects on the number of larval instars. Some of them increased the number of moulting significantly as compared with that of control, moulting inhibition factor, therefore, appeared negative in khapra beetle larvae
Trogoderma granarium; whereas it was positive in most larval stages of rusty flour beetle Tribolium casteneum.
Larvae of rusty-red flour beetle failed to change to pupae stages, thus it remained under the exuvia and died. Also, khapra beetle larvae treated with (M azedarach) leaves and fruits extracts could not change to pupae.
Development duration was extended in most khapra beetle treatments due to the increasing of the larval longevity. Treating khapra beetle larvae with plant extracts increased the weight of pupae as compared to controls.
Sexual ratio was almost 1: 1 in all treatments. 

Effect of alcoholic extract of black seed, red tea and tannins of oak tannins on the vitality of the primary heads Echinococcus granulosus of the granule thorns of sheep origin in glass

Ibraheem A Abdullah; Foad S Ismail

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 105-114
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162949

The results of this study revealed significant effect of an alcoholic
extracts of the seeds of Nigella sativa L. , calyx of the red tea Hibiscus
sabdariffa L. and nutgalls of Quercus infectora Oliv. in concentrations of
2.5 mg/ml 5 mg/ml, 7.5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml for the seeds of Nsativa,
and the concentrations of 50mg/ml, 75mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 150mg/ml
for the calyx of the red tea , H. sabdariffa and concentrations 5mg/ml ,
7 .5mg/ml , 1 Omg/ml and 15mg/ml for the nutgalls of Q. infectoria on the
viability of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin
in vitro.

Immune effects of partially purified polyamine oxidase from cerebrospinal fluid against infection with secondary hydatid disease in mice.III.Growth and development of hydatid cysts .

Khawola Flayeh; Asmaa Ali; Wathba Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 115-124
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162793

The study included immune response to infection with secondary hydatid disease in BALB/c mice activated by partially purified Cerebrospinal fluid-polyamine oxidase CSF-P AO with spermine (Spm) and infected with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus. The pathological changes occurred in mice activated by different
concentrations of PA0(200-1600Jlg/10gm body weight) with constant concentration (200 jlgl 1 Ogm body weight) of substrate (spermine), and by the same concentration of spermine alone, were followed in comparison with positive control group along one month, depending on many criteria.
These criteria included changes in numbers, weights and diameters of hydatid cysts, and their percentage eduction. In addition, changes in weights of liver and spleen and their organ indices .The results revealed
an obvious decrease in numbers, weights and diameters of secondary hydatid cysts grown for one month in activated mice, in comparison with the +ve control group, supported by elevation in the percentage of reduction of hydatid cysts in activated mice.A decrease in the mean of liver and spleen weights, and a variation in organ indices in activated mice occurred within one month, whereas no change was observed in the mean of spleen weight, in comparison with +ve control group.
Therefore, it may be concluded here that P AO isolated from CSF with Spm could be considered as an effective immunumodulator against infection with secondary hydatid disease.

Studying the susceptibility of red flour beetles to penetration and control of some packaging materials using low pressure and carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides

Ibraheem Al-Hadedi; Ayad Ismaeel

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 125-133
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162792

Ninevah province is one of the ancient places in Iraq in producing of wheat from which , in addition to flour , many products are prepared since the first thousand years BC . These products are subjecte to infestation with red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst ) & khapra beetie,Trogoderma granarium Everts. Hence, the present investigation aimed at studying the biology of both insects at 32±1 °C & relative humidity 70±5% . The control was 95% flour powder & 5% yeast powder.
Results of the present study showed that Among the different types of pouches investigated, those made of polypropylene were found to be the most resistant to penetration , followed by aluminum foil. polyester .
Cellophane. Polyethylene and gunny. Highest mortality rate of both insects was due to subjection to carbon dioxide ,followed by subjection to nitrogen gas and finally those subjected to low pressure. Sensitivity of different stages to these gases was as follows: adult> egg> pupa >larva.
From the results of the above mentioned study, can be concluded that Low pressure, carbon dioxide or nitrogen can be employed to protect these products from infestation by the two insects studied .

Effect of water extract of black bean, red tea, and tannins of oats in the vitality of the initial visions Echinococcus of granular granulosis of sheep in glass

Foad Ismaeel; Ibraheem Abdullah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 134-144
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162791

The results of this study revealed significant effect of the aqueous extracts of the seeds of Nigella sativa L. , calyx of the red tea Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and nutgalls of Quercus infectora Oliv. in concentrations of 5mg/ml , 7.5 mg/ml, 1 Omg/ml and 15 mg/ml for the seeds of N.sativa and the concentrations of 50 mg/ml, 75 mg/ml , 1 OOmg/ml and 150 mg/ml for both the calyx of the red tea, H. sabdariffa and nutgalls of Q. infectora, on the protoscoleces of chinococcus granulosus of sheep origin in vitro

Effect of lipopolysaccharide extracted from Escherichia coli in immune response of BALB/c mice against infection with secondary hydatid disease. III. Phagocytosis and delayed-type hypersensitivity.

Asmaa Ali; Sadam Yaseen

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 145-154
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162790

This study investigated the immune system response to infection with secondary hydatid cysts in BALB/c mice activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) , extracted from Escherichia coli, and infected with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus of sheep origin .
Pathological changes occuned in mice activated with LPS were followed, in comparison with the control group (mice infected with protoscoleces but not activated by LPS) along the five months peroid of experiments , depending on certain criteria including changes in the means of non-specific and specific immune response represented by
changes in the phagocytic index and foot pad thickness, respectively.
Results of the study revealed an increase in the non-specific (innate) and specific (cellular) immunity expressed by increase in the rate of phagocytic index and foot pad thickness, respectively, in activated mice when compared with the control group.The general conclusion which could be drawn from the present results is that, lipopolysaccharide extracted from E. coli acts as an active immunomodulator and is able to evoke the innate and cell mediated immunity (CMI) in mice infected with secondary hydatid disease .

The immunological effects of the polyamine oxidase enzyme partially cleared from the cerebrospinal fluid against secondary secondary cystitis in white mice. Coagulation factor and delayed hypersensitivity

Khawla Al-Flaeh; Asmaa Ali; Wathba Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 155-164
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162789

The study included immune response to infection with secondary hydatid disease in BALB/c mice activated by partially purified cerebrospinal fluid-polyamine oxidase (CSF-PAO) with spermine and infected with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus. The pathological changes occurred in mice activated by different concentrations of PA0(200-1600 )lg/1 Ogm body weight) with constant concentration (200)-lg/1 Ogm body weight) of substrate spermine, and by the same concentration of spermine alone, were followed in comparison with positive control group along one month, depending on certain criteria included changes in the non-specific and specific immune
response represented by phagocytosis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, respectively. The results revealed an increase in the non-specific (innate) and specific (cellular) immune response, represented by an increase in the rate of phagocytic index and foot pad thickness, respectively, in activated mice with PAO-Spm system, in comparison with +ve control group.
Whereas an increase in the non-specific (innate), but no change in specific (cellular) immune responses occurred with mice activated with Spm alone.
It may , therefore, be concluded here that P AO isolated from CSF with Spm could be considered as an effective immunumodulator against infection with ·secondary hydatid disease.

Modification of pesticide toxicants Actara, Desis and Fabcosidine for larvae of Khabra Trogoderma granarium beetle with Prenobyl Piotoxide and phenobarbital

Hani Al-Atar; Wathba Al-Muthafer

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 165-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162788

This study was designed to evaluate the toxicities of Actara, Decis and Vapcocidin and the effects of the mixed-function oxidase (mfo) enzymes inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide (pb ), and inducer, Phenobarbital (phb ), on the toxicities to the 15 \ 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 51h instar larvae of Trogoderma granarium, using the impregnated filter paper technique. Based on the 24h LC50 values, the three insecticides were highly toxic to the larvae. Decis was about twice as toxic as Actara and both were greatly much more toxic than Vapcocidin. The toxicities of the three insecticides, generally, decreased as the Larval stage advanced (LC50 values in the 5- Larval instars were 1.7, 1.8, 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 0 l/filter paper, respectively, for Decis, 3.0, 3.5, 4.5, 6.0, 7.0 0 1/filter paper, respectively, for Actara and 6.0, 8.0, 11.0, 13.0, 15.0 0 1/filter paper, respectively, for Vapcocidin) and it is considered most likely that the decrease is due to the increase in the mfo enzymes activity. The mfo enzymes modifiers data showed that pb
and pbb greatly increased and decreased, respectively, the toxicities of the three insecticides. The date also revealed that mfo insecticide detoxifing enzymes activity increased as the Larval stage advanced. The study
suggests that Actara would be an effective alternative to pyrethroids against this insect.

The impact of the geological formation on the groundwater used for the different purposes in the areas of Hamad Agha al-Tasani and Hittin Complex (northwest of Iraq)

Abdulmuam Kannah; Mahmood Al-Jobori

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 178-190
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162787

In the present work 20hand-dugged and Artesian wells were chosse from Hamad Aga Al-Tathani and Hateen dwelling quarter for studying water quality .Samples of water were analyzed for determination of the following parameters (Electrical conductivity, Total hardness, Sulfate, Chloride ,Nitrate, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium ).
The results reveales that water of all wells were classified as hard to very hard and also water are not suitable for drinking and industrial uses. According to classification system for irrigations water ,All samples (% 1 00) in Hateen region were classified as C3-S 1 category while those of Hamad Aga Al-Tathani were classified as followes C3-S 1%40, C4-Sl %40 ,C3-S2 %10 ,C4-S2%10.Sodicity percentages , in both regions, were less than %70.

Study of the validity of groundwater for the Conseh area / Hamidat area for agricultural purposes

Abdulazeez Al-Safawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 191-204
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162786

Ground water quality of Gonsia area which distance (about 35 km) western Mosul city were investigated, the study area suffer from water shortage, the only available water is bad quality from wells . Ten wells were chosen for this study to evaluate the quality of water used for live stock and irrigation. The results indicated that all parameter of the surveyed ground water were suitable for use to live stock regarding to test parameters excepted sulfate ion concentration which exceeded the maximum allowance limit, the study also showed that most surveyed water were highly saline which classed for irrigation as C4 according to US . Lab .Staff. Some toxic hazard elements like chloride and sodium were found in ofwell No.lO which considered unsuitable for irrigation uses.

Compared to the efficiency of the liquidation of drinking water between two stations in the city of Mosul

Afaf Abdullah; ammar Ameen

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 205-212
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162785

The present study was aimed to compare between tow plants of Mosul station .one is locate in the north of the city center which called AL_koba plant station before the Tigris river passing mosul city at the right bank of the river , which supply the west part of the city by drink water . The second plant station which called AL dan dan section in the center of mosul city ,at the left bank of Tigris river which supply some of the east part like AL ~mansour .
The samples were collected during the period between April 2001 and August 2001 from four location as follows:near water resorce at river bank ,prespitation zone ,coloration zone and supply of water zone
Then we do the chemical,physical and biological testes in order to study its suitable for drinking purposes .we saw after study that Alkoba plant more effective in the removal of the turbidity and oranig matter than the
dandan plant.

Environmental study to estimate the pollution of some heavy elements in the content of leaves and fruits of the olive plant in the city of Mosul

Yahya Al-Mashadani; Afaf Abdullah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 213-225
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162784

This practical study was conducted in Mosul city. A one hundred sites were chosen from quarters, industrialand commercial regions, main and secondary streets. This study included the pollution of leaves and the fruit of olive by the mineral elements (lead, zinc and cadmium) to check the range of the concentration of these elements. This study extended since October. 1999 to October/ 2000 .
The results of the practical study appointed to a fact that the concentrations and the elements of mineral elements in leaves and fruits were different and heterogeneous among the regions and the season; while the highest concentrations were in the regions which included the city centre and the industrial regions. This pollution belongs to the overpopulation in the region which depends on kerosene as a fuel in the domestic uses as well as the crowded movement of traffic with what cars exhaust such smoke and gases as a result to the consabustion.
The high concentrations appeared in winter, while the low onces appeared for and modern quarters of the city centre and the industrial regions besides the region of the comparison. However, the concentrations of the elements in the leaves and the fruits where higher than the previous studies in the city as compared with some Arabic and international studies.
There were a heterogeneous in the concentrations of the mineral elements among the general and subsidiary streets for dwelling quarters. 

Effect of some Galacones and Traazolate derivatives in the development, growth and differentiation of lettuce plant Lactuca sativa .L

Haylaa Hassen; Abdulmotalib Mohammed; Manahel Pulus

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 226-235
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162803

The effect of interaction between chalcone and triazoles on callus initiation, growth and differentiation were carried out . The results indicates that the addition of triazole compound (A) with chalcone derivatives type B or C or D to the growth medium at cone. 1 o-8 Molar enhanced callus initiation , shoot and root formation . Furthermore addition of compound A with compound C at cone. 1o-8M stimuluse callus growth compared with other compound used. It is found that the addition of chalcones and triazoles replace the standard growth regulators ( auxins and cytokinin )

Effect of Gamma rays on the textile plantations of parsley plants Petroselinum crispum

Raghed Al-Zoubiadi; Abdullah Al-Nuiami

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 236-248
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162804

This study attained to callus induction from(shoot tips, leaves, hypocotyle and roots) of petroselinum crispum L . plants which produced by non radiation and radiation seeds and explants in solid MS medium with different concentration of growth regulators ( BA+NAA) . the best response observed in forming callus radiation seeds and explants with some doses 'of gamma rays , especially the hypocotyle (0.15and 0.7) K.rad . the best doses of callus growth and durability was 0.3 K.rad , and the high doses of gamma radiation 0.9 K.rad stimulated callus
differentiation and created also one step regeneration plants , especially the hypocotyle callus.

The fungal effect of benomyl and phenolazoline in fungi and the production of cellulose enzyme and single cell protein Trichoder1na viride

Raghed Al-Azzo; Reyadh Al-Barhawi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 249-261
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162805

This study was conducted aiming to obtain an efficient fungal isolate in cellulase and single cell protein production from a local isolate Trichoderma viride by the mutation effect of Benomyl and Vinclozolin. It was found that Benomyl has a lethal effect on the isolate at all concentrations of the fungicide and spores suspension used, at the same time it was found that Vinclozolin has an obvious mutational effect on the parental isolate at the concentration 2.0 mg active material/ml of standard medium, the parental isolate showed clear morphological changes in colony shapes, colors, ability for growth in addition to the profound changes in fungal mycelia which was confirmed by the application of slide culture technique.
A qualitative and quantitative tests have been carried out to explore the efTiciency of the new mutant for cellulase and single cell protein lJroduction in solid and liquid media, it achieved cellulase specific activity and single cell protein (3 .604 micromole/min/mgm protein and 29.4 74% protein in dry weight) respectively.

Measure the antimicrobial efficacy of the diosaginin compound isolated from the calves of the medical plant stalks ring Trigonellafoenunz-graecu

Luma Salih; Muzahem Al-Mallah; Abdullah Al-Nuaimi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 262-272
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162806

This assay pinafore measurement the potency of antibacterial of purified diosgenin compound \:vhich isolated from stem callus of Trigone/la foenum-graecum . Diffusion method in petri dish was used for measuring the potency. This method considered to measurement the potency of antibiotic in drug analysis. Were comparisons the potency of diosgenin with other antibiotics as stander sample (Erythromycin, Gentamycin, Neomycin and Nystatin). The results showed that antimicrobial potency of diosgenin mostly 28l.lJlg/ mg, and no effect on fungus.

Effect of some mineral nutrients in growth and some physiological variables in barley plant

Faeza Mahmood; Hussain Mohammed; Farah Salih

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 273-286
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162807

Pot experiment was conducted in the wiry house to study the effect of treated soil with boric acid ,magnesium sulphate and calcium chloride with concentrations of (0.1 %,0.2%,0.3%) \Kg soil on growth of barley cultivars ( 402) by its effect on shoot and root systems length their dry \Veight ,chlorophyll ,carbohydrate ,protein, relative water content of leaves and mineral composition of shoot and root systems. The results shows that treating the soil with calcium chloride lead to enhance the plant growth by increasing shoot length and its dry weight, root length ,leaves content of protein and carbohydrate and also lead to enhance the mineral composition of shoot and root systems by increasing calcium, magnesium, potassium concentrations as compared with the other treatments . \Vhile the results showed that when soil treated with boric acid lead to significant decrease in shoot length and dry weight of shoot ,root systems, chlorophyll a,b content of leaves and cell membrane stability and increase in protein concentrations of shoot and root systems by decreasing potassium and magnesium of shoot and root systems as compared with the other treatments.

The use of cyclohexymide and chloramphenicol in raising the resistance of wheat plants triticum estivunz L. to cold and ablution

Mohammed Sadek; Ghareba Danial

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 287-297
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162808

Homogenized healthy seeds of Triticum aestivum L .Abo - Greab-3-cultivar were used to study the possibility of using a mixture of two protein synthesis inhibitors in Eukaryote and Prokaryote (cycloheximide and hloramphenicol )to increase cold and freezing tolerance of wheat . The study was designed as (3x3x3) Factorial experiment and carried -out with three replicates according to randomize complete block design (RCBD). The first factor was represented by the temperature which comprised 20,o,-5 C0 • The second factor was the concentration of the antibiotics mixture (cycloheximide chloramphenicol) which comprised 0:0,50}1g/mL:50 }lg/mL and 100
}lg/mL: 100 }lglmL. The third factor was the treatment periods which were 0, 12,and 24 hours .
Different degrees of temperature showed significant effects at 0.05 level of significance in: plant height, nu .of tillers I plant ,nu. of spikes /plant ,length and weight of spikes and weight of 1000 grains.
Different concenterations of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol mixture showed significant effects in :nu .of tillers /plant ,nu. of spikes/ plant ,weight of spikes ,nu. of grains /spikes and 1000 grains weight .Treatment
periods showed significant effects in all studied parameters except in fresh and dry gluten. All the interactions among the studied factors were significant. 

Effect of different resistance elements in sesame root rot disease

Ali Altaee; Mohammed Ismail; Najwa Al-Lashi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 298-309
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162809

Survey of the fields in Ninevah province indicated that Sesame root rot occurrence and severity were the highest at Hammam Al-Alil followed by Rabia and Al-Rashidia , these diseases were caused by Pythium aphanidermatum , Fusarium so/ani and Macrophomina phaseolina . The latter decreased seed production and oil content . The
effect of pelleting the seeds with chemical and biocontrol elements was studied on the percent infection , root-rot severity and different growth features of the plants after three and four months of planting in the greenhouse . Pelleting the seeds with Beltanol and T. harzianum by using xanthan gave the least infection and root-rot severity in both periods . It also gave better plant growth features .

Effect of exposure to ultraviolet light in the production of multi-sugar and poison for locally Alternaria alternata isolated fungi

Mohammed Ismail; Esam Soliman

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 310-321
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162810

Conidial spores of the fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from winter tomato fruits in Mosul were exposed to different periods of ultra violet light in order to test its effects on polysaccharide and toxin yield of the fungus. Production of polysaccharides were induced on the selective medium when exposed to (120) minutes ofU.V. light and reached(3.78 g/ 1) in shaken cultures .All mutated isolates inhibited toxin production.

The formation of cucumber resistant plants Cucunzis sativus of Rhizoctonia solani calves and stems

Ansam Sadoon; Adnan Abdullah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 322-333
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162811

In this study callus stimulated from cotyledons and stem explants of cucumber seedlings on MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg/L of BA and 1.0 mg/ L of NAA for cotyledons , while in stem MS media containing 1.0 mg/L from BA and NAA were used . Selection of resistant callus to the virulent strains of Rhizoctonia so/ani was examined from culture of cotyledons and stem medium contained the concentrations 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20 and 25% of fungal filtrates. The best concentrations which allowed selection after three cycles ( 20 days I cycle) of selections were 10 and 15% . The resistant callus showed a high level of peroxidases enzymes activity . Resistance callus of cotyledons and stems were regenerated on MS medium containing 4.0 mg/L of BA and 0.1 mg/L NAA in spite of reduction of the regeneration ability of the resistant callus up to half in cotyledons and stems compat~d-with the control plants. Regenerated stems formed roots on MS medium without grouth regulators . Cucumber plants regenerated from callus tolerating toxic filtrates exhibited resistance when infected with pathogenic fungi .

Studying the phenotypic, productive and technological properties of the staple in green cotton fluff mutations

Mohammed Sadeq; Abdulkader Hussain

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 334-341
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162812

Seeds of green fuzz mutant of cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. ( Coker-31 0 ) which produced from mosaic leaves mutant (MC3) were used. The study was carried out according to complete randomize design
(CRD) with three replicates. The results showed a depreciation in morphological and production properties of green fuzz mutant in comparison with white fuzz plants. The depreciation was also noticed in qualitative characters of lint.

Determination of hybrid force, gene function and inheritance in the wheat of the news Triticum aestivum L.

Mohammed Ayoub; Ibtesam Hazem

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 342-349
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162814

Five varaieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) along with their (1 0) hybrids from on half diallel crosses were used to estimate heterosis, gene action and heritability and avarage degree of dominance for plant height, number of tillers, number of spikes per plant spike length, number of grains per spikes, 100 grains weight and grain yield per plant. Desirable and significant heterosis was obsarved for some hybrid . The additive, dominance and environmental variance significant for all characters.There were over dominance for number of tillers per plant,
number of spikes per plant spike length, number of grains per spikes, and grain yield per plant, however, partial dominance for plant height and 100 grains weight .The broad sense heritability were high for all characters
except for grain yield per plant were medium . However ,the narrow sense heritability were medium for plant height , spike length, grain yield per plant and low for number of tillers per plant, number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spikes, and 100 grains weight .

Comparison of certain blood components and immunoglobulin in women who are infected and not infected with the disease of constipation

Leqa Al-Duliami; Zuhiar Rahemo

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 350-360
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162815

A comparative study was carried out about toxoplasmosis in Neinava governorate and it was revealed the effect of toxoplasmosis on some blood components represented by haemoglobin level and the number of leucocytes and blood platelets. Heamoglobin level decreased in women with acute and chronic toxoplasmosis (1 0.2 g/1 00 mg± 1.4 and 10.5 g/1 00 ml+ 1.9) respectively, while the level remain normal in women with old infection(l3.1g /100 ±0.8) compared with uninfected woman. A slight decrease in leucocytes count in chronic infection( 9.6 X 10 L± 3.11 and 9.2 X 10. cell/L 2.7) was observed respectively, while in woman with old infection no noticeable change occurred in leucocytes count(8.9 X10 cell/L ± 5.4) compared with uninfected women. As concern platelets
count neither increase nor decrease was observed( 260X 10 ceel/±5.4) in case of acute toxoplasmosis and (258X 10 pl/L ±4.1) in case with chronic toxoplasmosis while in old infection(264 X 10 pl/3 .26) compared with
uninfected. Estimation of immunoglobulin level was carried out for IgG, IgM, IgA in serum of infected females(acute, chronic and old ) compared with uninfected. It was revealed from the results that IgA level (390.2 mg/1 00 ml±43.3) and less than that in old infections(300.2 mg/100 ml± 41.2) while IgM increased in case of acute infection(30 1.13 mg/1 00 ml± 36.1) and less in old infections(227 mg/ 100 ml±18.5) while IgG has increased to reach 1925.3 mg/ 100 ml±l9.2) in case of chronic infections and less than that in acute infections(l731. 7 mg/1 00 ml± 16. 7) compared with uninfected.
It is revealed also that the number of positive cases of hyper autoimmunoglobulins was ( 4) cases out of (30) cases ( 13.3%)in case of aborted females infected with acute toxoplasmosis whom did not responds to treatment while no positive case was detected in chronic toxoplasmosis . From the results of statistical analysis using chi-square no significant difference or correlation between infection and hyperautoimmunoglobulins was detected while after using Z-test for comparing percentages a significant relationship between the type of infection with toxoplasmosis (both acute and chronic) with hyperautoimmunoglobulins in aborted women whom they did not respond to treatment properly, was found. 

Study the content of a bacterium Listeria monocytogenes of fatty acids

Ameera Alrawi; Mayada Altaee; Sahera Hameed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 361-369
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162816

The study conducted the determination of fatty acids of Listeria monocytogenes by using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) after extraction and esterification of fatty acids . From accounting the retention
time of isolated fatty acids and comparison with standard fatty acids, the results showed domination of saturated types, Myristic acid ( 13.408%) Followed by Stearic acid (3.019%) among other saturated fatty acid while
the unsaturated fatty acids, the Linoleic acid formed higher percent ( 4.591%) followed by Oleic acid (2.254%) . The other unsaturated fatty acids were differed in their percentages .

Measure the ratios of fatty acids to some Gram negative bacteria

Ameera Al-Rawi; Ghada Altaee; Shafaq Burhan

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 370-380
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162817

Fatty acids were analyzed from cell wall and cell membrane of some gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Plesimonas shigelloides and Proteus mirabilis by using gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Extraction and methylestrification analysis were done and compared with standard fatty acids. The results showed that the major percent of fatty acids was lionleic acid (14.137o/o) in Ps. aeruginosa followed by palmitic acid (10.059%) the other fatty acids percent myrestic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, capric acid, lauric acid were different and it was 0.527%, 8.042%, 6.261%, 1.205%, 0.527% respectively. While the higher percent of fatty acids in Plesimonas
shigelloides was palmitic acid (20.621 %) followed by oleic acid (15.816%), stearic acid (15.373%) and myrestic acid (10.897%). The minor percent which was less than 1% belonged to lauric acid, capric acid, docosahexanoic acid, eicosapentanoic. For Proteus mirabilis, myristic acid and lauric acid appeared with higher percent 17.349%and 13.130% respectively. 

Isolation of alesin as a product of secondary metabolism of kales plant Allium sativum

Abeer Al-Jomaily; Muzahem Al-Mallah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 381-391
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162818

This study successed in isolating the secondary metabolic product named allicin . This compound was isolated from various callus cultures & garlic plants produced from seeds as well . The isolated material was identified using thin layer chromatography (T.L.C.) , UV Spectrophotometer & infra red techniques . The results revealed that a single compound was isolated from all alcoholic plant extracts . the unique compound isolated from all samples has the same flow - rate and possess identical chemical structure when matched with standard allicin. The finding that callus culture contains high level of allicin up to 200 mg I 1 Og fresh weight , while garlic cloves contain 20 mg I 1 Og fresh weight which is known to be rich with allicin. This study described the effect of different photoperiod including continuous light or continuous dark and culture medium type on the accumulation of allicin .The results confirmed that callus tissue grown on MS medium enhanced the allicin quantity that reached up to 200 mg I
1 Og fresh weight of callus incubated in continuous light for two weeks . 

Extract and estimate the peroxidase enzyme from bean kales Phaseolus vulgaris L

Mra Al-Kateb; Abdullah Al-Nuaimi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 392-401
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162819

Peroxidase enzyme was extracted from callus of different explants and immature embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris L. .The maximum activity of enzyme showed in the embryos callus sample.The higher activity of enzyme was in the ( 4months) age of callus for each of leaves ,roots and embryos and in (6months) for cotyledons callus,the stems callus recorded best activity in (2months)old.Using of ammonium sulphate precipitation result in high enzyme activity in all samples.When the exchange chromatochraphy was used to purifiy stems callus extract,(5)protein
apexes observed and ( 4 )of it was active .In the separation of proteins by using the electrofousing techniques, the samples of embryos ,leaves,stems,cotyledons and roots were separated at pH range (5.13- 6.14 ).The minimum activity of enzyme observed at ( 4day) age for all explants samples,but the maximum activity was in the roots samples at (14day)age 

Citric acid production by different local isolates of mushrooms Aspergillus niger

Mohammed Qasem; enam Al-Hamadani

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 402-409
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162820

Thirty two different local isolates of the fungus Aspergillus niger were obtained from different sources such as (seeds , plant parts , soil , air , and plants callus infected with the fungus).The local isolates were compared with their efficiencies to produce citric acid. Production of citric acid by the isolate obtained from chickpea seeds highly exceeded
that produced by other isolates of the fungus .The production of citric acid by this isolate was( 20.41g \1 )after ten days of incubation.

Effect of Gama rays on the protein and gaseous content of seeds, parts and calves of sun flower plants Helianthus annus L.

Abdullah Al-nuaimi; Taghreed Al-Akeedi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 410-417
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162821

This study has include the exposure of the seeds, explants and callus of Helianthus annus L. by gamma rays, with the doses (0.3, 0.7, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5) kilorad, this resulted increasing protein content in radiant peeled seeds with all radiant doses, and in radiant complete seeds, only four radiant doses (0.3, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5) kilorad, also the leaves and stems callus that produced from radiant seed plants , also in all radiant callus. At dose ( 1.3) kilorad initiative seeds has recorded best percents of oil in both leaves and hypocotyls that produced it, also shown that highest
present of oil in both radiant hypocotyls and leaves callus. Oil percent in callus produced by radiant explants was in som~ dose higher than the control or equal .

The biological effectiveness of several fatty sugars in improving the growth of cut white clover seedlings Total root or vegetative transgenic bacteria Agrobacterium rhizogenes Rl601

Najwa Khalil; Omer Al-Zuhairi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 418-429
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162822

This investigation has attempted to study the effects of inoculation of removal shooting and rooting of trifolium repens seedling with Agrobacterium rhizogenes , which is resistant and sensitive to antibiotics kanamycin and cefotaxime respectively , on the number and length of branched shoots, length of root and protein content of these seedlings compared to the intact and non-inoculated seedlings as control sample In solid filed MS medium supplemented as individual or interacted with these antibiotics and lipopolysaccharide isolated from Rhizobium
leguminosarum biovar trifolii, specialized to infect and formation fixed root nodules on white clover. The results have shown that the lipopolysaccharide and antibiotics cefotaxime, have improved a general effect on the protein content (22.8 and23.3 g/l),and on the mean values of the shoot length (58 and48 mm )and their branched ( 6. 8 and 7 branch/plant ), of the removal root and shoot seedlings, respectively , whereas the means of root lengths have been less than the control sample. 

Effect of some plants on the growth and content of leaves of chlorophyll and water for two varieties of wheat

Mohammed Fasel; Ghazwan Hassan; Alaa Al-Shallal

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 430-442
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162823

The present study was carried out in green house to detect the allelopathical effects of roots and shoots residues for (Foeniculum vulare and Medicago sativa) with added to the soil at the ratio 2.5o/o and 5% W: W mixed and incubated for 3 weeks on growth of two wheat cultivars. The results show addition residues root and shoot both plants with concentration 2.5o/o and 5% caused inhibition of growth two wheat cultivars through effect on some characters (plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll content and relative water content) compared with the plants
that grown in control soil (without residues). On the other hands the cultivar Abu Graib-3 was better than Shaam-1 in the most characters studied and more resistant to allelopathic effect of these residues.

Effect of crude alcohol extracts on some parts of clover plant Dianthus caryophllus in inhibition of fungal growth Fusarium culum and Fusarium oxysporum

Khazal Ameen; Firass Khudhair

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 443-453
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162830

Callus has been derived from Carnation leaves, on (MS) medium, Containing Various Concentrations of plant growth regulators, 0.1 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D. Established callus showed a good ability for
differentiation and shoot formation on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L IAA at a rate of 100%. Different rooting concentrations were used with IBA in MS medium, 100% rooting was
obtained when IBA used at 1.0 mg/L. Phenols were separated from crude alcoholic extractions from leaves of seed plants, callus of leaves and leaves derived from regeneration plants. Phenols were identified by using ferric chloride reagent. Treatment of both Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium Culum with these extractions was successful in retarding the growth of both fungi, by means of dry weight. The best crude
alcoholic extract in retarding the growth of both fungi was found to be the callus of leaves extracts which caused 67.7% and 62.1 retardation in growth of both fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium culum respectively.

Effect of Garlic and Alcoholic Extract on the Mitrogenic Soralene Antifungal in Mushrooms Aspergillus amstelodami

Rafea Al-Taee; Rafeah Jarjees

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 454-465
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162831

This study includes testing the effect of four subinhibitory concentrations of garlic extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) on the mutagenicity of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in the presence of long wave ultraviolet (UV A) in conidia of the fungus Aspergillus amstelodami .The concentrations of aqueous extract were used in this study are (2.5 , 5 , 7.5 and 10 mg I ml media ) and the concentrations of alcoholic extracts are ( 0.5 , 1 , 1.5 and 2 mg I ml media) . Two protocols were used to study the effect of garlic extracts on the mutagenicity of 8- MOP in the presence of UV A (366 nm) . In first protocol , the pretreatment method , all the concentrations (2.5 , 5 , 7.5 and 10 mg I ml )
of aqueous extract increased the mutants frequencies which were induced with 8-MOP + UV A, but only the low concentration (0.5 mg I ml) of the alcoholic extract increases the frequency of the mutants induced with 8-
MOP + UV A . In the second protocol , the growth mediated method , both the aqueous and alcoholic extracts showed inhibitory effect on the mutagenicity of 8-MOP + UV A.

Effect of sprinkling of wheat seeds with ethylene chlorol in raising the tolerance of plants to 1- the effect of the elimination of some phenotypes

Mohammed Sadeq; Nahla hamok

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 466-476
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162832

Seeds of Triticum aestivum L. (Abu-Greab-3-cultivar) were used to indicate the possibility of spraying of wheat seedlings with ethylene glycol (EG) (an antifreeze substance) to increase the freezing tolerance of
wheat plants .The study was catTied out during the winter of 2003-2004 as factorial experiment ( 4x4) according to randomize complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates .The first factor comprised four levels of EG(0,5,10,20%.v/v) ,while the second factor comprised four periods of exposure to -5°c (0 ,6 , 12 and 24 hrs ).Different concentrations ofEG showed significant increase at 0.05 level of significance in: percent of survival plants , main stem height, no. of tillers/plant and amourit of chlorophyll a and b fresh and dry weights of first ,second and third leaves and complete plant .The increase in freezing periods showed significant decrease at 0.05 level of significance in all mentioned parameters .The interactions between the tow factors were also significant indicating that the presence of EG eliminated the bad effects of freezing on plants ;and the results indicated that 10% of EG was better that other concentrations used.

Effect of poultry meat and its handlers in the local markets with germs Campylobacter jejunilcoli

Muntaha Hasan; Akeel Shareef; Subhi Khalaf

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 477-488
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162833

The study was conducted for isolation and identification of Campylobacter jejuni/coli from contaminated poultry meat (poultry carcasses and edible livers) which was collected from retails including both local and imported sorts. Samplesfrom employees dealing with poultry meat were also included. Out of 372 poultry meat samples
collected from retails, 49 samples were positive with a percentage of 13.16% of C. jejuni/coli, of which 43 samples11.55% for C. jejuni and 6 samples 1.61 o/o for C. coli. Local poultry meat and edible livers samples
showed significant differences in isolation rate23 .9% for local poultry carcasses, and ·13.4% for livers; compared with the imported poultry carcasses 5.6%, thigh 9.8%; and edible livers 5.4%. In addition, retail
employees showed isolation rate of 14.3%. Biotyping of C. jejuni isolates showed that biotype I was the predominant one with a percentage of74.4%, followed by biotypell, III, 11.63%, and the lowest was biotype
IV 2.3%. However, all of the C. coli isolates were belonged to biotype I 100%. Antimicrobial sensitivity to different Campylobacter isolates showed high sensitivity rate to Nitrofuratoin, Neomycin, Gentamycin and Tetracyclin, with absolute resistancy to penicilline and Amoxycilline. 

Biological Effect of Some Plant Extracts on Germ Isolated Staphylococcus aureus from Different Skin Infections

Rawaa Hamoshi; Abdulrazzaq Mahmoud

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 489-501
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162834

This study included the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus )from different cutaneous infections including secondary pyoderma(wound and burn ) infections , Impetigo contagiosa, Folliculitis and Boils (Furuncles) . These patient were under treatment in the emergency unit, and out patients of dermatology clinic
both within the Mosul Medical City.(24 ?)samples were collected, (155) of them were of (S. aureus ) by a ratio of ( 62.7%) . The highest rate S.aureus infection (76.1 %) was isolated in impetigo while the lowest
rate ( 37.5%). There was different percentage of bacterial infection according sex and age. The alcoholic and aquatic extracts were prepared. The inhibitory effect of the extracts of Lillium Candidum flowers ,
Hedra helix leaves , Carduus Benedictus and Portulaca Oleracea leaves was studied against all the isolated bacteria using disk diffusion method comparing with standard method and turbidity. In addition, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration ( MIC ) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined for these extracts against the bacterial isolates under study.
The results showed that the Alcoholic extract of Portulaca Oleracea leaves had the best effect on bacteria.

Biological effect of some benzotriazole derivatives on bacterium Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pathological and unsatisfactory conditions

Mohammed Mahmoud; Abdulrazzaq Mahmoud

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 502-510
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162835

In this study, coagulase positive staphylococci bacteria were isolated and diagnosed from various environments represented by tonsilitis patients and healthy persons not affected with tonsilitis. The study samples includes university students, workers and the productive sections of Nineveh Drugs Factory. Bacterial isolated were diagnosed by using a number of biochemical test and Api Staph. System test to be conformed to the diagnosis.
The study also includes preparing some chemicals from benzotriazole derivatives and studying their inhibitory effect on bacteria and determining (MIC) and (MBC) of these compounds against the isolated bacteria, chemical compounds show various effects in bacteria according to its environment.

Effect of germ Proteus mirabilis on stimulation of crystallization in human blood

Ameera Al-Rawi; Rasha Al-Sadoon

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 511-522
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162836

The study involved the effect of P. mirabilis on stimulation of crystallization in human urine and the formation of struvite stones in vitro during limited period of time. Human urine samples were collected from non-infected people with urinary tract infecti ms and inoculated with P. mirabilis with control sample. After incubation a number of test were done including turbidity test, pH and chemical analysis, as well as the appearance of crystals and precipitates were followed and tested by light microscope and photographed.

Partial description of plasmid content in bacteria Serratia marcescens isolated locally

Khalid Ahmed; Hayfaa Alyas

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 523-533
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162837

This study involved isolation oftwenty eight primary isolates of the genus Serratia from different clinical human infections from different hospitals in Mosul city . After microscopic examination and diagnosis using biochemical tests, cultural characters and API 20 E system ,eleven isolates of Serratia marcescens were identified from them .Amplification of plasmid DNA content in S.marcescens isolates were tested in presence of chloramphenicol (1 OO}l/ml), tetracycline and starvation . The isolates showed variation in their ability to amplify their plasmid DNA content in the presence of chloramphenicol and by starvation as compared with unamplfied cultmes. While in presence of tetracycline (150 )1/ml) only one isolate out of seven showed this characteristic. Phages isolated from
sewage water were used to control viabiLity of bacterial isolates. The results showed that these phages appear to be ineffective on these isolates.

The inhibitory effect of the extracts of the sage plant Salvia officinalis and the synergy between its active constituents and antibiotics in bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium Isolated from food poisoning cases in the city of Mosul

Khuder Sulaiman; Fatema Al-Dulaimi

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 534-547
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162838

In this study, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated and identified from patients suffering from food poisoning, (60) isolates ( 41.4%) showed Staph. aureus and (85) isolates (58.6%)
showed S. typhimurium. Aqueous and ethanol extracts from Salvia officina/is leaves showed high inhibitory activities against tested bacteria, while a good action was seen using the essential oils. The volatile oil compounds furfural and camphor isolated from ethanol extract showed good inhibitory action against Staph. aureus and high inhibitory action against S. typhimurium compared with the standard antibiotic (Gentamycin, Amoxicillin,
Tetracycline), in addition the petroleum ether fraction containing the compounds. P-pinene, a-pinene, Limonene) also showed good inhibitory action against tested bacteria, The minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) values were detected for aqueous, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staph. aureus and S. typhimurium and was equal to (0.03) mg/cm3 , while the MIC value against Staph. aureus was
(0.0 15) mg/cm3 using the acetone extract. The isolated essential oils from sage leaves showed high MIC values (0.00033 and 0.0005 cm3 /cm3 ) against Staph. aureus and S. typhimurium respectively, while furfural and
camphor from the ethanol extract and B-pinene, a-pinene, Limonene from petroleum ether extract observed a MIC value equal to (0.06) mg/cm3 . In addition, the antibiotic sensitivity of both types of bacteria with the
presence of the active components was also tested. The results showed that active components have synergistic effect against Staph. aureus but antagonistic effect against S. typhimurium.

Comparison of the effect of apple cider vinegar with grape vinegar with different concentrations on some bacterial properties Staphylococcus aureus

Beman Saeed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 548-562
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162839

This study include the effect of different concentration (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 1 OOo/o) of apple and grape vinegar at different time ( 0 , 15, 30 , 45 ,60 ) minute on some properties of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus that isolated from_ wound, burn_and skin pustules of patient in central laboratory of teaching hospital in Erbil,
The properties are morphology and culture properties , growth of bacteria ,production of coagulase enzyme and sensitivity to different antibiotic , the results as follow : 1 - No changes were observed in morpholo;y and culture
properties when we used different concentration of apple and grape vinegar for different time.
2 - Decreasing in growth of Staphylococcus aureus was observed(+ + + +) to ( + + +) ,( + + ), ( +) and (-) after Increasing the concentration and time 3 - The bacteria show change in production of Coagulase
enzyme at (40%, 60% and 80%) apple vinegar after (60), (30 , 60) and (15) minute respectively, and at (60%, 80%) grape vinegar after (60) (30, 45) minute respectively. 4 - apple vinegar caused increasing in sensitivity to different antibiotic , in (20%) the inhibition zone of (Lincomycin ,cephaloexin ' Chloramphenicol ' Erythromycin ' Penicillin) increased (1 ' 1 ' 1.9 '2.5 '2.8)mm respectively and in (40o/o) was (1.5, 2.1 ,2.4 ,3.1 ,3.1)mm
after (60) minute but at (60%) was (2, 2.8, 2.6 ,3.4, 3.8)mm after (45) minute and for (80%) was (2.9, 4, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8)mm respectively after ( 15) ) minute , and for grape vinegar the inhibition zone of (Lincomycin ,cephaloexin ' Chloramphenicol ' Erythromycin 'Penicillin) increased in (20%, 40o/o, 60o/o and 80%) (0.7 , 0.8 , 1.5 ,1.5 ' 2), (1 ' 1.7 ' 1.9 ' 2.5 '2.8), (2 ,2.8 ,3.2 ,3, 3.1), (2.6, 3, 4.1 ' 4.9,4.3)mm respectively at (60) (60) (60) (45) minute respectively. 

Thermal shock in increasing the content of protein and chlorophyll in Calus Carnation stalks Dianthus caryophyllus L

Muzahem Al-Mallah; Qutaiba Alnuama

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 563-569
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162840

Exposure of callus derived from stem segments of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) to heat shock ( 30, 35 , 40, 45 , 50 o c) for 10 and 20 minutes for each degree increased callus growth , fresh weight , protein and chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll content reached up to 4.8 mg /g in callus exposed to the treatment 30° c/20 min., other treatment
30oc/10 min was found to stimulate protein content as compared with the untreated callus.

Comparison of three methods in the cultivation of cellular pendants derived from the Kalas, which is the technology of landfill in cattle

Muzahem AL-Mallah; sahla Zidan

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 570-580
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162841

The present study established cell suspensions from the friable callus derived from the stem explant of broad bean (Vi cia faba) axenic seedlings. These suspensions of certain densities were cultured by embedding in agar, using three methods of culture including, multiple drop arrays (MDA), thin layers and sectors. In the presence of MS and
SH liquid medium forming solid - liquid medium. The results indicated that all methods succeeded at culturing cell
suspension using MS medium. Moreover, these methods sustained callus f01mation. Multiple Drop Array (MDA) induced callus at ratio of 68% in MS medium, and 48% in SH medium. All pieces of callus primordia
continued their growth and increased in size.

Study of the genetic stability of plant potatoes grown outside the living body after years of repeated cultivation using the technology of randomized reaction of DNA

Kholod Hassen; Jaladet Salah

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 581-588
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162842

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers were used to evaluate the· genetic stability of micro propagated plants of potato (Solanum tuberosum) var.Desiree .To achieve this genomic DNA was
extracted from the samples to comparison between the DNA of plantlet micro propagated through meristem culture and the DNA of the plantlets (7 samples) after sub culturing 16 times, beside the comparison within the
samples. Fifteen arbitrary primers were used to amplify DNA from the samples, to assess the genetic stability .All RAPD profiles from micro propagated plants were mono morphic and similar to the DNA of the origin sample
.no variation was detected within the micro propagated plants, this prove that potato plants used in this study were resistant to somaclanal variation and utilization of RAPD markers for the assessment of genetic stability.