Volume 20, Issue 2, Autumn 2007, Page 1-166

Effect of Melia azadirchta Fruit extract on the eggs, embryo and Juveniles of the fresh water snail Physa acuta ( Draparnaud) , at different experimental tern per a tures.

Talib Ali; Azhar Hamed

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162783

(Gastrula, Trochophore& hatching) as the incubation temperature increased and it was very The influence of the alcoholic extract of Melia azadirchta fruit of different concentrations at different experimental temperatures on the fecundity, embryonic development and hatching of Physa. 
acuta were investigated. There was significant difference between the embryonic development reared at relatively higher temperature ( 32°C ± 2) and those reared at low temperature( 10 °C± 2 ),their was small acceleration in the rate of development at various developmental stagessignificant (3.90 days) for Trochophore stage at 30°C when it was compared with that at 10&15°C (13.6&15.6 days respectiv~ly.
While · the molluscicide showed reverse effect as the temperature increase, its effect decrease to certain extend. The botanic molluscicide toxicity against eggs of P.acuta was more effective when newly laid eggs exposed to the
molluscide , as well as the subsequent developmental stages affected as comparing the duration time of hatching stage & the size of juvenile snails, with those exposed to the molluscicide at Gastrula & Trochophore stages.

Effect of Green Tea on Development of Atherosclerogenic Lesions Induced by Experimentally Hydrogen Peroxide in Female Rat Experimental

Al-Kennany ER; Al-Khafaf AA

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 11-21
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162780

This study was conducted to investigate the ability of green tea as antioxidant and antiatherogenic in female rats after treated with 0.5o/o of H20 2 in order to induced atherosclerosis. The results showed capability of H20 2 0.5% to initiate of oxidative stress via significant increase in tissue MDA in aorta and heart associated with decrease in GSH, as well as, increase in ijDL-c and decrease in LDL-c in serum of treated rats. Histologically, aorta and heart sections revealed less improvement in histological picture, reduction lipid vacuoles in both intimal and medial layers associated with proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells but it not reach to normal tissue.

Mice Corneal Damage Mediated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Extrcellular Proteases

Sarah D Al-Shamaa; Muna M Isaam; Reem Z Shaker

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 22-28
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162942

Extra cellular Proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginose had been considered to be one of the important virulence factors in corneal infections. · Production of these enzymes from strains that elicited corneal damages in mice were detected in approximately 12 % of 25 isolates obtained from AI- Zahrawii hospital in Mosul. Intra -corneal injection of neonates 5 days old with the crude proteases preparation cause death most of them within 24 h . The injection of these preparation intra corneally into 30 days old mice elicited severe damages that grossly appeared as a white spot within 4-5 days at the site of injection. While the injection of partially purified proteases produced the same corneal damage which was identified grossly within 24h only. This revealed the importance of these enzymes as a virulence factor for these bacteria in corneal infection.

Effects of Cadmium and Selenium on The Hematological Parameters and Histopathology of Liver in Male Rats

Talib H Ali; Ahmed B Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 29-37
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162943

Cadmium and Selenium are ubiquitous metals in the environment I that induces a broad range of physiological dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronic effect of Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on rats blood parameters and histopathology of the liver in the male rats. Animals were divided at random into a control and treated groups (Cd and Se + Cd), both groups were fed with the same standard food, but Cadmium chloride, and mixture of Cadmium chloride +Selenium chloride were added to the drinking water of the experimental groups. At the end of the experiments periods ( 28 days ) the animals were sacrificed , blood samples were drawn via the dorsal vena cava , Hematocrit ( Hct % ) , hemoglobin ( Hb ) , number of erythrocytes count and of erythrocytes count were determined . Liver was dissected out for histological examination. There were different alteration in the blood parameters among different treated animals (Cd and Se + Cd) and control
groups .They differences were statistically significant (P:S 0.05) with Cd treatment. Also results showed that the positive or negative alteration of blood parameters was not significant for Se + Cd mixture treated rats group.
A number of morphological change were observed in the liver , including a nuclear damage , necrosis and cell death at cadmium treatment and pronounced recovery after co-selenium supplementation indicted a considerable antagonistic effects . It can be concluded that the Cd exposure impair certain hemorheological mechanism and increase tissue damage in liver, although Selenium showed beneficial effects to some extend. In summary, this study provides data on toxic effect in rats after dietary sub lethal supplementation to heavy metals.

Community Structure of Benthic invertebrate in Greater Zab River/Iraq

Luay Ali; Hayfa Jiwar

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 38-46
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162796

A study_ of macroinvertebrate community has been carried out at three sites selected on greater zab river included Qandel, Efraz and Khabat region. A total of 32 species of benthic invertebrates were recorded including Nematoda, Oligochaeta, Ostracoda, Decapoda, Insecta and Mollusca. During studied period the insecta were regarded the most dominated group, as they observed during all studied periods followed by Oligochaeta which observed in all studied sites. Shanon-Weiner index was used to reflect the effect of environmental fll..lctuation on benthic invertebrate communities, and the results showed that the species diversity of studied sites was ranged between 0.41 to 2049 bits/ind. in Qandel and Efraz regions respectively.

Evaluate Kasnazan Impoundment Water for Irrigation Purposes

Akram Ismail; Pakhshan Maulood; Yahya Alshekha

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 47-56
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162800

Water samples were collected monthly during August 2004 to February 2005 in five locations of Kasnazan impoundment ( 1 OKm east side of Erbil city). Statistical analysis indicated that there were a significant differences between Kahreez site 1 and other sites in TDS, Ca+2 , and HC03 - values. While, there were no significant differences in K+ concentration between stations or months.
Generally, the first three months (August to November) differed from the last four month (December to February) in most chemical properties.

Changes in blood parameters and kidney histology due to cadmium and selenium exposure of Female rat

Ahmed Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 57-63
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162801

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of Cadmium and selenium on blood parameters and the subsequent effect in the tissue of female rat kidney . Female rats were divided into a control group and
tow experimental groups treated with Cadmium, and Cadmium +Selenium. A control and tested animals were fed with the same standard chow , but Cadmium chloride, and Cadmium+ Selenium mixture were orally gavaged daily for 28 days .At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were analyzed ,and packed cell volume ( PCV % ) , hemoglobin ( Hb ) , number of total erythrocytes count and total leucocytes count were determined . Blood analyses carried out in the present study showed that cadmium treatment causes different alterations in blood parameters as indicated by significant decrease in erythrocytes count , hemoglobin value and packed cell volume percentage as compared to control and Cd+selenium treated group . A number of histopathological change were observed in the kidney , including glomerular shrinkage, karyolysis , degenerative cell and cell necrosis at cadmium treatment and pronounced recovery after selenium cosupplemented showing a considerable antagonistic effects of Selenium + cadmium treatment .
It can be concluded that the Cd exposure impair certain hematological mechanism and increase kidney tissue damage .Selenium showed beneficial effects to some extend. This study provide data on toxic effect in female rats after dietary sub lethal supplementation to heavy metals.

Effect of nut meg (Myristica fragrans) oiJ extract on testicular function in mice exposed to oxidative stress

Abdul kreem Ismail; Rafeh Ayoub

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 64-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162802

nut meg (Myristica fragrans) has been mentioned in ancient medicine to be beneficial in the managment of male sexual disorders. The present study is to evaluate the nut meg oil extract on testicular functions in mice exposed to 1% hydrogen peroxide for 21 days. Oral administration of nut meg oil extract at adose of 250 mg/kg produced asignificant decrease in testis weight and sperm count and percentage of viable and normal sperm as compared to hydrogen peroxide treated group. Oral administration of nut meg oil extract at 500 mg/kg dose produced a highly significant decrease in weight of testis and sperm count and percentage of viable and normal sperm as compared to hydrogen peroxide treated group. Also the mean number of spermatogonia reduced to a significant level as compared to hydrogen peroxide treated group and controL The present results suggest that nut meg popularly consumed as food and may contain some active principles with anti oxidant properties. However high doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg could be very toxic to the testis.

Effect of Aerobic Bacterial Infection to The Semen Parameters

Asmaa Al-Taee; Abbas Al-Dajaily

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 73-85
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162951

Semen analysis and culture assay were done ( 1 00) patients suspected to be subfertile men attended the male infertility clinic at Al-Khansa'a hospital in Mosul. The following parameters of semen are studied such as: semen volume liquefaction time sperm count, sperm motility and sperm morphology. Culture have been made in patients with abnormal semen and have pus cells more than 5 cells in High Field Power (HFP).The most common
abnormalities in the semen are decreased sperm count and /or decreased sperm motility. Culture and differential stain of patients' semen of  infertile men shows a significant negative correlation to sperm count and sperm motility (When sperm count decreases sperm motility increases),Azoospermia and Oligospermic men show a significant increase infection hapends as a compared to their non infected

Record of New Bryophytes for Iraqi Bryoflora

B. A. Basheer Al-Nima; Abdul-Hussein Al-Khyat

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 86-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162979

During the years (2000-20003) about (450) Specimens of have been collected from the north part of Iraq, mainly Dohuk, Erbil and Nineveh provinces. Identification revealed that they were belong to ( 40) genera and (79) species. Among them ( 4) genera and six species· (5 mosses and one liverwort) were considered new record for Iraq. Habitat of the new taxa beside their distribution in the world and Iraqi physiographic regions & districts were included in the present work.

Isolation and Characterization of Salt Tolerant Strains of Sinorltizobium meliloti

Raad H Sultan; Fawaz A Al-Safar

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 94-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162948

Twenty four strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti were isolated from root nodules of alfalfa plants. Host plants collected from different agroclimatic regions of Ninavah province-Iraq. Five strains, vis. FA7, FA8, FAlO, FAll and FA12 were found tolerant to 6% NaCI. All the five strains were able to grow on rhizobia! minimal medium. The five studied strains showed multiple antibiotic resistance. The more sufficient production in shoot group in alfalfa plants found when the plants inoculated with F A8 and FA 7 strains. pH changes in MSY solid medium study revealed that changes in pH towards acidity. Reduction in colony forming units (CFU) was observed under salt conditions in comparison with normal conditions. Production of cell surface molecules in these five strains , such as, P-(1 ----+ 3) glucans, cellulose fibrils and exopolysaccharides were also studied. Heat curing of Sym plasmids study
revealed that at least one of the salt tolerant genes lays on Sym plasmids.

Preparation, Characterization and Biological Activity of New Nickel(II) Complexes Containing Mixed Ligands

Zuhoor Dawood; Adeeba Shareef

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 105-115
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162824

Nickel(II) complexes containing mixed ligands; semicarbazone (SCH) {benzaldehyde semicarbazone (BSCH) or 2-fluorobenzaldehyde semicarbazone (FSCH)} and salicylaldehyde (SH) or anthranilic acid (AH) or 2- \ methylaminofuran (FH) have been prepared and characterized physicochemically. Complexes of the type [Ni(SCH)(LH)2](N03)2 {where SCH = BSCH or FSCH, LH = SH or AH or FH} have been proposed . The biological activities of the resulted complexes have been evaluated by agar plate diffution technique against five human pathogenic bacterial strains: Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. The complexes were found to have antimicrobial activity on some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in vitro. The effective concentrations ranging between 31.25-500 J.lg/ml. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were the most sensitive bacteria followed by Proteus vulgaris.

Induction of Gene Amplification Contribute to Sulfonamide Resistance in Proteus mirabilis

Zeerak Abdulrahman

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 116-124
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162825

Thirty Isolates of Proteus mirabilis from different clinical sources (Urine, Bum, Ear, and Wounds) were recovered. All isolates were subjected to the series of confirming tests to insure that these isolates are Proteus mirabilis, which identified selectively by unique feature of morphological, cultural, and biochemical tests. Amplification of plasmid DNA content (Copy Numbers), performed using 150 ~g /ml chloramphenicol and tetracycline (The chosen isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline, but sensitive to trimethoprim) separately in the lag phase of the tested bacterial isolates. Among seven tested isolates true amplification perceived in isolate No. 2, 8, and 10 for Chloramphenicol and isolate No. 1 and 11 for tetracycline. When cells of Proteus mirabilis cultured in medium containing chloramphenicol at 150 ~g /ml a growth lag of 20 hrs ensure. During this lag, chloramphenicol
induces selective amplification, including the gene for resistance to sulfonamide. This result suggests that amplified DNA contained genes that contributed to sulfonamide resistance when present in greater amount compared with non-amplified DNA. This mechanism represents a new level of control of gene expression in bacterial system- namely, the induction of selective gene amplification.

The Effect of Cadmium and Selenium on The Testicular Function and Tissue Injury in Male Rats

Talib Ali; Ahmed Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 125-134
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162826

The effect of the sub lethal dose of cadmium chloride CdCh 7mglkgl body I weight ) was investigated on the testis and some sperm parameters in rats .. To evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure as CdCh, was orally administered to mature male rats( 250-300g I body weight) for 28 days and the effects on the sperm count , sperm motility , sperm abnormality , sperm death percentages and testes weight, as well as testicular histology were observed. To evaluate the beneficial action of Selenium against Cadmium chloride-induced reduced sperm count and sperm abnormalities and testes injury in albino rats , an additional two groups of rats were treated for same period with SeCiz 8m/kgl body weight ) and Cd - Se combination · respectively to determine the reversibility of Cd-induced changes The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm abnormality and sperm ) death percentages were significantly decreased following 28th day of CdCh treatment, but were unaffected by Se and Cd- Se exposures. The testicular, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle weight were noticeably reduced with Cd-treatment as compared to control. The changes caused by cadmium are mostly recovered by Se administration. Cadmiu·m chloride exposure injures the fertility parameters of male rats and the effects are reversible due to Se supplementation. On the other hand, co-administration of Se at the above mentioned dose to Cadmium treated rats led to the most significant decline in testes tissue damage alorig with elevated ·sperm count and . reduction in the percentage of abnormal spenn population. The protective action of Se and the antagonistic effect of both Se and Cadmium induced testes tissue damage are discussed.

Isolation and Identification of Legionella pneumophila From Different Sources

Amera Al-Rawi; Khadija Mustafa

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 135-148
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162827

This study includes the isolation and identification of Legionel/a pneumophila from patient's sputum in different ages for both sexes in Komary and Rizgary Teaching -Hospital in Erbil city, in addition to aquatic samples frorri different sources, (652) samples were collected, specimens from patients sputum, ( 1 00) water samples from bathroom tap and shower heads and other (72) water samples from cooling devices.
From the patients sputum samples, (20) isolates with percentage (8.3%) were obtained, while ( 19) isolates ( 19%) from bathroom tap and shower heads and (11) isolates (15.27%) from cooling devices were isolated.
All isolates were identified depending on morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics. Depending on the results of some enzymatic activities such as protease, DNase, and starch hydrolysis enzymes, all isolates typed to eight biotypes and most of isolates were located in biotype I . Also all isolates were gave positive reactions for
production of lipase, lecithinase, and ~ -lactamase. The present study also involves the investigation of its ability to adhere to the epithelial cells of buccal cavity, and it was observed that all of the isolates have the ability to adhere to the epithelial cells.
The study also included the extraction and analysis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by using SDS -PAGE electrophoresis technique and the results showed that there were differences in the LPS bands number and molecular weights between clinical and environmental isolates.

The Use of RAPDs Technique for the Detection of Genetic Stability of Date Palm Plantlets Derived From In Vitro Culture of .Inflorescence

Saleh Bader; Michael Baum; Hussam Khierallah; Wafaa Choumane

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 149-159
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162828

The study aimed to use of RAPD - PCR markers to prove the genetic stability of two date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars Barhi and Maktoom produced by tissue culture technique. Inflorescences were excited from adult tree of the two cultivars. Spadixes were divided in to pieces . 0.5 em in length and cultured on MS modified medium
supplemented with 100 !lM of 2,4-D and 15 !lM of 2ip. Callus was obtained after 8 weeks and adventitious shoots formation was achieved when callus transferred to MS modified medium supplemented with 10 !lM of 2ip and 5 jlM of NAA. Shoots rooted on half strength MS salts medium supplemented with 5 !lM of NAA with increasing sucrose
concentration to 131.5 mM. Plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil. RAPD - PCR analysis using 25 universal primers were_performed on DNA extracted from the fresh healthy leaves of the mother tree and from samples randomly taken plantlets derived from tissue culture. Reproducible RAPD patterns were obtained using 20 primers, Seventeen primers showed completely monomorphic bands in all samples tested of the progeny. Only three primers showed some polymorphic bands on the agarose gel for both cultivars in some samples tested comparing with the DNA banding pattern for the intact trees, these were OPD.01 primer for Barhi, and OPB.07 and OPC.08 for Maktom. According to the results above it was obvious that genetic variations could occurred in plantlets derived from callus proliferated from inflorescence of date palm, furthermore RAPD appears to be an efficient technique and a simple fast DNA marker for the early detection of genetic variations in plants propagated by tissue culture technique. 

Some Ecological Aspects Of The Acanthocephalann Pomphorhynchus spindletruncatus Parasitic In Barbus xanthopterus From Lesser Zab River In North Of Iraq

Shamall Andullah; Furhan Mhaisen

Journal of Education and Science, 2007, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 160-166
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2007.162829

Monthly samples of the cyprinid fish Barbus xanthopterus were collected from Lesser Zab river, north of Iraq during the period from November 2000 until the end of November 2001. Fishes were found infected with the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus spindletruncatus. The rate of infection was 28.1 %. No significant differences were noticed between male and female fishes infected with this parasite. Prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of infection with P. spindletruncatus increased with the increase of fish length. Infection rate was high during Spring and Summer, and low during Autumn and Winter.