Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Volume 29, Issue 2

Volume 29, Issue 2, Spring 2020


Effect of smoking Arkela or Al-shesha on the antioxidant in human body

Nawal Th. Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165297

The research involved collected (50) sample from serum of Arkela smokers and (50) sample control for period from 15/10/2013 to 15/3/2014 and the age between(15-60)year for men only then determination of some antioxidant (Glutathione, Ceruloplasmin, Vitamin E and C, Malondialdehyde) in serum of Arkela smokers compared with non smokers, the results demonstrated a significant increase in the level of Ceruloplasmin and Malondialdehyde concentration and a significant decrease in the level of Glutathione and Vitamin E and C concentration in smokers compared with control.
The results also demonstrated a non-significant change in the level of antioxidant concentration of Arkela smokers with age groups and Body Mass Index BMI.
While the results demonstrated a significant decrease in the level of Glutathione and Vitamin E and C and a significant increase in the level of  Ceruloplasmin and Malondialdehyde in serum blood smokers (more than two hours) in the day and (more than two years) compared with smokers in (less from hour)in the day and (1-11 months) respectively.

Rheological modifications of the asphalt-polymer system using microwave technology

Rand Raad Matti; Khalid Ahmed Owaid

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 26-44
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165302

This research aimed to prepare different types of asphaltic materials having a good rheological properties compared with the non-modified asphaltic materials. Different polymers and microwaves were used to prepare the modified asphalt in different ways. The first method is based on the modification of asphalt with reclaim tire rubber using anhydrous aluminum chloride catalyst at 360 watt at different times, The second method depends on the same principle of the first method with the introduction of sulfur as an additive and the third method is based on the same principle of the first method but the change of polymer added to the polyamethyl methacrylate and with the introduction of sulfur as an additive. The latter method is the same principle of the first method but the change of polymer added to mixtures of (1:1)(polymer_polymer)(recycled tire rubber polyamethyl methacrylate)with the introduction of sulfur as an additive. The above methods we obtained asphaltic materials which can be used in paving and mastic depending on the measured (ductility, penetration , softening point).

Indirect Spectrofluorometric Determination of Enoxaparin Sodium in Pharmaceutical Formulation (Injection) by Ion Association Complex Formation with Acriflavine Dye

mohamed thamer aghwan; Elham Sadullah Al-talibi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 45-62
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125843.1001

A simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorometric method has been developed for the determination of enoxaparin sodium in bulk and dosage forms (injection). The method was based on the quantitative quenching effect of enoxaparin on the native fluorescence of acriflavine due to the formation of nonfluorescent supramolecular ion issociation complex between the studied drug and acriflavine dye in aqueous solution. The decrease of acriflavine fluorescence was observed at 506 nm after excitation at 402 nm. The relationship between quenching fluorescence intensity and concentration of enoxaparin sodium was linear in the range 0.05-20 µg/ml and with correlation coefficient 0.9990 and with LOD and LOQ 0.011 and 0.035 µg/ml respectively. The average recovery was 100.51% and RSD is less than 3.23%. The stoichiometry of enoxaparin to acriflavine was calculated a 1:4. The method was applied successfully to the determination of enoxaparin form injection samples and the results were in a good agreement with certified value and standard addition procedure.

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of Adsorption of Azo Dyes Derived for 4-amino Anti pyrene by Activated Carbon

Salah Hekmat

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 63-81
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125920.1006

A commercial activated carbon was used for the study of adsorption of two di- azo dyes from aqueous solution employing batch method. These dyes were synthesized in our laboratory from the reaction of 4-amino-antipyrene 4-AAP and β-Naphthol with p-amino phenol and p-amino benzaldehyde via diazonium ions. The effect of pH, temperature, and contact time on dye removal was investigated. The apparent thermodynamic parameters were estimated and the obtained results concluded that, the dyes adsorbed onto activated carbon are driven by entropy effect, exothermic and spontaneous processes. The kinetic study of adsorption of the considered dyes was conducted by applying four models the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order ,Elovich and intra particules diffusion kinetic models. The results showed that, the second order equation fit better the experimental data. The intra particule diffusion model indicates that, there are more than mechanism
controlling the adsorption process.the adsorption process occurs through more than one mechanical and that the intra particule diffusion model is not the only mechanical that controls the adsorption of systems Studied.

Reasons of the transformed toward NOSQL Databases and its data models

Shaymaa Ahmed Razoqi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 82-100
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165303

The relational database model is the main focus of the database for the previous time. It provides robust data storage and structure that supports transaction characteristics and data retrieval with structured query language- SQL. The emergence  of web technologies and clustering technology in large servers called for the need to store unstructured data and move away from the pattern of tables and static fields and not topic to transaction conditions, especially in distributed systems. Instead, it used CAP theory. New data models are emergence including: Document Data model, Key-Value model, Column-Family model, and Graph model, And new programming languages that deal with these models.
            An asset inventory system is a model of systems that are not topic to a fixed structure. Each location in the organization has fairly different assets and assets in the same location have different specifications that are difficult to organize in the form of tables and columns. For this reason using of  NOSQL CouchDB database system was adopted and the use of MAP-REDUCE  technology to organize data display and Cloudant Query in Mango-view method to retrieve data from the inventory database.

Study the Effect of High Pressure and High Temperature on the Properties of Nacl-B1

Janan F. Ahmad; Zeena R. Mhmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 101-117
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165304

Equations  of state are used for the evaluation of pressure effects on solid (Alkali halides) at room temperature and high temperature up to melting point,
Thermodynamic properties such as   ,  of alkali halide (NaCl-B1) at  high pressure and room temperature have been evaluated and the results are compared with experimental data and gave good results up to 5 GPa but beyond it the results of these  equations of state diverge from experimental data while Bardeen equation of state gave good agreement with experimental data , the effect of high pressure and high temperature on vibration energy of atoms ( )and on heat capacity at constant volume ( ) of (NaCl-B1) are calculated by using Debye Model and gave good agreement with the theory, also thermal volume and pressure ( ),( ) and thermal expansion coefficient ( ) are calculated  by using thermal equation of state by Kumar .
Finally, melting curve of (NaCl-B1) was calculated by using Kumar thermal equation of state with Lindeman equation the results were compared with experimental data. Also inter ionic distance at melting ( ) for (NaCl-B1) was calculated by two ways, first by using lattce potential energy and second by using Anderson equation, and compared    with data of other researcher and a good fitting was observed.

Effect of Deposition Temperature on the Physical Performance of n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction

Yasir Hussein Mohammed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 118-132
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.126043.1017

Comparative study of the physical characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode has been done as a function of deposition temperature in the range of 300-600 °C. Transparent conducting (TC) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) technique on the p-Si(100) and glass substrates. Also, the influences of different deposition temperature on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO films were studied. Both the average surface roughness (from 62.8 to 18.8 nm) and the root mean square (from 78.2 to 24 nm) of ZnO films were decreased with the increase in the deposition temperature. Optical transmittance measurement results exhibited good transparency within the visible wavelength range for the films prepared at a temperature above 400 C. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction diodes exhibited rectification behavior and depend on the deposition temperature. The electrical parameters of the n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions were also affected by the deposition temperature. The diodes prepared at a temperature above 400 C were possessed lower reverse saturation current and high rectification ratio compared to those fabricated at a relatively lower temperature such as 300 C or 400 °C. Such low a temperature grown n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diodes with lower reverse saturation current could be suitable for photo-detection applications.

Isolation and Diagnosis of Candida albicans Yeast From Patients Infected With Oral Candidiasis in Mosul City and Study its Activity in Production of Phospholipase and Hemolycin

Rafea Qasim Altaee

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 133-148
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.126122.1020

In this study, 63 oral swabs were collected . Thirty six yeast isolates were obtained (57.14%) grown on sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA). Symbols were given to isolates from RA1 to RA36 in order to differentiate them. The isolates were identified by growth on HiCrome Candida differential agar M1297A and identification by Vitek 2 Compact system.
The identification results showed 5 species of the isolated yeasts belonging to the genus Candida, 29 isolates belonging to the species C. albicans (80.55%) and one species from C. famata, C. glabrata, C. kefyr and C. lusitaniae (2.77% for each species). Moreover one isolate was obtained from each of the following yeasts: Saccharomyces serevisiae, Malassezia furfur and Rhodotorula glutinis (2.77% for each one).
This study included the evaluation of two virulence factors for all C. albicans isolates , phospholipase enzyme production on egg yolk agar and hemolytic activity on sugar-enriched sheep blood agar.
.
Phospholipase production test showed differences in phospholipase production among the isolates , twenty three isolates (79.31%) were producers and precipitation zone (Opaque zone) was observed around the grown colonies with different Pz values and the isolate RA13 exhibited highest activity (Pz value = 0.53).
The results showed also that all isolates were producers of hemolysin with different hemolytic indexes (Hi). Isolate RA7 represented the highest one in activity (Hi = 2.16). Hemolysis of all isolates involved beta hemolysis.

وجود الحلول الموجبة لمسائل القیم الحدودیة لمعادلة تفاضلیة لاخطیة من الرتب الکسریة

Noora Laith Omar Aga

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 149-157
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125873.1014

Recently boundary value problems for differential equations of non-integral order have studied in many papers ( see [1,2] ).
Zaho etal [ 1 ] studied the following boundary value problem of fractional differential equations.


Where denotes the Rimann-Liouville fractional derivative equation of order . By using the lower and upper solution method and fixed point theorem.
Liang and Zhang [3] studied the non-linear fractional differential boundary value problem

Where is a real number . is the Rimann-Liouville fractional differential operator of order . By means of fixed point theorems , they obtained results on the existence of positive solutions for boundary value problem of fractional differential equations.
In this paper , we deal with some existence of positive solution of the following non-linear fractional differential equation.

Where is a real number. denotes Rimann-Liouville fractional derivative of order .
Our work based on Banach contraction mapping and Krasnoel'skii fixed point theorems to investigate the existence of positive solution.
Finally , we suggest studing the existence solutions for the following Integrodifferential equation with boundary value conditions


Where H is a nonlinear integral operator given as

Experimental study of heat-killed oocysts of Cryptosporidium Parvum in Balb/ c Mice

Mohammed S. Khudhair; Nabeel E.S. Al-Niaeemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 158-173
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165305

The present study investigated the possibility of infecting Mus musculus mice, experimentally, with cryptosporidiosis by inoculation with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, after treatment with temperatures (70 °C) and non-treated oocysts, single or double doses, aiming at enrichment of information related to existence of oocysts infected, outside the body of the host when subjected to temperatures. Criteria taken into consideration are the period spent by the parasite inside the body of the host, number of oocytes shed by the parasite with the host’s stool, total and differential leukocyte count. The Results of the present study shows:
1-      Shedding of Oocysts started at the 4th day post infection by non-treated Oocysts, at single dose, and continued until the day 35 post infection, whereas with the challenge dose it continued until the 17th day  post infection.
2-      Temperature at (70Co) killed the Oocysts as infection of mice didn’t occur.
3-      Generally, a gradual increase in total and differential leukocyte count on infection with non-treated Oocysts at day 3 post infection.

Aromatase Inhibitor, Flax seed and Sage Effects on Adult Rats Fertility and Sexual Behavior

Heba mohammed jasem; Fadwa khalid tawfeek

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 174-185
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165306

The current study was designed to detect estrogen role in adult  male rats by giving aromatase inhibitor ( ltrozole 1 mg̷  Kg. B. W) for 60 days orally to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity and to study the effect of giving source of estrogen flax seeds (25 g ̷ 100 g diet) and aqueous extract sage (1000mg ̷  Kg. B.W.) orally. The study showed that adult male rats treated with ltrozole resulted in a significant decrease in the weight of testes, prostate , percentage of live sperms , number of sperms , number of mounting , intromission, ejaculation and in the time period from mixing with females to the first mounting ,  intromission and ejaculation , the time period between mount and another, intromission and another, ejaculation and another, and significant increase  in the percentages of  dead as well as abnormal  sperms. Flax seeds treatment significantly reduced percentage of live sperms, number of sperms, number of  mounting , intromission, and ejaculation, and significantly increased percentage of dead sperms compared with control group. Sage extract treatment caused a significant decrease in number of sperms, number of mounting, intromission and ejaculation , as well as a significant increase in the time period from mixing of female to the first mounting,  first intromission and first ejaculation compared with control. The results showed that administration of sage extract with letrozole showed a significant increase in testis weight, percentages of live sperms and number of sperms, and asignificant decrease in dead and abnormal sperms compared with the letrozole group. Administration of flax seed with letrozole did not significantly change weight of the testis , prostate, percentage of live, dead , abnormal sperm and number of sperm compared with letrozole group. Administration of Flax seed and sage extracts to male rats treated with letrozole did not significantly change all the done tests of sex behavior. The study concluded that estrogen has an important role in the function of male reproductive system, which is shown through the negative effects of the aromatase inhibitor on the weights of the testis, prostate, live and dead and abnormal sperm, and sexual behavior. Sage extract, but not flax seed, has benefit effects on the defect induced by aromatase inhibitor letrozole  both flax seed and sage do not produce positive effects on sexual behavior .

Synthesis of New Oxazepine and Thaizolidine Compounds derived from Pyrimidine-2(2H)-one

zainab hassan sulyman; natiq ghaniem ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 186-200
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125908.1004

In this paper the compounds (11-20) (methyl pyrimidine - 2(1H)-one and others phenyl pyrimidine -2(1H)- one) that will prepared from α, β unsaturated carbonyl compounds they are called chalcones, that compounds prepared from reaction of different aldehyde (4-methoxy benzaldehyde, 2-nitro benzaldehyde,
3-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4-N,N—dimethyle amino benzaldehyde, benzaldehyde, 4-nitro-benzaldehyde) with different ketones (acetone, acetophenone, 2-nitro acetophenone, 3-nitro acetophenone) after prepared this compounds and purified it and mesurment for physical, chemical and spectroscopy that we can do to get chalcones that reacted with urea under known chemical conditions to get pyrimidinone compounds we needed. pyrimidine compounds were reacted with two aromatic amines (2,4-dinitro aniline and 4- amino acetophenone) using glacial acetic acid as catalyst in absolute ethanol giving a new compounds of schiff's bases (21-40). New thiazolidine 4-one (41-50) were synthesized from reactions of Schiff's bases (21-30) with thioglycolic acid in absolute ethanol. 1,3- oxazepine derivatives. (51-60) are prepared from reaction between Schiff's bases (31-40) with malic anhydrid in absolut ethanol. The structures of the Synthesized compounds were estimated by IR, 1H- NMR and some physical data.

Studying the parameter gradient energy coefficient of Polyethylene glycol as a function of molecular weight with Freed Contribution

Malak Jaafar Ali; Saygin Muhamed Nuri; Shany Muhamed Rajab

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 201-215
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165307

The gradient energy coefficient () has a main function in extracting the polymers properties to help us to innovate and manufacture new polymers and different process like coating, wetting, foaming, adhesion operations. The Cahn-Hilliard (CH) theory [1], represents the free energy profile of polymer surfaces or interfaces.  Considers the free energy profile of polymer surfaces or interfaces as inhomogeneous which has more than one phase. On the other hand, it has been used the Freed Bawendi contribution in conjunction with Cahn-Hilliard in treatment with architecture structure for polymers [2]. While Simha-Somcynsky (SS) theory describes the thermodynamic properties of both low and high molecular weights in terms of occupied site fraction (y) [3].  This study has been examined in the range of (313 -473) K temperatures and up to about (150) Mpa pressure. The quantitative success of our study is clearly appeared in the minimum and maximum deviations in the volume is 0.036 and 0.128 respectively.

Isolation and Identification of Some Bacteria from Severe Infections Among Children in the West Bank of Mosul City

Alaa Taha Younis Al-Hammadi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 216-229
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.165308

Infections caused by bacteria are common in infants and neonates. Some of these infections are severe and usually carry high risk of fatal complications such as septicemia and / meningitis if left un-treated. Very often, the diagnosis of these infections is clinical as well as laboratory diagnosis to determine the type of bacteria in body fluids such as urine, stool, blood and CSF. The present study aims to isolate and identify the bacteria responsible for some types of severe infections in neonates such as urinary tract infections (UTI), gastrointestinal tract (GIT) infections and bacteremia in West bank of Mosul city and test their susceptibility to different antibiotics. Twenty-seven (27) samples from blood, 28 from urine and 6 from stool were collected from neonates admitted to "Mosul General Hospital" in West Bank of Mosul city in the period between 1/7/2018 to 1/9/2018. Our results indicated that Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial isolate in blood (81%), whereas both Staphylococcus aureus and Esch. coli were common in urine (48% and 43% respectively) followed by Proteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.5 % each). Both Staphylococcus aureus and Esch. coli  were highly sensitive to amoxiclav (83% for and 100% respectively), levofloxacin (88% for Staphylococcus aureus and 100 % for Esch.coli) and meropenem (100% for both Staphylococcus aureus  and Esch .coli). However, both of them were highly resistant to ampicillins (100%) and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Although meropenem is effective, it's use should be selected and restricted to highly resistant cases to avoid the emergence of early antibiotic resistance.

A Friendly Environment Approach for determination of paracetamol

Hanaa Mahmood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 230-240
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2019.125964.1011

Abstract
This paper involves a determination of paracetamol using less environment harmful reagent; the hydroxy analog of the pharmaceutical naproxen replaced a chemical reagent in which it is used as a coupling agent for the diazotized p-aminophenol (the hydrolysis product of paracetamol), the paper offers a determination of an analgesic paracetamol in the presence of high content of another analgesic.
Paracetamol azo-dye exhibits maximum absorption at 500 nm. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range from 10 to 650 µg/20ml, (i.e. 0.5-32.5 ppm) with a good sensitivity (molar absorptivity 1.2x104 l.mol-1.cm-1), good precision (RSD better than ±0.275%) and high accuracy (relative error less than + 0.77%), Sandell's sensitivity index is 0.0124µg.cm-2, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.0030 µg/ml and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.0101 µg/ml. The method has been successfully applied for determination for paracetamol in dosage forms and its already applicable for the determination of paracetamol in presence of naproxen.

Using of Acetylacetone-formaldehyde Reagent in Spectrophotometric Determination of Aniline in Various Water Samples

Nabeel Othman; Safa Abdul aleem Al- Zakaria; Muna Subhe Abdulla; Nabeel Sabeeh Othman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 241-249
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126192.1022

A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the estimation of aniline in various water samples was done. The method was based on the condensation reaction of acetyl acetone-formaldehyde(AC-FA) reagent with aniline. to produce a yellow colored product, with maximum absorption at 417 nm, which has good stability at room temperature and it is very soluble in water (the medium of reaction). Beer's law is applied in the concentration range of 2.5 to 50 µg. ml-1 of aniline with a molar absorptivity 3.864×103 l.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity index 0.0241 µg.cm-2 , a relative error of – 0.51 to +4.15 % and a relative standard deviation of ±0.78 to ±1.28% depending on the concentration level. The study also included the effect of organic compounds on the recovery of aniline in water samples. Aniline is the simple type of primary aromatic amines as it enters into many industrial fields and is considered as an important material. Aniline regarded as major pollutant of water, thus, its estimation was studied in different samples of water such as river, tap and Zamzam well waters.

Physiological sway of aging on oxidative stress and levels of some minerals in diabetes type II of both female and male in Sulaimaniyah city

Maya Ibrahim Al-samman

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 250-259
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126325.1031

Abstract
Diabetes is a metabolic disorders disease characterized by the abnormal high levels of blood sugar due to incomplete or relative deficiency of insulin secretion as well as disorders in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.
The study aims to evaluate the physiological effects of aging on oxidative stress and mineral levels in diabetes type II by measuring F.B.S,HbA1c%, levels of a number of important indicators of oxidative stress, level of ferritin ,copper and zinc in the serum. The study included the collecting of 70 blood samples from patients with NIDDM for both sexes in the center of Diabetes and Endocrinology in Sulaimaniyah city. The age of each group in this study ranged between 40-70 years. The study concluded that the rate of both FBS and T.GSH increased with age in diabetic females, the MDA increased with age in diabetic males, and ferritin increased with age in both sexes. Moreover copper decreased with age in diabetics for both sexes.

Effect of Allelopathic Potential of Corn, Sunflower , Field Capacity and Ascorbic Acid In Growth of Two Wheat cultivars

mohamed saied fisal

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 260-278
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126418.1034

Abstract
This study was carried out inside a wired house and included the planting two cultivars of wheat (Sham 6 – IPA 99) in soils containing residues of corn (Zea may) and sunflower (Helianthns annuus) with exposing plants to three levels of field capacity (35, 60, 85%) and spraying plants with three concentrations of ascorbic acid (0, 100, 200) ppm in order to know the effect of these factors on some physiological, biochemical and allelopathic potential of wheat. The experiment has been designed on the basis that it is factorial and over completely Randomized Design (C.R.D) Duncan's multiple range test at 5% level was used to compare between the means and the results showed.
The addition of corn residues and sunflower showed a great effect in lowering plant height, relative water content, chlorophyll, number of grains / spike and grains yield with the increasing the concentration of catalase.
Exposure of plants to drought (35% field capacity) showed a negative effect on all traits above comparing to field capacity (60, 85%) except for the increase in antioxidant enzymes (Peroxidase, Catalase).
Plants submitted under two types of stress (drought + allelopathy) can improve their growth and reduce the negative effect of drought and the inhibitory effect of residues by treating it with ascorbic acid especially in the concentration 200 ppm.
More over, sham 6 was significantly superior on IPA 99 in most physiological and biochemical characters, which was reflected in the increasing grains yield.
Keywords: allelopathy, Field capacity, Ascorbic acid, wheat.

Assessment of Fungal Growth at Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Unit in Hawler Teaching Hospital

Vian Badraddin Al-Barzinji

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2020, Volume 29, Issue 2, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.126676.1049

Dialysis is used when the patient's kidneys can no longer perform their functions normally; it is a treatment that performs the functions of natural kidneys. Most patients begin dialysis when their kidneys have lost 85-90% of their ability to work naturally and they have to depend on dialysis for the rest of their lives, is called end –stage renal disease (ESRD). Infection in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is usually treated with hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). End stage renal disease a major cause of morbidity and mortality, in order to assess the fungal growth at hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis unit a descriptive study was conducted at hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis units in Hawler teaching hospital, from 15th of January to the end of May 2017;the study also includes the access sites and peritoneal catheter site. Factors that affected the access site among dialysis patient in the hospital. Sample of 63 patients, who were attending to the dialysis unit at time of the data collection, had been taken; in addition to that swab samples had been gathered from access site and peritoneal catheter site. The results of the study revealed that the fungal growth was positive at dialysis access sites, where the total percentage was 84.1% and that of peritoneal catheter site was 15.85%. In these unites, different types of filamentous fungi and yeasts had been successfully isolated.