Volume 30, Issue 2, Spring 2021

Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation Biological Activity of Cobalt (II) with Mixed Ligands complexes

Ahlam Mohammed Yaseen Al-Bayati; Zuhoor Fathi Dawood

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128321.1110

New cobalt (II) complexes with mixed ligands including [(2- oxime-4-hydrazone) pentane (L1H) and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone(T1H) ,or 3,4-dimethoxy acetophenone thiosemicarbazone (T2H); glycine (GH) or metformin (mf)] have been prepared in both pH (6.5-7) and (9.5-10) using classical and microwave techniques. The resulting complexes have been characterized using physio- chemical and spectral techniques. The study suggested that the complexes have the generalformulate [Co(L1H)(TH)(BH)](CH3COO)2and[Co(L1)(TH)(G)]or[Co(L1)(T)(mf)] at pH (6.5-7) and (9.5- 10), respectively {where TH= T1H or T2H; T= deprotonated T1H or T2H; L1H=L1=deprotenated; BH= GH or mf; G= deprotonated GH]. Hexacoordinated mononuclear complexes having distorted octahedral geometries have been investigated. The biologicall activity of the ligands and complexes have been evaluated by agar plate diffusion technique against Echerichia coli, Klipsila pnnemoia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some compounds have been found to have antibacterial activity. 

Theoretical study of hydrogen adsorption on graphene nanostructures functionalized with nickel for solid state hydrogen storage

ameer albyatei; Issa Zainalabddeen assaflly

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 19-32
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128376.1112

Hydrogen adsorption and storage on nickel- activated, pure graphene and boron-doped graphene was study using density functional theory simulations based on generalized gradient approximation methods (DFT-GGA). It was found that the nickel atoms tend to clustering on the surface of pure graphene due to the high cohesive energy of nickel compared to the energy of nickel binding to the surface of pure graphene, which decrease the storage capacity of hydrogen. It was also found that the storage capacity of seven hydrogen molecules on pure and activated graphene with a nickel atom is equal to (10.2 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.27 eV), and the storage capacity for the same number of hydrogen molecules is (11.3 wt.%) With an average binding energy (0.22 eV), This indicates that the adsorption process will take place at ambient conditions. The process of inoculating graphene-doped boron and nickel activating is an effective strategy for improving the average binding energies and the storage capacity of hydrogen molecules in the graphene nanostructures.

Estimating the Level of Some Inflammatory Cytokines in the Serum of Women Exposed to Abortion and the Relationship with Toxoplasmosis

Raqaa Alubaidi; Adeeba Shareef

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 33-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128415.1113

This study includes the collection of (90) blood samples, eighty samples belongs to patients experienced to spontaneous or recurrent abortions, and the ten samples from women with normal pregnancy. The results showed a significant increase in the levels of cytokines in patients serum as their concentrations were (218.15±105.1 pg/L for IL-1β, 63.10±35.17 ng/L for TNF-α and 31.77±25.3ng/ml for IFN-g) compared to the control as it(151.0±0.76 pg/L ,34.96±0.42 ng/L and 11.15±3.49 ng/ml) for the cytokines respectively. The level of cytokines reached (352.18 pg/L,117.8 ng/L and 63.8 ng/ml) for IL-1β,TNF-α and IFN-g respectively in women infected with Toxoplasmosis compared to non-infected women (337.1 pg/L , 101.3 ng/L and 54.06 ng/ml). This indicate that toxoplasmosis has a role in the induction of immune system.

An Overview of the Evolution of the Porous Silicon material: A review

Ghazwan Ghazi Ali; Marwan Hafeedh Younus; Ivan Karomi

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128341.1111

Recently, the properties and applications of the porous became the main subject of several books and the vast numbers of review articles. Porous silicon has demonstrated significant versatility and promise for a wide range of optoelectronic applications thanks to its large surface area and intense photoluminescence at room temperature. In this review, we describe the fabrication techniques and experimental improvements made towards porous silicon (PSi) and we provide a full picture of realization and characterization of this material. We also highlight its important properties, such as chemical, structure and surface properties. We summarize the techniques that have been used, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, atomic force microscope images (AFM) and a scanning probe microscope (SEM). Additionally, the effect of the current density and etching time are also documented in this review. In summary, porous silicon has undergone vast improvement in both fabrication and characterization methods, which makes it an attractive modern material.

Image Fusion by Shift Invariant Discrete Wavelet Transform for Remote Sensing Applications

Abdalrahman Ramzi Qubaa

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 53-66
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128261.1109

The fusion technique of the spectral bands captured by the sensors carried onboard satellites is one digital processing method for extracting information and detecting ground targets. Image fusion - also known as pan-sharpening-provides the necessary means to combine many images into a single composite image that is suitable in visual interpretation processes or in digital interpretation. The principal objective of this study is to find the best suitable algorithms for obtaining integrative information from several separate images in one combined image. Based on the above, a special software system was designed to implement and test the fusion methods used in remote sensing applications by selecting and applying a Shift Invariant Wavelet Transform (SIWT) method to the remote sensing images and then comparing with four other different image fusion algorithms. Two objective mathematical methods were also used to measure the amount of shared information obtained in the images resulting from the fusion, as well as using the visual and Near-Infrared images of the new Sentinel-2 European satellite for a part of Nineveh province as experimental images. The results showed a preference of the wavelet transform method over the other fusion methods for the remote sensing images.

Investigation of Important Fatty Acids in Biofuel Production From Number of Microalgae

Taha Abdulwahab Al-Someidae; Yousef Jabar Al-Shahery ‎; Qutaiba Shuaib Al-‎Nema

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 67-78
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128619.1115

Algae biofuels is considered as an alternative source to fossil fuels. In recent ‎decades, there was a ‎significant increase in the use of energy sources in order ‎to avoid the depletion of traditional ‎sources such as coal and petroleum. The ‎produced fuel from algal oil had important ‎characteristics compared to that ‎from other vegetable crops. This is due to the short life cycle of ‎development, ‎a fast-growing and easy to be developed. In this study, three types of micro-‎algae ‎Scendesmus dimorphus, Chlorella vulgaris and‏ ‏Chlorococcum ‎humicola‏ ‏were used and grown in in a 5 liter photobioreactor. The dry ‎biomass productivity of the three algae was estimated, and then a chemical ‎analysis ‎of the total fatty was performed to detect their biological contents as ‎well as diagnose the ‎fatty acid. Results showed that S. dimorphus produced ‎the highest levels in both biomass, 1.58 g ‎l-1 from dry weight and estimation of ‎the total fat ‎indicated C. vulgaris has the highest total fat yield, at 29.6 ‎‎%. ‎Results of fats characterization using ‎‏)‏GLC) showed that‏ ‏S. dimorphus ‎produced the high ‎percentage of saturated fatty acids for the meristic acid ‎ester (C14: 0) by 47% and the lincoseric ‎acid ester (C24: 0) was 7.194%. In ‎contrast, both Chlorella vulgaris and Chlo. humicola showed less ‎level of ‎saturated fatty acids. This indicates the suitability of algae oil derived from S. ‎dimorphus in ‎ the synthesis of fatty acid, a major source in producing ‎biofuels

Numerical modeling negative corona under the influence of applied voltage variation

Hala Alnaemi; Qais Thanon Algwari

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 79-91
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2020.128762.1120

In high-voltage gaseous insulation systems, the corona discharge is important because it can lead to drop of the insulating qualities of the gas in addition to the production of harm by-products. The influence of the applied voltage variation on the negative corona characteristics in a coaxial electrode geometry has been investigated based on one-dimensional dynamic model of corona discharge includes one-dimensional continuity equations and Poisson equation. The one-dimensional fluid model of corona discharge is solved by finite difference flux correction method (FD-FCT). The calculations were performed on oxygen gas under the atmospheric pressure using COMSOL multiphysics software. The corona discharge parameters are simulated under different voltage of 4kV, 6kV, 8kV and 10kV, respectively. The effect of the applied voltage on the spatial distribution of main charged species and electron as well as the ozone was considered. The results show that as the negative applied voltage on the cathode increased the total current density also increase while the electron density decrease. The ozone density do not much affected by the increasing the applied voltage.

Study of Light Wavelength and Some Concentration Salts in Growth Medium on Growth, Protein and Nitrogen Content of Hapalosiphon arboreus 3OW05S02

Fatin Mahdi Saleh Al-Rashidy; Yousef Jabar Al-Shaheree

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 92-103
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.128991.1122

Local isolation was obtained from cyanobacteria fixing atmospheric nitrogen, and isolated from the local environment of the city of Mosul (Tigris River forest area). A molecular diagnosis of this isolate was carried out for the purpose of genetic diagnosis, and it was found that it is a pure isolate of cyanobacteria Hapalosiphon. arboreus 3OW05S02. And the phenotypic diagnosis coincided with autopsy.This isolation was grown laboratory in the medium of Chu10. As for the change of wavelengths of light, The results showed that the best wavelength of light was (620-750)nm for red light, the biomass is (770) mg / liter, the protein content is (230) mg / liter, the nitrogen content is (119) mg / liter. Also I studied a number of mineral elements that affect growth and nitrogen fixation, and it was found that the best concentration of potassium phosphate K2HPO4 is (50)mg/liter, as recorded the biomass is (802) mg / liter, the protein content is (202)mg / liter, the nitrogen content is (107) mg / liter. When adding Ca(No3)2 to the medium with different concentrations and comparing them without adding this material to the medium, the best concentration was (60) mg/liter, the biomass is (790) mg/liter, the protein content is (138) mg /liter, the nitrogen content is (74) mg /liter.

Electrical Conductivity of Oxadiazole and Triazole Polymer Content

Asaad Faisal Khattab; Aya Abdul Wahhab

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 104-120
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129094.1131

Three types of oxadiazle and traizole monomers were prepared. The monomers are polymerized with different monomers to prepare eight different polymers. The polymers are differs in the type of bonding unit. The prepared polymers are identified by using infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The prepared polymers are doped with different ratios of iodine and protonic acid (HCl). The electrical conductivity of the pure and doped polymers was measured. Many different factors can effect on the conductivity of the polymers. The long flexible aliphatic moiety in the back bone of the polymer increase the electrical conductivity, while the presence of long aliphatic arm grafted as aside chain will decrease the conductivity. Also the type of the bonding group (amide or azomethin ) have a significant effect on the electrical conductivity. The study proved that the oxadiazole and triazole rings can participating in the conjugation of polymeric chain and enhanced the electrical conductivity. The nitrogen and oxygen atoms within the ring can participate with conjugation by their lone pair of electron and can be considered as a sites for doping. The electrical conductivity of the prepared polymers increased by increasing the ratio of the dopant but to limited percent. It was proved that the nitrogen atoms is more ready to protonated by acid than the oxygen atom

Detection of Bacterial Contamination and Antibiotic Resistance at Neonate Intensive Care Units in Ibn Al-Atheer Teaching Hospital for Children

sahira adrees AL-sanjary; Fulla qaydar al-abas

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 121-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129017.1123

The study included the isolation and diagnosis of some gram positive and negative bacterial species from (NICU ) in Ibn Al-Atheer Teaching hospital for children from from August 2019 to February 2020 .A total of 90 swabs were obtained from various sites of Intensive Care Unit from Ibn Al-Atheer hospital environment and inoculated on culture media. The obtained growth revealed different bacterial colonies which had been tested for their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Eighty pure isolates were obtained including (76 ) Gram positive, and (4 ) Gram negative bacterial isolates. The highest rate of bacterial contamination had been found in the couh and incubator. The most prevalent bacteria isolated from inanimate surfaces were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative staphylococci, Bacillus, in addition to Diphtheroids, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E, coli.
Antibiotic susceptibility testing for all isolates was performed using (8) types of commonly used antibiotics in Iraq. Taken all together, gram positive and negaive bacteria showed high resistance against streptomycin, erythromycin, and ampicillin respectively. Notably, resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin were demonstrated which are commonly given as the first line of treatment in NICUs.

Study the effect of gamma ray on silver nanoparticles prepared by pulse laser ablation in liquid technique (PLAL)

Mohammed Al-Maher; Najwa Al-Barhawi; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 128-137
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129320.1136

Silver nanoparticles in this study were prepared using the method of laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) at two energies (540 and 700) mJ and the count of pulses were (100,200,300 and 400) pulse . The prepared samples were divided into three groups: the first group of the samples were kept as they are without any irradiation but the second and third group were irradiated by Co-60 source with two amount of doses (7.5 and 11) KGy respectively . A series of measurements and studies were done, and from the pictures of Transmitted Electron Microscope (TEM) , it was observed that the prepared nanoparticles at laser energy (540) mJ with pulses count (400) pulse were spherical but the prepared nanoparticles at laser (700) mJ with pulses cont (400) pulse were nano rods shape. The gamma irradiation effect was studied through its effect on the optical properties of the nanoparticles at different preparation conditions , represented by a change in the pulses and the energy of the laser used. The results showed that there was an increase the absorbance peaks when increasing the irradiated dose. The (TEM) image showed we get spherical nanoparticles in shape and nano composition. The average diameter of the prepared silver nanoparticles at (540) mJ laser energy in the range of (30-40) nm.

Study of nuclear track parameters of normal incident alpha particles on CR-39 detector

Sabreen Malo; Yaser Qasim; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 138-147
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129461.1139

In this paper, Solid State Nuclear Detector (SSNTD) CR-39 was broken into many fragments with areas of (1x1) cm2. The samples were irradiated using 241Am source. The measurements were taken at normal incident angle of the alpha particles for energies (3.17, 3.59 and 4.13) MeV respectively. The samples were etched using sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH 6N, 70±1 oC) for time interval of 0.25 h. The optical microscope provided with digital camera was used to preview the track profile formed in CR-39. This allowed measurement of the track length and in turn the track length as a function of the etching time . The track growth rate, track etch rate and track rate ratio were also investigated as a function of many parameters such as etching time, track depth and residual range. The study showed a good consistency among the investigated parameters . The curves of the track etch rate and track etch ratio manifested a consistency with Brack curve who interested in studying the linear energy loss in materials where the maximum energy loss occurs at the end of the alpha particle range.

Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Computer Models using Gaussian Process Models.

hasan Mohammedali Saeid; Younus Hazim Al-Taweel

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 148-164
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129374.1138

Mathematical models, usually implemented in computer programs known as computer models, are widely used in all areas of science and technology to represent complex systems in the real world. However, computer models are often so complex in such that they require a long time in computer to be implemented. To solve this problem, a methodology has been developed that is based on building a statistical representation of a computer model, known as a Gaussian process model. As any statistical model, the Gaussian process model is based on some assumptions. Several validation methods have been used for checking the assumptions of the Gaussian process model to obtain the best probabilistic model as an alternative to the computer model. These validation methods are based on a comparison between the output of the computer model and the output of the Gaussian process model for some test data. In this work, we present the Bayesian approach for constructing a Gaussian process model. We also suggest and compare validation methods that consider the correlation between the output of the computer model and the Gaussian process model predictions with those that do not consider the correlation between these data. We apply the Gaussian process model with the suggested validation methods to real data represented by the robot arm function. We have found that the methods that consider the correlation give more accurate and reliable results. We achieved the calculations using the R program.

Application of tight-binding method to calculate the band structure and the effect of pressure in crystal ZnSe

Hussein Ali Hussein Sultan; Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 165-174
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129479.1141

In this research tight-binding method has been applied to calculate the band structure in ZnSe crystal, the matrix elements of have been calculated using the method used by Vogl and Cohen. A computer program has been designed in MATLAB language to calculate the band structure in the ZnSe crystal, a sample of points has been formed in the first Brillouin zone (reduced zone) between the high symmetry points (L →Γ,Γ→X→(U,K) →Γ) . The energy eigen values is calculated along the high symmetry paths, the obtained results have been compared with previous works of Vogl and Cohen which shows a good agreements. A comparison between the ZnSe band structure based on sp3 and sp3s* models has been done and the energy gap between the conduction and valence bands at the high symmetry points is calculated for the sp3s*. The effect of pressure on the ZnSe band structure is calculated in the range (10-40) Gpa by calculating the matrix element under different pressure, the results show broadening in band gap due to applied pressure, the conduction band is shifted toward the high energy while the valence band is shifted toward the lower energy. The band gap is calculated values for high symmetric points were determined with pressure change and compared with theoretical calculations.

Test of SU(3) limit of interactive boson model to study 158-170DY even-even isotopes

Murad Najem; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 175-185
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.129616.1145

(〖E(8〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)),(〖E(6〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) , ( 〖E(4〗_1^+))/(〖E(2〗_1^+)) and the ratios of In this study, the energy of the first exited 21+
for 158-170DY even-even isotopes are compared with the standard values for the three limits, the vibration U(5), gamma-soft O(6) and the rotational SU(3). The back-bending curve and the relation between E/ I as a function of I ( E-GOS) and the ratio 〖E(J〗_1^+)/〖E(2〗_1^+) as a function of spin (I) once and with neutron number again are drawn for these isotopes to have more information about their properties. Calculation of the energy of different states along the yrast region has been done using the standard relations for each limit, U(5), O(6) and SU(3) and a comparison with the experimental data show that they the isotopes 158-170DY possess rotational properties .
The interacting boson model IBM-1 has been used to calculate the energy of different states along the yrast region applying a suitable limit for each isotopes. A program with MATLAB 10 has been built for this purpose. Agood agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

Investigating indirect impacts of TCP connection on IMS network

Ali Abdulrazzaq K.

Journal of Education and Science, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 186-195
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.130133.1160

The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is recently expected to have the major architecture framework to be involved in the Next Generation Network. IMS works to bridge the multimedia communication among variety of applications over Internet. IMS bears its multimedia signals and stream through different means of transport protocols; TCP, UDP, and SCTP. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable data delivery and congestion control. To setup connection with TCP, IMS entities requires extra operations to complete, that operation process called (worker process) costs the multimedia server extra overload and delay. This paper investigates the indirect impacts of TCP connection that resulted from the Call Session Control Function (CSCF) servers when it deal with video communication. Two parameters are evaluated in experiment which are CPU usage and response time with two different scenarios. The experimental shows that outbound scenario performs better than the inbound scenario due to the extra operations required to setup new TCP connection for inbound