Print ISSN: 1812-125X

Online ISSN: 2664-2530

Issue 3,

Issue 3


Histopathological Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate and Sodium Nitrite in the Development of Eye in Albino Mice Mus musculus

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ali A. Abd

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2000.168650

The present study aimed to discover the histopathological of the Monosodium glutamate (MSG), and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), on the embryonic development of the eyes of albino mice Mus musculus. On the fourteenth and eighteenth day of pregnancy, the stage of organogenesis in these animals. A concentration of 9 g/kg of MSG, a concentration of 110 mg/kg of NaNO2, and the interaction between them used. The results of the study showed the presence of pathological changes to the eyes of the fetuses. The eye on the 14th day of pregnancy, when 9 g/kg of MSG used, there were retinal duplication, increased vascularization in the retina, condensation of some nuclei of the inner nuclear layer and ganglion cells, and necrosis in the vicinity of the lens. When treating with NaNO2 110 mg/kg, there was an irregularity in the lens, corneal distortion, hyperplasia of the retinal nerve tissue. When the two materials overlapped, the corneal tissue necrosis, the lens fiber, and the inner plexiform layer were observed. On the 18th day of pregnancy, when treated with MSG 9g/kg, the most significant overall and striking damage was retinal duplication and optic nerve necrosis. When treated with NaNO2 110 mg/kg, the corneal stroma and dissociation were seen in the photoreceptor cells. In the case of their overlapping, extensive necrosis and reduction appeared in all layers of the retina. The study concluded that consuming MSG and NaNO2 more than the permissible limit during pregnancy leads to tissue lesions harmful to the eye.

Evaluation of Salivary Alpha-Amylase level in Iraqi children with positive family history of hypertension

Suha T. Abd; Rasha A. Azeez; Maysaa K. Al-Malkey; Sumaiah I. Hussein

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168651

This study accomplished to determine levels of salivary Alpha-Amylase (sAA) in Iraqi children with  positive family history of hypertension, Hypertension was believed to be a risk factor in 18% of all deaths in 2010 (9.4 million globally). This study included one hundred children from primary school aged 6 to 13 years, with a focus in child welfare and family health history, with an emphasis on close relatives' hypertension reputations, with hypertension close relatives record categories identified by 1st and 2nd relatives, after documenting the full details, the burden was assessed for the children's families. The influence of age is confirmed by a correlation study of our own numbers, which shows a positive correlation. The disparity between age and salivary amylase level was important, with age group (12-13) years students having a higher mean salivary amylase level (309.7 U/L) than age group (6-7) years students (270.6 U/L). The gender outcome did not exceed statistical significance, but the gap was not important, which may be due to the limited sample size.

Testing of Volatile Oils Activity Extracted from Different Medicinal Plants Against Some Fungi Isolated from Different Sources

Hadeel A. Al-Ameri Assist Prof

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 21-33
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168652

Volatile  oil extracted from Salvia officinalis showed significantly more effective e against growth of  T. rubrum isolated from ulceration otitis externa with inhibition significant percentage 96.42% in concentration 1/25 then the concentration 1/50 with inhibition percentage 95.83%, two concentrations 1/75 and 1/100 showed low effects which inhibited fungal growth in percentage 89.28% and 81.54% respectively, While the volatile  oil extracted from Zingiber officinale showed inhibited effect in percentage 92.26% in concentration 1/25 and 82.73% in concentration 1/50; The inhibition percentage was 79.76% and 77.97%  in concentration 1/75 and 1/100 respectively. Volatile  oil extracted from leaves of Apium graveolens was significantly more effective in concentration 1/25 then the volatile  oil extracted from Zingiber officinale in  the same concentration with a significant inhibition percentage 85.11% so volatile  oil of leaves of Mentha piperita in concentration 1/25 with a significant inhibition percentage 81.54% and the concentration 1/100 from volatile  oil of leaves of  Mentha piperita Lower of all  concentration inhibition of fungal growth above with inhibition percentage 70.23%.
            Volatile  oils extracted from Salvia officinalis was more significant effect against growth of yeast C. albicans isolated from ulceration otitis externa so the inhibition percentage was 85.11% followed with volatile  oil of leaves of Apium graveolens with percentage 80.35% in  concentration 1/50 then volatile  oil of leaves of Mentha piperita with inhibition percentage 79.16% in the concentration 1/25 while    inhibition percentage of volatile  oil extracted from Salvia officinalis ranged between 79.76% and 69.64%, While volatile  oil of leaves of Apium graveolens inhibition percentage between 78.57% and 70.23%  respectively in concentrations 1/25, 1/100; Volatile  oil of Zingiber officinale was lower effect which inhibited fungal growth with percentage 78.57% and 61.30% in higher and lower concentrations respectively,
Volatile  oil extracted from Salvia officinalis showed significantly more effective e against growth of  T. rubrum isolated from ulceration otitis externa with inhibition significant percentage 96.42% in concentration 1/25 then the concentration 1/50 with inhibition percentage 95.83%, two concentrations 1/75 and 1/100 showed low effects which inhibited fungal growth in percentage 89.28% and 81.54% respectively, While the volatile  oil extracted from Zingiber officinale showed inhibited effect in percentage 92.26% in concentration 1/25 and 82.73% in concentration 1/50; The inhibition percentage was 79.76% and 77.97%  in concentration 1/75 and 1/100 respectively. Volatile  oil extracted from leaves of Apium graveolens was significantly more effective in concentration 1/25 then the volatile  oil extracted from Zingiber officinale in  the same concentration with a significant inhibition percentage 85.11% so volatile  oil of leaves of Mentha piperita in concentration 1/25 with a significant inhibition percentage 81.54% and the concentration 1/100 from volatile  oil of leaves of  Mentha piperita Lower of all  concentration inhibition of fungal growth above with inhibition percentage 70.23%.
               Volatile  oils extracted from Salvia officinalis was more significant effect against growth of yeast C. albicans isolated from ulceration otitis externa so the inhibition percentage was 85.11% followed with volatile  oil of leaves of Apium graveolens with percentage 80.35% in  concentration 1/50 then volatile  oil of leaves of Mentha piperita with inhibition percentage 79.16% in the concentration 1/25 while    inhibition percentage of volatile  oil extracted from Salvia officinalis ranged between 79.76% and 69.64%, While volatile  oil of leaves of Apium graveolens inhibition percentage between 78.57% and 70.23%  respectively in concentrations 1/25, 1/100; Volatile  oil of Zingiber officinale was lower effect which inhibited fungal growth with percentage 78.57% and 61.30% in higher and lower concentrations respectively, While different volatile  oils extracts shows a different inhibition effects against T. Mantagrophytes isolated from  skin scraping, So volatile  oil extracted from leaves of Mentha piperita showed more effective in concentration 1/25 with inhibition percentage 97.16% then volatile  oil extracted from Salvia officinalis with percentage 77.38% in same concentration, There were no significant difference in concentration 1/25 and 1/50 of volatile  oil extracted from Zingiber officinale with inhibition percentage 73.80% for both concentrations and volatile  oil of leaves of     Apium graveolens was less effective which inhibited T. Mantagrophytes in inhibition percentage 69.04% and 64.88% at the concentrations of 1/25 and 1/50 respectively. There was no significant difference between concentrations 1/75 and 1/100 with a percentage of 59.52% for both of them.

Immunity response of mice infected with laser irradiated protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus

Zeena D. Zaki; Asmaa Ali

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 34-44
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168653

The present study investigated the effect of the Neodymium- Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd: Y3AL5G12) Laser eradiation 1000 mw, against infection with secondary hydatid disease in BALB/c mice by inoculating the animals with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus exposed to laser irradiation, for various periods 40,60,120 and 240 minutes, with viability of 70%,57%,50% and 40%, respectively, contrasted to the control set (mice inoculated with unexposed protoscoleces) along three months, depending on the evaluation of the total count of WBCs and assessment of  acquired cell- mediated immunity,  demonstrated by delayed type hypersensitivity test (DTH).
 The results showed considerable increase (p<0.01) in the total WBCs counting, in mice injected with irradiated protoscoleces, up to 13962 cell/cm3, in comparison to the control group 5420 cell/cm3, after 120 minutes, two months post infection. Moreover, there was considerable excess (p<0.01) in the foot pad thickness in treated mice, 2.94 mm after 120 minute (24hour post antigen injection), two months post infection, 2.86mm after 120 minutes (24 hours post antigen injection), 1 month post infection and 2.64 mm, 120 minutes (24 hours post antigen injection), three months post infection, compared with the control group 1.18mm, 1.80mm and 1.72mm, respectively.
      Results revealed that irradiation of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces with laser had a significant influence on the production of WBCs and stimulation of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice.

Molecular Identification of Local Isolated Streptomyces Species from North Region soil in Iraq

Omer F. Ghazi; Safa I. Al-Obaidi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 45-62
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168654

     In this study Streptomyces were isolated from 50 bacterial isolates taken from 30 soil samples, these samples were collected from various locations in Iraq's various regions.  The species of Streptomyces were isolated using starch casein agar and diagnosed microscopically and morphologically by Gram staining and glass slide.  The sequence analysis 16S rRNA is used to report 11 Streptomyces. 10  bands of DNA gene, a result of specific polymerase chain reaction PCR, are elected from bacterial local isolates where 1000 base pairs within one volume, The PCR products of DNA samples were chosen from 11 local isolates based on nitrogenous base sequences. These organisms are revealed as a result of the study and by using DNA Blast NCBI as fellows; Streptomyces gancidicus, S. werraensis, S. griseorubens, S. hawaiiensis, S. thermocarboxydus, S. cyaneus,  S. misionensis, S. bellus, S. parvulus, S. labedae,

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Complexes of Zr (IV) and Cd (II) with Benzaldazine Derivatives on Growth of Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Nahida S. Al-Chalabi; Najwa Al-Barhawi; Zohour F. Daood

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168655

 In order to understand the medical effects of heavy metals, the antimicrobial effect of Cd (II) metal ion, Zr (IV) metal ion, Ligand and their complex compounds resulting from their combination, was studied on the growth of gram negative and positive bacteria as well as yeast. It turns out, that all bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilus, Stapphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and the yeast Candida albicans), have a high resistance of 100% to Colistin (10µg/disc) and Nystatin (10µg/disc), while the Zr (IV) metal is better than Cd metal in its effect on inhibiting the growth of different types of pathogenic bacteria isolated in this study.In the study of minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of metal Cd (II), Zr (IV) and,  Ligand complexes, on the growth of bacterial isolates, it was also shown that Cd and Ligand 4-bromobenzaldazine (BrA) at the concentration 0.00025g/ml, had an effect of 88 and 100% as the lowest inhibitory concentration for the growth of all bacterial isolates of different species. 

Effect of Saussurea costus extracts in the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces of sheep origin In vitro

Asmaa F. Al-obaidy; Fouad S. Esmaeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168656

Cystic echinococcosis is one of the most prevalence and dangerous zoonotic parasitic disease in the world. Iraq is one of the most countries that affected by this disease. Surgery is usually the most effective therapy and can be used with injection of drugs in hydatid cysts before surgery to kill protoscoleces to avoid anaphylactic shock as a result of spilling of hydatid cyst fluid into peritoneal cavity, as well as this reduce the chance of secondary hydatid cysts production. Therefore, the current study  aimed  to evaluate the effectiveness of Saussurea costus extracts on protoscoleces viability of Echinococcus granulosus, where the protoscoleces of E. granulosus exposed to four different concentrations of Saussurea costus extracts at four different exposure times  including; 15, 30, 45 and 60 min in vitro, The results of ethanolic extract showed highest efficacy at concentration 20,30mg/ml in 45,60min and 40mg/ml at all times. The highest scolicidal effect of  petroleum ether extract was reported at 10 and 15mg/ml during 60min, while 20mg/ml reported similar effect at 45 and 60min. The data of cool aqueous extract showed reduction of protoscoleces viability to 0% at 200 and 250mg/ml in 45 and 60min, respectively, while 300mg/ml showed same reduction of viability at all experiment time periods.The data of hot aqueous extract showed 100% kill rate by using  350mg/ml at 60min and 400mg/ml at 45 and 60, as well as 450mg/ml at all experiment period times. Comparing to the control group. Generally, Saussurea costus extracts have concentration and exposure time-dependent effect on protoscoleces viability.

Isolation and Characterization of Local Isolates of Rhizobia in Nineveh Governorate/Iraq

Ahmed A. Mohammed; Raad H. Sultan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 83-94
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168657

In this study, thirty-six local isolates of rhizobial bacteria were isolated from root nodes of different leguminous plants collected from different areas in Nineveh Governorate/Iraq. The rhizobial colonies were purified and their agronomic and biochemical characteristics were studied. Results of this study showed that the local isolates had the ability to consume different sugars as a carbon source. Also, the antibiotic sensitivity test showed that only one isolate, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli AS12 was resistant to the antibiotic Azithromycin 15 µg/ml, and the isolate Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli AS14 showed resistance to the antibiotic Gentamycin 10 µg/ml, and the rest of the isolates showed different rates of resistance and sensitivity for the rest of the antibiotics. The local isolates showed different NaCl tolerance levels up to 8.0 %, while no tolerance was observed for Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae AS11 isolate at any of the studied concentrations. Results of heavy metal salt tolerance study showed that the isolates of Ensifer meliloti AS34 and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae AS36 were sensitive to ZnSo4 at a concentration of 25 µg/ml, while the tolerability of the other isolates to the studied heavy salts differed at concentrations higher than 25 µg /ml. All the studied isolates showed a positive result in staining with Congo red and Aniline blue dyes. Maximum exopolysaccharide production was 494 mg/Li by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae AS35. Antimicrobial activity test showed maximum inhibition zone 17 mm by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae AS36 against Proteus vulgaris.

The Evaluation of Hba1c Test as A Diagnostic Test for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Osamah Bakr

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 95-103
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168658

The HbA1c test and the blood glucose test were compared in order to diagnose type 2 diabetes and determine the best cut-off point for the HbA1c test for optimal sensitivity in the population of Mosul city (inside it and some rural areas around it). The test was performed on a group of people between the ages of 40 and 85 who came to our laboratory after being diagnosed with or without type 2 diabetes by specialists in internal medicine and endocrinology. The HbA1c and FBS analysis were carried out between January 2020 and January 2021. And, by using ROC curve, the results for 80 individuals with an average age of 56 years produced a HbA1c test with a value of 6.8 percent, a sensitivity of 94 percent, compared to the result of 126 mg/ml for FBS as a diagnostic criterion , and the optimal cutoff point for HbA1c was reached for 6.86% in diagnosing disease diabetes type 2 was given the highest Yuden index by ROC curve analysis. Conclusion: We recommend that the optimal value of Hb2 with a percentage of 6.86 percent be used as the best test in diagnosing type 2 diabetes and obtaining the best medical and health care for the Mosul population.

Using Primers of Random Amplification Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) in Molecular Identification of Peach Cultivars Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Rosaceae

Bassam H. A. AL Jumeily; Aamer M. M. Almaathidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 104-116
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168641

The present study includes identification of (9) cultivars of the species Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Which were Early Grand , Babcock , Giant Babcock , Mammoth , Elberta , Cardinal , Blanko , Novadona ,and Transvalia cultivated in Ninevah \  Iraq by using random genetic primers in amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD). (9) random primers were used and amplifications were deported within the agrose . The results showed that the amount of the nucleic acid ranged between (20-25) µg/ml of the leaves extract and reactions of the randomly amplification were carried out with (9) primers, all of them migrated within agarose gel, and generated an amplified bands of DNA. The results have admitted to the Computer and analyzed using private statistical program PAST. The results have showed that the genetic discrepancy value reached (0.7264) in Transvalia cultivar whereas the minimum value of the genetic variant reached to (0.108) in the cultivar Cardinal. The dendrogram was also showed that the cultivar Babcock, Giant Bacock, Transvalia and Novadona were the most similar to each other, whereas cultivars Cardinal was the most variant from the other cultivar studies.

Molecular diagnosis of rhizobia isolated from the root of some leguminous plants

Mohammed Abdelilah Al-Shakarchi; Najwa Al-Barhawi; Khalid Daham Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 117-132
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168642

Rhizobia represents one of the most important types of beneficial soil bacteria, as it contributes to fixing atmospheric nitrogen. In the present study, twenty four isolates of rhizobial bacteria were isolated from root nodules of six leguminous plants. These are Medicago sativa وTrigonella foenum-graecum, Cicer arietinum, Vicia faba, Lens culinaris and Lupinus spp. which planted in four regions of Ninevah province (wire farm house in the Education College / Mosul University , Ba'shiqah town and Sadaa & Bauazh) for the agricultural season 2010-2011. These isolates were put in six groups depending on diagnostic tests and type of plant host (alfalfa , fenugreek, chickpeas, bean , lentils and lupine)  from which the bacteria isolated from their  root nodules. These groups are RhM , RhT , RhC , RhF , RhL and RhLu respectively.
RAPD – PCR technique with four random primers were used to draw the genetic Dendrogram in order to demonstrate the relationships among the species of rhizobial bacteria isolated from the root nodules of different host. The results revealed that there are genetic diversity among these species and also diversity still exist among the isolates of the same species but at low level. According to the results of diagnostic tests, RAPD – PCR technique and specificity of rhizobial bacteria to infect their hosts, we can relate the isolates in the suggested groups to their scientific names as follow: Sinorhzobium meliloti (RhM) , Sinorhzobium meliloti (RhT) , Rhizobium legumenosarum bv. cecir (RhC) , Rhizobium legumenosarum bv. vicia (RhF) , Rhizobium legumenosarum bv. lentil (RhL), Rhizobium lupini (RhLu).

Determination of the efficiency of the type Sinorhizobium meliloti L the formation of root nodules on different Medicago sativa varieties

Raghad N. G. Al-Zaidy; Najwa Ibrahim; Abdullah N. Al-Niemi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 133-149
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168643

This study was carried out in the laboratories of the Research Unit of the Department of Biology / College of Education for Pure Sciences / University of Mosul/Iraq. Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria were isolated from the root nodes of alfalfa plants cultivated in two areas of Nineveh Governorate, which are the wire house in the College of Education / University of Mosul and a farm belonging to Hawi  Alkanesa Mosul/Iraq.  , isolation of four isolates of Sinorhizobium meliloti from the root nodules formed on four species of Medicago sativa (Iraqi, Belgian, Pakistani and American varieties)and giving them the symbols Rh1, Rh2, Rh3 and Rh4. The isolates were diagnosed based on the phenotypic traits, their susceptibility to staining with Gram stain, agricultural characteristics, the biochemical and biological tests.  The results showed that the highest susceptibility of rhizobal isolates to infecting a specific genotype (the plant host) from which they were isolated, which is due to the extent of compatibility between them represented by the success of infection and the formation of root nodules, and its development on the specialized host. All isolates (Rh4, Rh3, Rh2 and Rh1) of  E. meliloti showed the ability to form root nodules on the roots of the seedlings of the four varieties with variation in the efficiency of these isolates ,The isolates (Rh1)  as recorded the highest percentage of infection, which reached to 68%, followed by isolates (Rh2) and reached to 64% which was reflected in the rate of increase in average of the number of nodules / seedlings, which ranged between (2-3.25) and the high protein content of the pollinated seedlings which average ranged between (3.9 - 4.1) mg / gm, and  accompanied by an increase in the rate of the number of vegetative branches therein.

Isolation and Identification of different local isolates of Candida spp. By biochemical tests

Sahar B. Muhammed; Zena W. aljader

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 150-166
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168644

        Study included, 10 local isolates were obtained  from 25 isolates of Candida spp. From patients infected with Candidiasis in hospitals of Mosul city. The phenotypic, microscopic diagnosis and biochemical tests found the isolates were identified as Candida sp. Local isolates were tested for resistance to 8 different antibiotics and 6 heavy metal salts. All isolates were resistant to most antibiotics with ratio  100%, except for the antibiotic nystatin (Nys), where all isolates showed  sensitivity in the ratio  100%. also The isolates showed sensitivity to four of the heavy metals salts in different proportions, while they were resistant to zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and lead acetate Pb (CH3COO) 2 with ratio 100%. 

Effect of four inert dusts on some biological aspects of Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

Ali A. Almimari; Ibrahim K. Alhadidy

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 167-177
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168645

In this study four types of inert dusts were mixed with wheat grains at three concentrations 5, 7 and 9 gm/kgm of wheat to estimate their effect on some biological aspects of Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts. These inert dusts are Chalky limestone, Bituminous limestone, Sand and Celite.
            The results indicated that these inert dusts affected on some biological aspects of this insect, present results showed that the inert dusts caused death to larvae and pupae during its growth and development, and this led to reduce the number of insects, mortality rate of larvae increased to 46.64, 55.56, 27.78 and 87.78% for Chalky limestone, Bituminous limestone, Sand and Celite , respectively, as compared to 0.0% for the control. Also mortality rate of pupae increased to 15.02, 23.89, 3.69 and 27.77%, respectively, as compared to 0.0% for the control. This inert dusts led to significant increase of the larval period whereas were 30.05, 31.69, 27.41 and 33.85 day, respectively, as compared to 24.07 day for the control. Also inert dusts led to significant decrease of the emerging adults number whereas were 4.56, 3.56, 6.44 and 2.67 insect, respectively, as compared to 10.0 insect for the control, also inert dusts led to significant decrease of the laid eggs number whereas were 16.56, 16.44, 20.89 and 17.67 egg/ female, respectively, as compared to 34.67 egg/ female for the control. 

Eliminate bacterial resistance to antibiotics through synergistic effect with plant essential oils

Alaa Hayder; Muhsin A. Essa

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 178-186
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168646

This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the ability of the synergistic effect of nine plant essential oils with antibiotics in removing the antibiotic resistance characteristic of the multiple drug resistance pathogenic bacteria. The disc diffusion method was used for this purpose and the oils were synergized with antibiotics showed resistance by the studied bacteria.
The results showed a synergistic effect (ranged between 3 - 40 mm) for different oils with antibiotics according to the type of bacteria, that the most numerous cases of synergism (27 cases) were with P.mirabilis and the highest synergistic inhibition occurred with the same bacteria (40 ml). Pomegranate seed oils, thyme, rosemary and cinnamon were able to synergize with six antibiotics, while eucalyptus, Peppermint, ginger and orange synergized with five, Lavender oil synergized with four antibiotics.
We conclude from the results of this study the possibility of combining plant essential oils with antibiotics to remove resistance, which opens the door to finding new ways to treat many diseases caused by multiple drug resistance pathogens.

Comparison of different tests for the diagnosis of Salmonella typhi in Nineveh Governorate

Bushra Shlla

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 187-197
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168647

Salmonella typhi is one of the most common causes of typhoid fever in Iraq. The aim of this study was to test the synergistic between different tests for the diagnosis of S. typhi . It was found, there are ability for preparing local Media which can be used instead of Blood agar for diagnosing typhoid fever by using dates, alfalfa and fish extractors. Both fish and dates extractors were used to prepare a local medium as well as alfalfa and fish. The results showed that dates - fish medium are more efficient  than blood agar and alfalfa - fish medium to isolate S. typhi. When contrasting culture results with Widal test data of laboratories , it had shown differences in these results because only (57)% from Widal test was confirmed by culture. When Widal test results were evaluated which is done in different health analysing laboratories in Nineveh Governorate by using Widal test (dilution method) the results showed great differences of results whether result type (positive or negative) or kind of antigens which showed  positive results. Leukocyte count was done as a test to enhance the diagnosis of this microbe, it was clear that there is a relation between typhoid fever and decreasing white blood cell count.

Resistance of Some Bacteria Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Elderly Patients to Antibiotics and Detection of β-lactamases in Them

Mohammed A. Mahmood; Shaker G. Gergees; Alaa T. Younis

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 198-208
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168648

Urinary tract infection is the second-largest infection, especially in elderly people, and the increasing use of antibiotics has led to the emergence and development of resistance in isolated and other bacteria in this study Fifty urine samples from elderly patients with urinary tract infections were collected from both sexes in Mosul city. Twenty-six bacterial isolates were isolated and diagnosed by ordinary bacteriological tests. The isolates were related to the species. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. After isolation, their resistance to 14 selected antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method. The presence of β-lactamases, in general, was detected by acidimetric method, the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBLs) was performed by double disk method, while the detection of AmpC β-lactamases was performed by cefoxitin resistance method. The isolates showed clear resistance         to β-lactam antibiotics ranged (50%--92.3%),and to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, rifampin with rates; (53.8%),(57.7%), (61.5%), (80.8%), (88.5%), respectively, while they showed reduced resistance to amikacin (15.4%). β-lactamases in general were detected in (96.1%) of the isolates, while (19.2%) of them gave a positive result for the detection of (ESBLs). AmpC β-lactamases were detected in (69.2%) of the isolates as they showed a clear resistance to cefoxitin which indicates that they are potential producers of these enzymes.

The larvicidal and non larvicidal histological effect of some aromatic plants on mosquito larvae Culex pipiens molestus) Diptera: Culicidae(

Muhammad Muhammad; Atallah F. Mekhlif

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 209-224
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168649

This study included laboratory ovulation of the effect of alcoholic(ethanol) extract of Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala,Thymus vulgaris and Physalis angulata. It was values LC50 (102.5,101.0,78.0 and 53.0 ppm) and LC90(130.0,128.0,136.0 and 80.0 ppm) for Teucrium polium,Peganum harmala,Thymus vulgaris and Physalis angulata respectively at 24 hrs. of exposure time. It was found that extract the Physalis angulata were more effective as larvicides at 24 hrs. exposure time with LC50: 53.0 ppm for On the other side, the LC90 for the previous plants at the same exposure time were 80.0 pmm. Also, the sub-larvicidal effect of the studed plant extracts at LC25 had been illustrated through histopathological effect on midgut. These effects were respectively by alimentary tract curling as body reflex, separation of epithelial columnar cell layer and separation of external muscular mucosa. Erosion of the Peritrophic membrane causing microvilli disappearing.

Effect of Different Concentration of Ri Plasmid on Division of Electrotreated Cell Suspension Culture derived from Stem Callus of Vicia faba L. Plants Embedded in Agar Multiple Drops

Sahla M Zedan; Mozahim K. Al-Malah

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 225-235
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168834

Samples of cell suspension represents seven different densities were exposed to three electrotreatment 40, 50, 60 volt and for a period of time 50, 100 msec then the densities were mixed with different concentration of Ri plasmid 25, 50, 75 Microliter. The electrotreatment samples cultured by embedding in to agar drops in solid-liquid cultures.
Results proved that the electrotreatment enhanced division of cell suspension and caused a clear increase of microcolonies, the total number of colonies reached 3276 when suspension culture was exposed to 50v / 100 msec., these colonies developed to microcalli and the percentage was 90%. The Callus developed from these colonies was light green in color and friable in texture.

Evaluation of inhibitory and plasmid curing activity of Citrus aurantium L fruit extracts against some bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections

Ahmad A. Alnuimi; Nawar T. Alsaffawi

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, 2021, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 236-251
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.168844

In this study, the sensitivity and resistance of six types of bacterial isolates, Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, against 10 antibiotics were tested for 10 antibiotics, Ciprofloxicine (CF) 25 g / ml Amoxicillin (AX) 50 g / ml, Ampicillin (Am) 50 µg / ml, Erythromycin (Ery) 15 µg / ml, Gentamycin ( GN) 25 g / ml, Rifampicin (RA) 50 µg / ml, Streptomycin (Sm) 25 µg / ml, Tetracyline (TE) 15 µg / ml Trimethprim (Tri) 10 µg / ml Nalidixic acid (Nal) 30 µg / ml. The bacterial isolates showed different resistance to most antibiotics. One isolate of each bacterium was selected for subsequent experiments. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Citrus aurantium L fruit were prepared. The inhibitory effect of the prepared plant extracts on the selected bacteria was investigated by using the Agar diffiuision method and the Turbidity method. The prepared plant extracts showed a clear growth inhibitory activity, which was estimated by measuring the inhibition zone with a millimeter of studied bacteria. The results obtained showed that the value of the growth inhibitory activity increased with increasing the concentration of the extracts. Sub minimum inhibition concentration of plant extracts was used as a curing to remove antibiotic resistance of the bacterial species under study. Varying values ​​for the percentage loss of antibiotic resistance were obtained as a result of the efficacy of the extracts, but some extracts did not show curing efficacy. The results of the curing experiments were supported by the characterization of the plasmid DNA on the agarose gel of the curing isolates. Electrophoresis showed the disappearance of the plasmid DNA bundles from the agarose gel for most of the bacteria under study compared to the non-curing isolates.