Volume 31, Issue 2, Spring 2022, Page 1-120

Preparation and study of some physical properties of silver nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquids technique

Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori; Noor Atallah Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132843.1212

In this paper, the pulsed laser method was used to obtain silver nanoparticles, and one of the first signs indicating the production or generation of nanoparticles using the pulsed laser is the change in the color of the solution. In our study, deionized distilled water with a volume of 5 mL was used to prepare the samples with energy (300, 500)mj With pulsed (50, 100, 150, 200) pulse. We observed change in color of solution to a dark yellowish color that means obtained silver nanoparticles. In another side study the obsorbancy and transmission by using U-Visible spectroscopy, the peaks of all samples were at 400 nm this confirms that nanoparticles have been obtained. The mean energy gab calculated for direct transition allowed of the samples are 2.94 eV.

Assessment of Tolerance Levels to Air Pollution for Some Species of Trees and Shrubs Growing on Roadsides in Western Mosul City

Ragda Read Al-Healy; Ibrahim Anwer Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 10-28
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132140.1198


This study was conducted in the western part of Mosul city from 20/9/2020 to the end of spring 2021 to assess the tolerance of some trees and shrubs against air pollution based on the air pollution tolerance index APTI. The sites were tested according to the different traffic density and human activities, and included areas Residential, main and secondary roads, samples of healthy leaves were collected for 19 species of trees and shrubs in the season of summer, winter, spring and autumn, and included some evergreen species such as orientalis Biota, , Nerium oleander , Cupressus sempervirens var pyramidalis , Cupressus sempervirens var.horizantalis, Casuarina equistifolia , Olea europaea , Eucalyptus camaldulenses , Pinus brutia , Dypsis lutesens , Washingtonia filifera , Tamarix articulate , Callistemon viminalis , Leucaena leucephala, And falling leaves Melia azedarach , Morus alba , Ziziphus spina-christi , Ficus carica , Albizia lebbeek ,Populus euphratica. . Some biochemical characteristics were used to evaluate the ability of these species to resist pollutants and the possibility of using them for planting on the roadsides. Analysis of variance and LSD test were used to find out the statistical differences between the different species. The results of this study indicated that there was a significant difference between the different species, as a result, the highest value of the relative moisture content of the callistemon viminalis trees in the Al tayaran area was (87.461%) among all other plant species, the Leucaena leucephala trees contained a high percentage of chlorophyll,

Gauss-Hermite Cubature Method to estimate parameters of a multivariate GLMM

Adnan Mostafa Al-Sinjary; Auday Taha Raheem

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 29-41
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133041.1216

In this paper, the multivariate generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was studied when there are three response variables, distributed as Normal, Bernoulli, and Poisson. And because there is a multiple integration in the likelihood function for the model under study, it is necessary to use mathematical methods to solve this integration, and because it is not possible to obtain the result of this integration by the well-known methods of integration, numerical methods have been used, the Gauss-Hermite Cubature (GHC) algorithm, which is one of the most common numerical integration methods. Then the estimates were obtained by maximizing the resulting likelihood function with respect to the parameters, and thus, estimates were obtained for the parameters. On the practical side, we have used real data representing the effect of potassium as a fixed effect, and referring patients were considered as a random effect on three response variables: calcium, creatinine, and urea as they follow Normal, Bernoulli, and Poisson distributions taken from the records of the Vajin Hospital in Dohuk city. The regression coefficients showed that the effect of potassium is positive on both calcium and urea because the values of the coefficients are positive, while its effect is negative on the creatinine because the value of the coefficient is negative. Based on the results, the researchers recommended several recommendations, including estimating the standard error of the estimates in their light, in order to construct hypotheses for a significance test about regression coefficients.

The New Approach Optimization Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series using Particle Swarm Algorithm

Sugiyarto Surono; Nauval Satriani Siregar

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 42-54
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133052.1217

Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series is a forecasting method that applies fuzzy logic to form linguistic variables from existing data. The formation of linguistic variables makes it possible for the forecasting process to be more accurate by considering the uncertainty aspect in decision-making. Its formation is started by grouping the data into a certain number of clusters. The next step is fuzzification, transition matrix formation, and defuzzification for forecasting. In the process of grouping, the existing data will be grouped into several clusters so that it results in the interval length of each cluster. One of the problems of this grouping is the absence of a base standard in the clustering process so it is prone to have a different value in forecasting accuracy. The difference in the number of the class or interval length will result in different accuracy even though the clustering method that is used is the same. In this study, the author proposes the idea of using Particle Swarm Optimization to improve the interval length. The initial interval that is already obtained through the K-means clustering algorithm will be evaluated using the Particle Swarm Optimization method so that it will have a new interval that later will be used in the fuzzification process and forecasting. The accuracy of forecasting can be calculated by using Mean Absolute Percentage Error from Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series conventional method and Markov Weighted Fuzzy Time Series method with Particle Swarm Optimization. The result of this study gives an improvement in error value from 8.03% to 5.88%.

Detecting A Medical Mask During The COVID-19 Pandemic Using Machine Learning: A Review Study

Mohammed Abdullsattar Abdullghani mzeri; Laheeb M. Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 55-68
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133181.1221

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been government instructions to citizens to wear a medical mask in crowded places and institutions to prevent or reduce the spread of the pandemic, as the most common method of transmission of COVID-19 is (coughing or sneezing), the spread of infection of this disease can be reduced by wearing a mask Medical, and to ensure that everyone wears a mask is not easy.
In this paper, we try to study research in the field of identifying the medical mask and the machine learning algorithms used to build a system capable of detecting the medical mask in faces through images and video in real time. We also explain in this research an overview of the importance of machine learning and deep learning methods, especially Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and the basic steps for creating the system We reveal the medical mask, and we highlight the methods and stages of building the model with its accuracy and get acquainted with the datasets used in building the model and the size of the data set (number of images) used in the training and testing phase of the model and the mechanism by which The researcher worked out to build his own system.

A Review Of Clustering Methods Based on Artificial Intelligent Techniques

Baydaa ibraheem Khaleel

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 69-82
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133092.1218

Due to the development in various areas of life, the development of the Internet, and the presence of many dataset, and in order to obtain useful information from the rapidly increasing volumes of digital data, there must be theories and computational tools to help humans extract the useful information they need from this data. Large data is collected from many different services and resources. Clustering is one of the most basic and well-known methods of data mining and extraction and obtaining useful information. The technique of recognizing natural groups or clusters within several datasets based on some measure of similarity is known as data clustering. Many researchers have introduced and developed many clustering algorithms based on the different methods of artificial intelligence techniques. Finding the right algorithms greatly helps in organizing information and extracting the correct answer from different database queries. This paper provides an overview of the different clustering methods using artificial intelligence and finding the appropriate clustering algorithm to process different data sets. We highlight the best-performing clustering algorithm that gives effective and correct clustering for each data set.

Measurement of Low-Pressure Plasma Parameters by the Floating Double Probe Method for Dry Air and Helium Gas in a Capillary Glow Discharge

Ashraf Khalid; Muayad Abdullah Ahmed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 83-93
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133290.1223

The electrical continuous glow discharge is in the capillary tubes. It has gained great interest especially in the applications of liquid crystals as well as display plasmas and soft x-ray lasers. In the present work, an electrical discharge system was designed consisting of a capillary tube and two electrodes. The cathode takes on a hollow geometric shape from nickel material to obtain a high current density. The anode electrode is a tungsten material. The inter-electrodes distance was taken as 12 cm. The floating Langmuir double probe was used as a diagnostic Tool to measure the plasma parameters at different ranges of gas pressure for dry air and helium as working gases. The current-voltage characteristics of the double probe were measured at gas pressure 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 torr. All measurements are conducted at a constant power of 0.6 watt. Electron temperature and ion saturation current were extracted from the I-V characteristics curves. The electron density, Debye length, and plasma frequency were calculated. It was observed that the electron temperature decreases with increasing working gas pressure. The influence of pressure on electron density and ion saturation current gave a clear similarity to the variation in them with pressure in both gases used. Comparisons of the effect of pressure on plasma parameters in working gases were illustrated. The results were in reasonable agreement with previous research.

Improving Security Using Cryptography Based on Smartphone User Locations

anfal mahmood; Ahmed S Nori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 94-104
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133190.1222

Smartphones have become widely employed in a range of fields as a result of substantial developments in communication technology, distribution, and the development of numerous types of smart mobile devices. The goal of this research is to secure information sent over mobile phone networks. In this paper, we propose using cryptography to create a more secure application for transmitting confidential information, using encryption to improve security, and depending on the location of the mobile phone user's coordinates, obtained via GPS, to increase security. The XOR process was used between coordinates, the idea was new, the application was implemented, and good results were obtained. The process of converting text into unreadable text is known as ciphering, and in order to achieve it in this paper the Twofish algorithm was used to encrypt confidential information. When sending the coordinates, the RSA algorithm was used to encrypt them as for the Twofish algorithm, the coordinates serve as a key. We conclude that the proposed system used in this study achieved a high level of security.

Preparation and study of some physical properties of copper nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquids technique

Noor Atallah Al-Jubbori; Mushtaq Abed Al-Jubbori

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 105-113
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133494.1229

In this paper, the pulsed ablation laser in liquids (PLAL)method was used to obtain copper nanoparticles from material copper, One of the first signs of nanoparticle production or generation using the pulsed laser is a change in the color of the sample's solution as the concentration of nanoparticles increases. In our study, deionized distilled water with a volume of 5 mL was used to prepare the samples with energy (300, 500)mj. With number of pulsed (50, 100, 150, 200) pulse respectively. We noticed a change in the color of the solution to a dark white color, indicating the presence of silver nanoparticles. In another side study the obsorbancy and transmission by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, the peaks of all samples were at wave length at (250-260) nm. This confirms that nanoparticles have been obtained from silver material. The determined mean energy gab for direct transition allowed of the samples is 2.74 eV.

Performance Analysis of n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction Diode as Function of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Thickness

Hala Nazar Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 114-127
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133482.1227

The n-type Zinc oxide (n-ZnO) nanostructured thin films (TFs) with different thicknesses (211, 325, 433 and 552 nm) were grown onto glass substrates employing the CVD technique at atmospheric pressure. Deposited films were characterized by EDX spectroscopy attached with FE-SEM and XRD techniques to determine the influence of thickness on elemental compositions and crystalline structure of ZnO films, respectively. Also, ZnO TFs were deposited on the p-Si(111) substrates to form different structures of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diodes and then I-V characteristics were studied in the dark. The electrical parameters of the diodes such as rectification ratio (RR), reverse saturation current (Is), ideality factor (), barrier height (b) and series resistance (Rs) were calculated from the I-V measurements. EDX spectra showed that these films were only made from Zn and O elements. XRD patterns presented that the ZnO films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along [002] direction. I-V characteristics of the heterojunction diodes revealed rectification behavior and depend on ZnO TFs thickness. Also, electrical parameters of diodes were affected by the prepared film's thickness. It was found that the crystalline structure of the films and electrical properties of diodes were improved with increasing the thickness of ZnO films. It is noted that the best heterojunction diodes were that prepared with thickness (552 nm), where possess lowest value of ideality factor (3.38) and a series resistance (0.84 k) with a highest rectification ratio (1517), compared with other structures. This study offers a simple model for fabricating diodes from semiconductor films.

Comparison of the Inhibitory Antibacterial Activity of Dry Body Extract of Periplaneta americana and Polistes watti

Ali Ali Hameed; Atallah Fahad Mekhlif

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 128-140
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133550.1233

Insects have been considered the main source of very useful chemical compounds. Today, the insect's innate immunity is a subject of antibiotic alternatives by experimenting with their body extracts. After application of the "Sequential solvent polarity" method. The dry body extract of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana was exhibited had variable growth inhibition between the tasted pathogenic bacteria, the methanol cold extract was more effective than with other (Hexane, Diethyl ether, Ethyl acetate, Methanol) solvents by inhibition zone diameters; (29.0, 22.0,24.0, 22.3) mm for (Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) respectively. In comparison between the antibacterial of the methanol extracts of the cockroach and the paper wasp Polistes watti, extract of the P. americana in more active in the inhibition of all four tested bacteria as follows: (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) for (7.7, 18.3, 8.7, 6.0) mm respectively. Extract of P. americana have antibacterial activity do to it living in an ecological niche which characterized by organic and bacterial pollution so, the growth of human pathogenic bacteria in more inhibited than the social entomophagous  P. watti wasp. The present study had given promise alternative of the personal antibiotics, by as more effective than the standers drugs (Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin) after separation and identification of the active molecules and used as a template for the future manufacturing industry.

Antimicrobial Activity of Local Rhizobial Isolates Against Some fungi

Omar Hammad Jumaah; Raad H. Sultan; Mahde Saleh Assafi

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 141-149
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133511.1230

In this study, three isolates of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii were isolated from root nodules of Vigna unguiculata L. (Cowpea) which collected from different cultural areas in Nineveh Governorate/Iraq. The rhizobial colonies were purified and their agronomic and biochemical characteristics were studied. Microscopic examination results showed rod negative Gram stain bacteria, whereas the three isolates showed ability to grow on rhizobial minimal medium (RMM), motility on TY semi-solid medium, gelatin liquefaction, citrate utilization as a sole carbon source, as well as the isolates showed a positive result for Triple Sugar Iron (TSI). Antimicrobial activity study of local rhizobial isolates against fungi showed a clear effect on studied fungi. The filtrate culture of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii ORM1 showed inhibition zone effect with average 12.6, 10.3 and 12.0 mm against Aspergillus niger MR1, Fusarium solani MR2 and Penicillium spp. MR3, respectively, whereas the filtrate culture of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii ORM13 showed inhibition zone effect with average 10.0, 13.3 and 13.0 mm against Aspergillus niger MR1, Fusarium solani MR2 and Penicillium spp. MR3, respectively. A filtrate culture of Ensifer fredii bv. fredii ORM23 showed less effect against each of Aspergillus niger MR1 and Penicillium spp. MR3 which inhibition zone average 8.6 mm, whereas there is no inhibition effect were recorded for culture filtrate against Fusarium solani MR2.

Morphological characters the pollen grains of Apricot plant Prunus armeniaca L. and Plum Prunus domestica L. cultivated in northern Iraq

amina ahmed dalalbashi; Amer Al-Mathidy

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 150-160
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.133027.1215

The Present study aims to study the morphological characters of the pollen grains for six Apricot cultivars Prunus armeniaca L. and six cultivars of Plum P. domestica L. planted in northern Iraq.Using the Light Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was found that the pollen grains in all the cultivars were, isopolar tricorporate, and with one-, two-, and four-holes models were found, and their shape in the polar view was either tetra angular, spherical- triangular, or triangular, While in the equatorial view, the pollen shapes were ovoid, spherical or semi-spherical .The surface ornamentation was in several forms, including reticulate, granular, thin longitudinal striped, short transverse striped, granular and striped grains and striped.The quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics of pollen grains showed a high taxonomic value in separating and isolating the cultivars of the two studied species.