Volume 31, Issue 1, Winter 2022

A Study of Some Changes in the Properties of Recycled PVC Plastic in Arbil Factories

Azad S Sadraddin; darya raheem

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.131417.1189

This research was carried out in the laboratories of Erbil city on recycled PVC plastic for several times. The plasticizer DOP was extracted from the old plastic to study the extent to which the plasticizer remained in it after a period of time, as well as its exposure to heat of atmosphere. Several experiments were conducted to reach the optimum conditions to obtain the highest percentage of extracted plasticizer and then it was diagnosed by infrared spectrophotometer and thin layer chromatography. The results showed that the extracted plasticizer matches the standard plasticizer. We also performed viscosity measurements and bromine detection. The results showed that increasing the percentage of plasticizer works to increase the flexibility of plastic materials and reduce the degree of softening, knowing that adding the amount of plasticizer depends on the season of the year. This study can be used for the purpose of qualitative improvement of the production of recycled plastic as well as for the benefit of environmental issues.

Analytical Study of Traditional and Intelligent Textual Plagiarism Detection Approaches

Ayob Ali; Alaa Yaseen Taqa

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 8-25
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.131895.1192

The Web provides various kinds of data and applications that are readily available to explore and are considered a powerful tool for humans. Copyright violation in web documents occurs when there is an unauthorized copy of the information or text from the original document on the web; this violation is known as Plagiarism. Plagiarism Detection (PD)can be defined as the procedure that finds similarities between a document and other documents based on lexical, semantic, and syntactic textual features. The approaches for numeric representation (vectorization) of text like Vector Space Model (VSM) and word embedding along with text similarity measures such as cosine and jaccard are very necessary for plagiarism detection. This paper deals with the concepts of plagiarism, kinds of plagiarism, textual features, text similarity measures, and plagiarism detection methods, which are based on intelligent or traditional techniques. Furthermore, different types of traditional and algorithms of deep learning for instance, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) are discussed as a plagiarism detector. Besides that, this work reviews many other papers that give attention to the topic of Plagiarism and its detection.

The Use of Yellow Sticky Traps to Estimate He Population Density of Insects Accompanying Squash and Cucumber Plants in The Field

Ahmad Thamir Hummadi; Wafaa Abid Yahya

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 26-37
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2021.131919.1193

The research was performed in AL -Namrud district, south of Mosul city, in autumn season/ 2020 to determine the seasonal presence of insects that accompanying each of the cucumber and marrow, planted in rate 28 row. yellow sticky traps were used for the period from 19/ September until 31/ October, which were placed in the four directions (North, South, East and West) to find out the best direction for catching insects. The results showed that the two plants were infected with insects, aphid and leafhopper and white fly also cucurbit fly insect. Showed the highest average to aphid Aphis gossypi (Glover) 89,33 insect / trap on southern direction in 17/10 And on the cucumber plant. As for the leafhopper insect Empoasca desedens (Poali) showed highest average for insect 79 insect / trap on Northern direction in 31/10 to cucumber plant, While the highest average was recorded for an insect white fly 125 insect / trap on the southern direction in 19/9 on the cucumber plant. while yellow sticky traps did not succeed in Catching a large number of whole insects of the cucurbit fly Dacus ciliatus (Loew) showed highest average 1.33 insect / Trap on the Northern direction in 31/10 on marrow plant.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Determination of Famotidine and Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceuticals Using N-Bromosuccinimde and Janus Green B Dye.

Muthanna B Abdullah; Elham S Salih

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 38-57
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132289.1204

An indirect simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of famotidine (FAM) and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) in pure and pharmaceutical dosages. The method is based on the oxidation of FAM and CIP with known excess of N-Bromosuccinimde in acidic medium and subsequent occupation of unreacted oxidant in decolorization of Janus green B dye and measure the absorbance of residual dye at 618 nm. Calibration curves of residual Janus green B dye in the presence of FAM or CIP were rectilinear over the ranges 1.0-10.0 and 1.0-7.5 µg/ml with molar absorptivity 3.61×104 and 5.14×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 respectively. The accuracy (average recovery) was ranged between 99.68 and 100.23% and precision (RSD%) is less than 3.80%. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained are in agreement with certified values of pharmaceutical preparations and also with standard addition procedure and standard method applied in state company for drugs industry and medical appliance,SDI.

Nuclear abnormalities and Oxidative Stress Induced by Hookah (Shisha) in Male Human in Erbil City

Natheer Jameel Yaseen

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 58-64
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132014.1197

Nowadays hookah smoking has dramatically increased especially in the Middle East. Because Hookah tobacco contains many harmful substances, it has dangerous impacts on human beings. The goal of the current study is to examine the oxidative stress in blood and clastogenic effects of hookah smoking on exfoliated buccal cells. One hundred and twenty five healthy adult males were involved in this study. The participants were distributed into five groups: control, passive smokers, and three hookah smoker groups. Samples of blood from all groups were examined for Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and exfoliated buccal cells were aslo examined thorough micronucleus (MN) test for frequencies of nuclear abnormalities including Micronucleus (MN), Binucleates (BN) and Karyolysis (KL), were evaluated as well. frequencies of all nuclear abnormalities Micronucleus (MN), Binucleates (BN) and Karyolysis significantly increased in all exposed groups compared to the control group and the effect was exposure duration dependent. Malondialdehyde level also significantly increased in all exposed groups compared to the control group and the effect was exposure duration dependent.

Effect of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn leaves in growth of root rot fungi of Biota orientails L. in vitro

muhannad hamid younis; Anwer Noori Al-khero

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 65-79
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132290.1202

Root Rot disease is one of important disease which caused great damage for Biota orientails and this was evident in the private forest nurseries in Mosul, for three nurseries in the Al-Faisaliah area, three nurseries in the Muthanna area, one nursery in the Mohandessin area, as well as the Nineveh horticultural station during the field survey, this was through October and December of 2017 and February - August of 2018.fungi were recorded like Fusarium solani Mart isolation ratia 36.85% ,Macrophomina phaseolina Tassi Goid islalation ratia 22.34% and Rhzoctonia solani Khun islalation ratia 26.89% which Isolated from Biota orientails seedling . Results of pathogenicity tests showed Fusarium solani was had high pathogenicity (50%) Biota orientails seedling and the fungus was very effective at growth characteristics.
study of Eucalyptus camaldulnsis leaves Extracts effect at the growth of Isolated fungi The results showed the superiority of the alcoholic extract in inhibiting the growth of the isolates fungi compared to the aqueous extract and for all concentrations except for the fungus R. solani, which was uniquely significantly inhibited by the effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus.

Software Development Effort Estimation Techniques: A Survey

farah basil alhamdany; laheeb Mohammad Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 80-92
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132274.1201

Software Effort Estimation (SEE) is used in accurately predicting the effort in terms of (person–hours or person–months). Although there are many models, Software Effort Estimation (SEE) is one of the most difficult tasks for successful software development. Several SEE models have been proposed. However, software effort overestimation or underestimation can lead to failure or cancellation of a project.
Hence, the main target of this research is to find a performance model for estimating the software effort through conduction empirical comparisons using various Machine Learning (ML) algorithms. Various ML techniques have been used with seven datasets used for Effort Estimation. These datasets are China, Albrecht, Maxwell, Desharnais, Kemerer, Cocomo81, Kitchenham, to determine the best performance for Software Development Effort Estimation. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and R-Squared were the evaluation metrics considered. Results and experiments with various ML algorithms for software effort estimation have shown that the LASSO algorithm with China dataset produced the best performance compared to the other algorithms.

Intelligence System for Multi-Language Recognition

Fawziya Ramo; Mohammed Naif Kannah

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 93-110
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132223.1200

Language classification systems are used to classify spoken language from a particular phoneme sample and are usually the first step of many spoken language processing tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems Without automatic language detection, spoken speech cannot be properly analyzed and grammar rules cannot be applied, causing failures Subsequent speech recognition steps. We propose a language classification system that solves the problem in the image field, rather than the sound field. This research identified and implemented several low-level features using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, which extract traits from speech files of four languages (Arabic, English, French, Kurdish) from the database (M2L_Dataset) as the data source used in this research.
A Convolutional Neuron Network is used to operate on spectrogram images of the available audio snippets. In extensive experiments, we showed that our model is applicable to a range of noisy scenarios and can easily be extended to previously unknown languages, while maintaining classification accuracy. We released our own code and extensive training package for language classification systems for the community.
CNN algorithm was applied in this research to classify and the result was perfect, as the classification accuracy reached 97% between two languages if the sample length was only one second, but if the sample length was two seconds, the classification accuracy reached 98%. While the classification among three languages, the classification accuracy reached 95% if the sample length was only one second, but if the sample length was two seconds, the classification accuracy reached 96%.

Antibacterial effect of Bacillus subtilis extract on the growth of pathogenic bacteria and analyzed by GC-MS

سارة صالح Al-Rubyee; Najwa Ibrahim

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 111-122
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132296.1203

The antibacterial effect of three selected isolates of Bacillus subtilis (Sar1, Sar2, Sar3) was tested by the agar diffusion method, and the results showed that there was no inhibitory effect of these bacteria against the growth of pathogenic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the undiluted and half-diluted (200, 100, 50) mg/ml extracts, of the three cultures which are tested by the Agar Well Diffusion method, had varying inhibitory effects towards the growth of these five pathogenic bacteria and more effect on gram-positive compared to its effect on gram-negative bacteria.
Through GC-MS detection of secondary metabolites of Bacillus subtilis (Sar1) extract, which were selected because they are identical to Bacillus subtilis bacteria contained in the standard GeneBank with a percentage of (95)%, it was found that they consist of (33) chemical substances according to the number of peaks produced. After injecting the extract into the GC device, and when this information was entered into the MS device, it was diagnosed by its names with the calculation of its molecular weight and the amount of area it occupies as a percentage within the used extract understudy.

Investigation the toxicity of compound insecticide (Acetamiprid and Thiamethioxam) on development of Ross 308 Broiler chick embryo

Banan Abdulmohsin Taha; Rabeea Hazim Mohammed

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 123-136
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132403.1206

Insecticides are chemical compounds that extensively used in agriculture for pest management, urban and household as well as in medicine to control different diseases such as typhus, malaria and others. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of compound insecticide (Acetamiprid and Thiamethioxam) on develop-ment of Ross 308 Broiler chick embryo. 250 fertile eggs were divided into 6 groups two of them were control group, negative and positive control were injected with distilled water and the other were injected with 100µl/egg, into the yolk sac, containing Acetamiprid and Thiamethioxam (360, 540, 900 and 1800ppm). The morphological characteristics were studies on day 10th and 21st day of incubation. The fourth doses caused reduction in the embryos weight and significant increase in the mortality. In addition, there were clear abnormalities indicated on both days (10 and 21) including over growth in the brain, twisted cleft beak, wry neck eye deformation, ectopia visceral, delayed retraction of yolk sac, abnormal limbs, and broken legs. Microscopically, examination of liver tissue revealed on 10 day as well as 21 day to alterations in the hepatic cells including necrosis and degeneration enlarged and congested central vein and sinusoidal spaces and infiltrations of leucocyte and Kupffer cells activation. To conclude, the current study revealed that Acetamiprid and Thiamethioxam caused significant morphological and histological effects in chick embryo Ross 308.

Enhancement Efficiency of Calculation of the Phonon Images for GaP Piezoelectric Crystal

Mumtaz Mohammed Salih Hussien; abeer bader

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 137-146
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.131963.1195

In this paper an improved phonon imaging for GaP has been calculated, this crystal is one of III-V group. In the presence of piezoelectric properties, the computation treatment is based on increasing the number of points in the reduced Brillouin zone and increasing the size of the phonon image matrix. The phonon images can be calculated by large number of points in the reduced Brillouin zone which represent the wave vectors and these vectors can be transformed to group velocity vectors using Christoffel equation, these set of group velocity vectors can be projected in a certain direction to form the phonon image. A program was prepared in MATLAB language to calculate these images by determining the number of points in the reduced zone and determining the size of the matrix that represents the phonon images in addition to the direction of the projections. To calculate the phonon images in the presence of the effect of the piezoelectric properties, it is through the presence of the k44 factor, which indicated of the influence of the piezoelectric properties on the phonon images. The results showed that the size of the image matrix is more effective factor than the number of points in the reduced Brillouin zone especially when the number of points is greater than 8×〖10〗^5 points, and when the number of points less than 〖10〗^4 points all the obtained phonon images is not clear.


Awos Khazal Ali

Journal of Education and Science, 2022, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 147-153
DOI: 10.33899/edusj.2022.132790.1211

Packets queuing and scheduling in network routers is a key point of overall network performance. Many applications, especially applications require Quality of Services (QoS), need techniques to pass their packets throughout routers and control and/or avoid congestions in highly congested routes. Therefore, many Active Queue Management (AQM) algorithms have been developed to avoid or control congestion in routers and provide fairness among traffic flows. This paper provides an extensive evaluation performance analysis of three well-known AQM algorithms including RED, REM and traditional Drop-Tail with QoS application requirements. The evaluation performance is conducted by employing network simulator version 2 (NS2). The network performance is measured with Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic and three performance metrics including, throughput, latency, and PSD (Probability of Sequential Drop). The analysis shows no AQM algorithm achieve all the VoIP QoS requirements, A new AQM is needed to fulfil QoS requirements and manage queue to handle unresponsive flows.